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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 463-470, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951805


Abstract Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p = 1.24e-12), Candidatus koribacter versatilis (p = 2.66e-10)] and fungi [(Fusarium oxysporum (p = 0.013), Talaromyces stipitatus (p = 0.219) and Pestalotiopsis fici (p = 0.443)] in terms of abundance in population and bacterial chemotaxis (p = 0.012), iron metabolism (p = 2.97e-5) with the reduction in abundance for pathogenicity islands (p = 7.30e-3), phages and prophages (p = 7.30e-3) with regard to functional abundance. Interestingly, it was found that the enriched functional metagenomic signatures on phytoremediation such as benzoate transport and degradation (p = 2.34e-4), and degradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (p = 3.59e-13) in the treatment influenced the rhizosphere micro ecosystem favoring growth and health of pepper plant. The population dynamics and functional richness of rhizosphere ecosystem in black pepper influenced by the treatment with T. harzianum provides the ecological importance of T. harzianum in the cultivation of black pepper.

Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Trichoderma/growth & development , Viruses/growth & development , Piper nigrum/microbiology , Biodiversity , Fungi/growth & development , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichoderma/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Piper nigrum/growth & development , Rhizosphere , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 236-245, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974331


ABSTRACT Salinity and alkalinity are major abiotic stresses that limit growth and development of poplar. We investigated biocontrol potential of saline- and alkaline-tolerant mutants of Trichoderma asperellum to mediate the effects of salinity or alkalinity stresses on Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis (PdPap poplar) seedlings. A T-DNA insertion mutant library of T. asperellum was constructed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system; this process yielded sixty five positive transformants (T1-T65). The salinity tolerant mutant, T59, grew in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) containing up to 10% (1709.40 mM) NaCl. Under NaCl-rich conditions, T59 was most effective in inhibiting Alternaria alternata (52.00%). The alkalinity tolerant mutants, T3 and T5, grew in PDA containing up to 0.4% (47.62 mM) NaHCO3. The ability of the T3 and T5 mutants to inhibit Fusarium oxysporum declined as NaHCO3 concentrations increased. NaHCO3 tolerance of the PdPap seedlings improved following treatment with the spores of the WT, T3, and T5 strains. The salinity tolerant mutant (T59) and two alkalinity tolerant mutants (T3 and T5) generated in this study can be applied to decrease the incidence of pathogenic fungi infection under saline or alkaline stress.

Plant Diseases/microbiology , Trichoderma/physiology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Populus/growth & development , Alkalies/metabolism , Alternaria/physiology , Antibiosis , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Stress, Physiological , Trichoderma/genetics , Populus/microbiology , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/microbiology
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 26: 52-59, Mar. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008980


Background: Xylanases are considered one of the most important enzymes in many industries. However, their low thermostability hampers their applications in feed pelleting, pulp bleaching, and so on. The main aim of this work was to improve the thermostability of Trichoderma ressei xylanase 2 (Xyn2) by introducing disulfide bonds between the N-terminal and α-helix and the ß-sheet core. Results: In this work, two disulfide bonds were separately introduced in the Xyn2 to connect the N-terminal and α-helix to the ß-sheet core of Xyn2. The two disulfide bonds were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residues. The half-life of the mutants Xyn2C14­52 (disulfide bond between ß-sheets B2 and B3) and Xyn2C59­149 (disulfide bond between ß-sheets A5 and A6) at 60°C was improved by approximately 2.5- and 1.8-fold compared to that of the wild type Xyn2. In addition, the enzyme's resistance to alkali and acid was enhanced. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the connection of the N-terminal and α-helix to the ß-sheet core is due to the stable structure of the entire protein.

Trichoderma/enzymology , Xylosidases/metabolism , Disulfides/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Temperature , Trichoderma/genetics , Trichoderma/metabolism , Xylans/metabolism , Xylosidases/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Kinetics , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mutation
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 468-479, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780832


Abstract Metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as Trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. In this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (KS) fragments were isolated from cultured Trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. The gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in Trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled KS gene fragments as probes. The complete sequence analysis in formation of pksT-1 (5669 bp) and pksT-2 (7901 bp) suggests that pksT-1 exhibited features of a non-reducing type I fungal PKS, whereas pksT-2 exhibited features of a highly reducing type I fungal PKS. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the isolated genes are differentially regulated in Trichoderma harzianum 88 during challenge with three fungal plant pathogens, which suggests that they participate in the response of Trichoderma harzianum 88 to fungal plant pathogens. Furthermore, disruption of the pksT-2 encoding ketosynthase–acyltransferase domains through Agrobacterium -mediated gene transformation indicated that pksT-2 is a key factor for conidial pigmentation in Trichoderma harzianum 88.

Trichoderma/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Polyketide Synthases/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Molecular Sequence Data , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Sequence Alignment , Amino Acid Sequence , Mycelium/enzymology , Mycelium/genetics , Polyketide Synthases/genetics , Polyketide Synthases/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(4): 1625-1637, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614629


With the aim of a better characterization of the somatic recombination process in Trichoderma pseudokoningii, a progeny from crossings between T. pseudokoningii strains contrasting for auxotroph markers was characterized by RAPD markers and PFGE (electrophoretic karyotype). Cytological studies of the conidia, conidiogenesis and heterokaryotic colonies were also performed. The genotypes of the majority of the recombinant strains analyzed were similar to only one of the parental strains and the low frequency of polymorphic RAPD bands suggested that the nuclear fusions may not occur into the heterokaryon. In some heterokaryotic regions the existence of intensely staining hyphae might be related to cell death. We proposed that a mechanism of somatic recombination other than parasexuality might occur, being related to limited vegetative compatibility after postfusion events, as described for other Trichoderma species.

Genetic Markers , Polymorphism, Genetic , Recombination, Genetic , Soil Microbiology , Spores, Fungal , Trichoderma/physiology , Trichoderma/genetics , Methods , Soil , Methods , Virulence
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(2): 1-2, Mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567079


Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani in tomatoes cultivated under greenhouse and field conditions was analyzed using the Trichoderma harzianum mutants Th650-NG7, Th11A80.1, Th12A40.1, Th12C40.1 and Th12A10.1 and ThF2-1, respectively. Their innocuousness on tomato cultivars 92.95 and Gondola (greenhouse assays), and on cultivar Fortaleza (field assays) was established. Alginate pellets (1.7 g pellets/L soil) containing c.a1 x 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/g pellet were applied to a soil previously inoculated with R. solani at transplant (greenhouse) or to a naturally infected soil (field). Controls considered parental wild strains, a chemical fungicide and no additions. Th11A 80.1, Th12A10.1 and Th650-NG7 prevented the 100% mortality of tomato plants cv. 92.95 caused by R. solani, and the 40% mortality in tomato plants cv. Gondola (greenhouse assays). Mortality reduction was reflected in canker level lessening and in plant parameters increases (development, fresh and dry weights). A different degree of susceptibility of tomato plants was observed, being Gondola cv. more resistant than 92.95 cv. to infection in a soil previously inoculated with R. solani. Tomato plants of cv. Fortaleza did not show mortality in naturally infected soils (field assays), where the mutant ThF2-1 reduced significantly the canker level caused by R. solani.

Antibiosis , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiology , Rhizoctonia/physiology , Trichoderma/physiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Greenhouses , Solanum lycopersicum/growth & development , Mutagenesis , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Trichoderma/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(3): 433-437, July-Sept. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-494527


In this study Trichoderma atroviride was selected as over producer of chitinase enzyme among 30 different isolates of Trichoderma sp. on the basis of chitinase specific activity. From this isolate the genomic and cDNA clones encoding chit33 have been isolated and sequenced. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences for defining gene structure indicates that this gene contains three short introns and also an open reading frame coding for a protein of 321 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence includes a 19 aa putative signal peptide. Homology between this sequence and other reported Trichoderma Chit33 proteins are discussed. The coding sequence of chit33 gene was cloned in pEt26b(+) expression vector and expressed in E. coli.

Neste estudo Trichoderma atroviride foi escolhido como superprodutor da enzima quitinase dentre 30 isolados de Trichoderma sp. com base na atividade específica de quitinase. Clones de cDNA e genômico codificando chit33 foram obtidos deste isolado e seqüenciados. A comparação das seqüências genômica e de cDNA para definir a estrutura do gene indicou que este contém três pequenos introns e uma fase aberta de leitura codificando uma proteína de 321 aminoácidos. A seqüência de aminoácidos deduzida inclui um possível peptídio sinal de 19 aminoácidos. Homologia entre esta seqüência e outras proteínas Chit33 descritas de Trichoderma é discutida. A seqüência codificadora do gene chit33 foi clonada no vetor de expressão pET26b(+) e expressa em E. coli.

Cloning, Molecular , In Vitro Techniques , Inteins , Chitinases/analysis , Trichoderma/genetics , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Amino Acid Sequence , Methods , Molecular Structure , Methods
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 29(7): 905-9, July 1996.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-181500


The expression of the cellulase transcripts of Trichoderma reesei is controlled by the nature of the energy carbon sources used in the culture medium. Cellulose and the soluble disaccharide sophorose, but not glycerol or glucose, act as inducers. Evidence is presented suggesting that a low constitutive extracellular cellulolytic system catalyzes the formation of a soluble inducer from cellulose, and this inducer triggers the expression of the cellulase transcripts. This basal and cellulose-induced expression of the cellobiohydrolase I mRNAs (cbh1), the major member of the cellulase system, is transcriptionally controlled by two independent cis-acting DNA regions. In addition, expression of the cbh1 transcript is influenced by the physiological state of the mitochondria and this sensitivity is controlled through the 5,-flanking DNA sequence of this gene.

Cellulase/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Trichoderma/genetics , Carbon , Cellulase/metabolism , Cellulose/pharmacology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Trichoderma/metabolism