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1.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021203, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The resistance of fungal species to drugs usually used in clinics is of great interest in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate susceptibility and in vitro response of species of Trichophyton spp. to antifungal drugs of interest in clinical medicine. METHODS: 12 samples of clinical isolates from humans were used, nine of T. mentagrophytes and three of T. tonsurans. Susceptibility tests were performed according to the agar diffusion (AD) and broth microdilution (BM) methods. RESULTS: In the AD method, the species T. tonsurans presented a percentage of sensitivity of 33% in relation to amphotericin B and 66% to itraconazole, with 100% resistance to ketoconazole and fluconazole. T. mentagrophytes also showed 100% resistance to ketoconazole in this technique, with 11% sensitivity to ketoconazole, 22% to itraconazole and 22% of samples classified as sensitive dose dependent. In the MC method, the species T. tonsurans presented a sensitivity percentage of 66%, 55% and 33% in relation to ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. The T. mentagrophytes species presented sensitivity percentages of 11%, 11%, 33% and 55% for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was resistance in vitro of the species of T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans against the antifungal fluconazole and relative resistance against ketoconazole in the AD method. In BM, however, important percentages of sensitivity were observed for the two species analyzed in relation to the antifungals fluconazole and ketoconazole when compared to itraconazole and amphotericin B.


INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência de espécies fúngicas às drogas usualmente empregadas no meio clínico é motivo de grande interesse na área médica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar susceptibilidade e resposta in vitro de espécies de Trichophyton spp. a drogas antifúngicas de interesse em clínica médica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 12 amostras de isolados clínicos de humanos, sendo nove de T. mentagrophytes e três de T. tonsurans. Foram realizados testes de susceptibilidade segundo os métodos de difusão em ágar (DA) e microdiluição em caldo (MC). RESULTADOS: No método de DA, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 33% em relação à anfotericina B e de 66% ao itraconazol, com 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol e ao fluconazol. A espécie T. mentagrophytes também apresentou 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol nesta técnica, com 11% de sensibilidade ao cetoconazol, 22% ao itraconazol e 22% das amostras classificadas como sensível dose dependente. No método de MC, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 66%, 55% e 33% em relação ao cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, respectivamente. A espécie T. mentagrophytes apresentou percentuais de sensibilidade de 11%, 11%, 33% e 55% para anfotericina B, itraconazol, cetoconazol e fluconazol, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resistência in vitro das espécies do T. mentagrophytes e T. tonsurans frente ao antifúngico fluconazol e resistência relativa frente ao cetoconazol no método de DA. Na MC, no entanto, foram observados importantes percentuais de sensibilidade das duas espécies analisadas frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol e cetoconazol quando comparadas ao itraconazol e à anfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Disease Susceptibility/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007328

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a substance manufactured by Apis mellifera and has been widely used in folk medicine due to its high concentration of bioactive compounds. The purpose of the following study was to characterize and evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial properties of propolis on clinical samples and ATCC strains. The chemical characterization of propolis presents a concentration of total polyphenols of 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 MS, flavones and flavonols 75± 4 mg EQ g-1 MS, flavanonones and flavanonols 118 ± 11 EP g-1 MS. HPLC-DAD identified apigenin, galangin, phenethyl ester of caffeic acid and pinocembrin, in addition to 16 compounds by HPLC MS/MS. Chilean propolis is a natural antimicrobial, showing effectiveness in strains ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and clinical samples of Staphylococcus aureus unlike Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the synergy of compounds present in propolis against different human pathogens.


El propóleos es una substancia fabricada por Apis mellifera y ha sido utilizado ampliamente en la medicina popular debido a su alta concentración de compuestos bioactivos. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue caracterizar y evaluar in vitro las propiedades antimicrobianas del propóleos sobre muestras clínicas y cepas ATCC. La caracterización química de propóleos presenta una concentración de polifenoles totales de 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 de MS, flavonas y flavonoles 75 ± 4 mg EQ g-1 de MS, flavanononas y flavanonoles 118 ± 11 EP g-1 de MS. Mediante HPLC-DAD se identificó apigenina, galangina, fenetil éster del ácido cafeico y pinocembrina, además de 16 compuestos mediante HPLC MS/MS. El propóleos chileno es un antimicrobiano natural, observándose efectividad en cepas ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum y muestras clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus a diferencia de Escherichia coli. Estos resultados demuestran la efectividad antimicrobiana de la sinergia de compuestos presentes en el propóleos ante diferentes patógenos humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pharynx/microbiology , Propolis/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Apis mellifica , Chile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Mouth/microbiology
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 135-140, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781356

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD: Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT: Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION: Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy/methods , Protoporphyrins , Trichophyton/drug effects , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Arthrodermataceae/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 746-752, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767820

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of a commercial sample of essential oil from Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker and its antifungal activity against Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11480, T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. METHODS: Morphological changes in these fungi after treatment with the oil were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antifungal activity of the oil was determined on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values. RESULTS: The compound 1,8-cineole was found to be the predominant component (72.2%) of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil ranged from 62.5μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1, and the MFC values of the oil ranged from 125μg·mL−1 to >1,000μg·mL−1. SEM analysis showed physical damage and morphological alterations in the fungi exposed to this oil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the potential of Eucalyptus smithii essential oil as a natural therapeutic agent for the treatment of dermatophytosis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Eucalyptus/chemistry , Microsporum/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichophyton/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microsporum/classification , Microsporum/ultrastructure , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Trichophyton/classification , Trichophyton/ultrastructure
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(4): 581-586, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis or nail fungal infection is the most common nail disease. Despite the wide range of studies on this condition, it remains difficult to establish the correct diagnosis and effective treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of classical laboratory methods for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and the in vitro susceptibility of the its main etiological agent to antifungals used in routine. METHODS: Nail samples of 100 patients with clinically suspected feet onychomycosis were collected to confirm the diagnosis by direct mycological examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against strains of the main dermatophyte isolated by microdilution, according to the standardized protocol (M38-A2 - CLSI) RESULTS: Clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 59% of patients. Of these, 54.2% were positive only in direct mycological examination, 44.1% in direct mycological examination and culture, and one case (1.7%) was positive only in culture, resulting in weak agreement between these tests (Kappa = 0.385; p <0.001) High minimum inhibitory concentration values of fluconazole and itraconazole were observed in 66.7% and 25.0% of isolates of T. rubrum tested. Additionally, high MIC values of terbinafine and ciclopirox was detected in only one isolate, and this was one of the strains in which in vitro activity of itraconazole and fluconazole has not been proven. CONCLUSIONS: Poor agreement was observed between direct mycological examination and culture for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, with direct mycological examination being significantly more sensitive. Except for fluconazole, the other three antifungals tested showed good in vitro activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Trichophyton/drug effects , Trichophyton/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Pyridones/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 523-531, Apr.-June 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723118

ABSTRACT

Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 µg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Carum/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/toxicity , Aspergillus fumigatus/growth & development , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , Drug Synergism , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Pancreatic Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Oils/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Plant Oils/toxicity , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Spores, Fungal/growth & development , Thymol/analysis , Trichophyton/physiology , Virulence/drug effects
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 978-984, Dec. 2012. ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660643

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP), red and yellow (YCP), with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC50) values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Leishmania/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plasmodium/drug effects , Propolis/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Trichophyton/drug effects , Trypanosoma/drug effects
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(1): 19-25, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of topical antifungal agents in the treatment of onychomycosis is of great value in clinical practice as there are different limitations regarding the use of systemic treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nail lacquer formulation containing ciclopirox 8% in two different posologies: the traditional regimen (3/2/1) and a regimen of weekly use. METHODS: A blind, randomized, comparative trial which included 41 patients divided into 02 groups, with Group I using the nail lacquer once weekly and Group II using the traditional regimen (3/2/1). Both groups applied the medication for 06 months. RESULTS: The species most frequently found in groups I and II were Trichophyton rubrum (55% and 61.9%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (30% and 19%). There was a tendency to a higher level of treatment resistance by T. mentagrophytes infection in both groups, without any predilection for sex, age, proportion of the nail affected at the beginning of the study, duration of the clinical disease and quantity of nails affected per person. Both groups had significant levels of mycological cure, clinical response and therapeutic success and there was no statistically significant difference between groups I and II (p >0.05). CONCLUSION: The nail lacquer containing ciclopirox 8% was equally effective at a weekly dose when compared to the traditional dosing (3/2/1), allowing a more comfortable regimen.


FUNDAMENTOS: A utilização de antifúngicos tópicos na terapêutica da onicomicose é de grande valor na prática clínica, visto que há diferentes limitações ao uso das opções terapêuticas sistêmicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar comparativamente a eficácia e a segurança de uma formulação de esmalte de ciclopirox a 8% em dois diferentes esquemas posológicos: o esquema tradicional (3/2/1) e um esquema posológico de uso semanal. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo cego, comparativo e randomizado que incluiu 41 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos, sendo o grupo I submetido ao esquema posológico de uma vez por semana e o grupo II submetido ao esquema posológico tradicional (3/2/1). Os grupos utilizaram a medicação por 180 dias. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais frequentemente encontradas nos grupos I e II foram Trichophyton rubrum (55% e 61,9%) e Trichophyton mentagrophytes (30% e 19%). Houve tendência de maior resistência ao tratamento pelo T. mentagrophytes nos dois grupos estudados, sem predileção por sexo, idade, proporção de acometimento ungueal inicial, tempo de evolução do quadro ou número de unhas acometidas por indivíduo. Ambas as modalidades apresentaram índices significativos de cura micológica, resposta clínica e sucesso terapêutico, e não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos I e II (p > 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: O esmalte contendo ciclopirox a 8% mostrou-se igualmente eficaz na posologia de uma vez por semana quando comparada à posologia tradicional (3/2/1), permitindo um esquema posológico mais confortável.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Foot Dermatoses/drug therapy , Lacquer , Onychomycosis/drug therapy , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Trichophyton/drug effects
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4): 694-701, jul.-ago. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-600611

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTOS: As dermatofitoses apresentam alta prevalência na população em geral e, principalmente, em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, necessitando tratamento com antifúngicos tópicos e/ou sistêmicos, cuja eficácia precisa ser avaliada. Estudos in vitro para avaliar a ação de antifúngicos são raros, especialmente, em fungos filamentosos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade de diferentes espécies de dermatófitos, isolados de pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, em relação a nove antifúngicos disponíveis comercialmente para o tratamento de dermatofitoses. MÉTODO: Analisaram-se 26 isolados de dermatófitos de pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em relação a nove antifúngicos (cetoconazol, ciclopirox olamina, fluconazol, griseofulvina, itraconazol, miconazol, piroctona olamina, terbinafina e tioconazol) pelo método de microdiluição em caldo proposto pelo Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), com modificações para dermatófitos. RESULTADOS: Entre os antifúngicos testados, a terbinafina e o tioconazol obtiveram os melhores resultados de sensibilidade e o fluconazol apresentou baixa atividade, especialmente para as amostras da espécie M. gypseum. O ciclopirox olamina, apesar de menos eficaz que a terbinafina, também mostrou resultados satisfatórios. CONCLUSÕES: De modo geral, o perfil de sensibilidade dos antimicóticos testados seguiu o padrão de resultados mostrados por estudos anteriores, ratificando a necessidade de conhecimento da espécie causadora de dermatofitose, devido à variação do perfil de suscetibilidade entre as espécies. Além disso, nossos resultados demonstram a importância da realização de ensaios de sensibilidade in vitro, pois alguns isolados da mesma espécie apresentaram diferente perfil de sensibilidade.


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dermatophytosis in the general population is high, particularly in patients with chronic renal failure. Treatment requires the use of topical and/or systemic antifungal drugs. The efficacy of antifungal agents for the treatment of dermatophytosis has yet to be evaluated. Studies evaluating the in vitro activity of antifungal agents are rare, particularly in filamentous fungi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility profile of different species of dermatophytes isolated from patients with chronic renal failure to nine antifungal drugs available on the market for the treatment of dermatophytosis. METHODS: Twenty-six isolates of dermatophytes obtained from patients with chronic renal failure were analyzed with respect to their susceptibility to nine antifungal agents (ketoconazole, ciclopirox olamine, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, miconazole, piroctone olamine, terbinafine and tioconazole), using the broth microdilution method proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and adapted for dermatophytes. RESULTS: Of the antifungal agents tested, the best results in terms of sensitivity were found with terbinafine and tioconazole, while the antifungal activity of fluconazole was found to be weak, particularly against strains of M. gypseum. Ciclopirox olamine, although less effective than terbinafine, also yielded satisfactory results. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the sensitivity profile of the antifungal agents tested in this study was similar to results obtained in previous studies, confirming the need to determine which species is causing the dermatophytosis given that antifungal susceptibility varies from one species to another. Furthermore, the present findings show the importance of conducting in vitro sensitivity tests, since the sensitivity profile may differ among isolates of the same species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/microbiology , Microsporum/drug effects , Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microsporum/isolation & purification , Trichophyton/isolation & purification
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(1): 9-12, Jan.-Feb. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505988

ABSTRACT

The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 ºC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 µg/mL were found for 33.3 percent, 31.6 percent and 15 percent of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.


Atividades antifúngicas de fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, terbinafina e griseofulvina foram testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo contra 60 isolados de dermatófitos. Os resultados mostraram que todos os isolados produziram crescimento claramente detectável a 28 ºC e a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada após quatro dias de incubação para Trichophyton mentagrophytes e cinco dias para T. rubrum e Microsporum canis. A maioria dos isolados teve um padrão uniforme de suscetibilidade para os agentes antifúngicos testados. Baixos valores de CIM como 0,03 µg/mL foram encontrados para 33,3 por cento, 31,6 por cento e 15 por cento dos isolados para itraconazol, cetoconazol e terbinafina, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Microsporum/drug effects , Trichophyton/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Microsporum/classification , Trichophyton/classification
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Jan; 47(1): 57-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56827

ABSTRACT

Among different bacterial cultures, a potent Bacillus subtilis MTCC-8114 was isolated from garden soil samples which showed 16 and 14 mm inhibition zones by spot inoculation method and 24 and 22 mm inhibition zones by well agar diffusion method against test fungi i.e. Microsporum fulvum and Trichophyton species. Among four media tested, the maximum growth and antibiotic production was found in trypticase soya broth (TSB) medium at 37 degrees C, pH-7 and 48 h of incubation. The Rf value (0.64) by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique and UV and FTIR spectral data of the active antifungal compound, indicated that the isolated compound belongs to peptide antifungal antibiotic group. MIC value of antifungal antibiotic was 135 and 145 microg/ml.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/biosynthesis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus subtilis/drug effects , Bacillus subtilis/growth & development , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Culture Media , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microsporum/drug effects , Peptide Biosynthesis/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Trichophyton/drug effects
13.
SPJ-Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2009; 17 (3): 247-252
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100083

ABSTRACT

Tinea capitis is a common infection of the scalp and hair shaft caused by dermatophyte fungi that mainly affects prepubescent children. Systemic therapy is required for treatment and to prevent spread. The aim of present study was to assess the effect of terbinafme for tinea capitis treatment in children. 30 Iranian pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of tinea capitis, were enrolled in the study. The Study was conducted in a general and referral teaching hospital [Imam Medical Centre - Tehran, Iran] from 2006 to 2007. Eligible patients with less than 20 kg of body weight were given 62.5 mg terbinafme and for patients between 20 to 40 kg, the dose was 125 mg, on the first visit. After two weeks, all patients had a second visit that second sample for microscopic study was taken. For each patient, direct mycology test [KOH test] and mycological culture were carried out before the study is being started and after 2[nd], 4[th], 5[th], 6[th] and 8[th] weeks. Drug's probable adverse effects were also recorded. Based on the results of mycological culture of patients' lesions, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sheonlini were considered as major causes of Tinea capitis in these children. Out of 30 stydy patients, KOH test of 93% in the fifth and 100% in the sixth week, was negative. All patients healed completely from signs of infection, after six weeks. Also, no severe side effects were seen in any patients. According to the results of this study, Terbinafme is an effective therapy in Iranian cases of Tinea capitis in children without having severe side effects


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Naphthalenes/adverse effects , Naphthalenes/analogs & derivatives , Tinea Capitis/drug therapy , Safety , Trichophyton/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Microsporum/drug effects
14.
JPAD-Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists. 2007; 17 (3): 166-170
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-104651

ABSTRACT

Tinea capitis is caused by different species of dermatophytes particularly Microsporum and Trichophyton .Children are affected predominantly. Many systemic drugs e.g.griseofulvin, fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, ketoconazoe etc are available for the treatment of tinea capitis. To compare the efficacy of griseofulvin and fluconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis. A total of 50 patients of age group 2-15 years were selected for the study.The cases were diagnosed clinically and confirmed by Wood 's lamp examination, KOH microscopy and culture.The patients were divided into two equal groups. Group A was given griseofulvin and group B was given fluconazole for a period of two months. Topical adjuvant therapy econazole nitrate was given in both groups. The patients were followed up at 2 weekly interval for clinical response and Wood 's lamp examination and finally KOH microscopy and culture. In group A clinical response was 84%and mycological response was 68%whereas in group B clinical response was 68%and mycological response was 56%. The present study showed that griseofulvin is more effective in the treatment of noninflammatory type of tinea capitis than fluconazole


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Griseofulvin , Fluconazole , Itraconazole , Microsporum/drug effects , Trichophyton/drug effects , Ketoconazole , Culture Techniques , Econazole , Microscopy
15.
Clinics ; 61(1): 9-14, Feb. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-422642

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: A uréia é comumente usada como substância queratolítica no tratamento das onicomicoses no intuito de melhorar a penetração das drogas antifúngicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ação inibitória in vitro da uréia em amostras de dermatófitos. MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima da uréia foi determinada para trinta e uma amostras de dermatófitos semeadas em meio de cultura Sabouraud-dextrose contendo diferentes concentrações (7,5% até 40%) de uréia. usência de crescimento foi o critério adotado para a determinação da concentração inibitória mínima. RESULTADOS: A maioria das amostras (87%) foi sensível à uréia em concentrações de 12,5% ou menos. Apenas dois isolados de Trichophyton tonsurans e dois de Trichophyton rubrum foram inibidos completamente na presença de 30% e 40% de uréia, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados in vitro demonstraram atividade inibitória da uréia sobre os dermatófitos, sugerindo que possa ser usada como um adjuvante em tratamentos tópicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Keratolytic Agents/pharmacology , Microsporum/drug effects , Trichophyton/drug effects , Urea/pharmacology , Culture Media , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
16.
Gezira Journal of Health Sciences. 2006; 2 (2): 56-66
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-76608

ABSTRACT

Fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca are traditionally used in paste form for curing some skin diseases in few areas in Western Sudan. Our initial results pointed to the fruit kernel containing the active ingredient. Further studies were meant to test, in vitro, the effect of Balanites fruit kernel oil on three isolates which are known to cause superficial mycoses namely: Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton soudanense and T. mentagrophytes. The three test organisms were subcultured on sabouraud's medium to which different concentrations of Balanites kernel oil were added. In addition to appropriate controls a normal vegetable oil viz. peanut oil, was tested. BKO, at 5% concentration, showed marked [>70%] growth inhibition against the three fungal isolates tested. No antifungal activity was observed in controls, including peanut oil. Two fractions of Balanites kernel oil were prepared namely: the free fatty acids [FFA] and the unsaponifiable matter [UM], and when tested for antifungal activity with the three test organisms, the activity resided exclusively in the free fatty acid fraction. Initial clinical studies on Balanites kernel oil, currently underway, largely confirmed our in vitro work described here


Subject(s)
Plant Oils , Mycoses/drug therapy , Microsporum/drug effects , Trichophyton/drug effects
17.
Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. 2006; 7 (4): 64-69
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-112720

ABSTRACT

Dermatophytosis is a superficial infection caused by a group of closely related fungi, Dermatophytes. Trichophyton and Microsporum species are only Dermatophytes with the capacity of invasion to hair [tinea capitis]. Terbinafine, one of the anti-dermatophytosis drugs which is recommended for the treatment of this infection for a period of 2 to 6 weeks depends on the sensitivity and severity of the infection. The best duration of therapy is not clear yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response of tinea capitis to treatment with a two-week oral terbinafine regimen. We tested 29 clinical isolates of dermatophytes using both direct smear [%10 KOH solutions] and culture [saburow and dextrose agar medium]. Nine cases were Microsporum and twenty cases were Trichophytons. Patients were treated with oral terbinafine for two weeks and then tested clinically by the same method three times during 2.5 months for detection of the fungi. SPSS software and Fisher-test were used for data analysis. At the end of treatment period, direct Smear showed that 7 cases of ectotria and culture was negative for 20 [100%] cases of Trichophytons and positive for 9 [100%] cases of Microsporums. A two-week oral terbinafine regimen is recommended for treatment of Trichophyton infections but not for Microsporum infections


Subject(s)
Naphthalenes , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Arthrodermataceae , Antifungal Agents , Trichophyton/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Microsporum/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(11): 1585-1592, Nov. 2005.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-414712

ABSTRACT

Lactococcus lactis, the model lactic acid bacterium, is a good candidate for heterologous protein production in both foodstuffs and the digestive tract. We attempted to produce Streptomyces tendae antifungal protein 1 (Afp1) in L. lactis with the objective of constructing a strain able to limit fungal growth. Since Afp1 activity requires disulfide bond (DSB) formation and since intracellular redox conditions are reportedly unfavorable for DSB formation in prokaryotes, Afp1 was produced as a secreted form. An inducible expression-secretion system was used to drive Afp1 secretion by L. lactis; Afp1 was fused or not with LEISSTCDA, a synthetic propeptide (LEISS) that has been described to be a secretion enhancer. Production of Afp1 alone was not achieved, but production of LEISS-Afp1 was confirmed by Western blot and immunodetection with anti-Afp1 antibodies. This protein (molecular mass: 9.8 kDa) is the smallest non-bacteriocin heterologous protein ever reported to be secreted in L. lactis via the Sec-dependent pathway. However, no anti-fungal activity was detected, even in concentrated samples of induced supernatant. This could be due to a too low secretion yield of Afp1 in L. lactis, to the absence of DSB formation, or to an improper DSB formation involving the additional cysteine residue included in LEISS propeptide. This raises questions about size limits, conformation problems, and protein secretion yields in L. lactis.


Subject(s)
Lactococcus lactis/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins , Carrier Proteins , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Paecilomyces/drug effects , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Carrier Proteins/pharmacology , Trichophyton/drug effects
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Apr; 43(4): 342-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58472

ABSTRACT

A strain of Streptomyces purpeofuscus CM 1261 isolated from a sample of compost collected locally was found to possess strong antagonistic activity against 4 human pathogenic fungi i.e., Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton sp. The active antifungal compound produced by it was found to be a heptaene group of polyene antifungal antibiotic.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microsporum/drug effects , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Polyenes , Streptomyces/metabolism , Trichophyton/drug effects
20.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2002 Jul; 45(3): 311-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-75060

ABSTRACT

The leaf and seed extracts of the Plant Azardirachta indica were tested for antidermatophytic activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton ruberum, Trichophyton, Mentagrophytes, Trichophyton violaceum, Microsporum nanum and Epidermophyton floccosum by tube dilution technique. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of neem seed extract was found to be lower tan that of neem leaf when tested against different species of Dermatophytes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Arthrodermataceae/drug effects , Azadirachta/chemistry , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microsporum/classification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects
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