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Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 472-477, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935624


Objectives: To explore the causes of ineffective or short-term recurrence (within 3 months)of trigeminal neuralgia treated by percutaneous microballoon compression(PBC), and to examine the reoperative strategies and clincal outcomes of modified PBC. Methods: The clinical data of 21 patients with ineffective or short-term recurrence after PBC treatment (5.7% of 369 patient received PBC) admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery,Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University from June 2018 to June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.There were 8 males and 13 females, mean aged 66.6 years (range:51 to 79 years).Among them,2 patients was ineffective after PBC and 19 patients relapsed within 3 months.The distribution of pain was along V2 branches in 2 cases,V3 branches in 3 cases,V1+V2 branches in 1 case,and V2+V3 branches in 15 cases.The mean time of recurrence was 46.8 days (range:23 to 76 days) among the 19 patients with short-term recurrence.The patients were divided into 4 types based on the causes of postoperative ineffectiveness or short-term recurrence.TypeⅠ:extracapsular false pear (1 case);Type Ⅱ:invalid true pear(2 cases);Type Ⅲ:capsular rupture (6 cases);Type Ⅳ:compression blind area (12 cases).The individualized modified PBC operation plans were used according to the types of the patients and the clinical effect and complications of the patients were observed. Results: The pain symptoms of the patients disappeared after the second operation with immediate effective rate of 100%. All patients had mild facial numbness after surgery.Five patients(23.8%,5/21) had masseter muscle weakness, 3 (14.3%,3/21) had peristomatous herpes, 1(4.8%, 1/21) had diplopia.No bleeding or other complications occurred.All patients were followed up for at least 12 months (range:13 to 28 months). One patient (4.8%,1/21) (compression blind area type) had pain recurrence 9 months after surgery, and cured by receiving the original modified PBC surgery again with no recurrence after another 13 months' follow-up. None of the other patients relapsed during the follow-up period.Up to the last follow-up,19 cases(90.5%,19/21) were cured,and 2 cases (9.5%,2/21) were relieved. Conclusions: The main reason for ineffective or short-term recurrence of PBC in trigeminal neuralgia patients is the ineffectively compressed of trigeminal ganglion.According to the different types of patients,the use of individualized modified surgical scheme can improve the efficacy of PBC surgery.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Pain , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Trigeminal Neuralgia/surgery
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(86): 1-13, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414971


La evidencia científica presente en la literatura indica que el cannabis puede ser utilizado con fines terapéuticos para tratar distintas afecciones odontológicas. Dado el acceso sencillo a la cavidad bucal, las distintas formulaciones de cannabis pueden aplicarse de forma tópica. La aplicación local de dosis bajas de cannabis ha demostrado alta efectividad para tratar distintas afecciones bucales, constituyendo un tratamiento seguro con baja probabilidad de generar repercusiones sistémicas indeseadas. En la actualidad, está siendo incorporado a materiales convencionales de uso e higiene odontológica con la finalidad de aprovechar sus efectos terapéuticos. El cannabis tiene múltiples usos en odontología: como componen-te de enjuagues bucales y soluciones para la desinfección de conductos radiculares, en tratamientos de trastornos de ansiedad bucal, como complemento en terapias oncológicas, como analgésico para atenuar el dolor inflamatorio y el neuropático, como miorrelajante y condroprotector para tratar trastornos de articulación témporomandibular (ATM) y bruxismo, como osteomodulador para el tratamiento de patologías que comprometen la integridad ósea, como la enfermedad periodontal y la osteoporosis, y para la cicatrización ósea asociada a fracturas, extracciones dentarias e implantes, y como inmunomodulador con potencial terapéutico para tratar patologías autoinmunes como las enfermedades reumáticas. El trata-miento local con cannabis es efectivo, bien tolerado por el paciente y con pocos efectos adversos. Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que el cannabis aporta un enorme abanico de posibilidades terapéuticas para tratar distintas afecciones odontológicas, aunque aún se requiere mayor cantidad de estudios científicos que avalen su utilización en cada situación fisiopatológica particular (AU)

The scientific evidence present in the literature indicates that cannabis can be used for therapeutic purposes to treat different dental conditions. Given the easy access to the oral cavity, the different cannabis formulations can be applied topically. The local application of low doses of cannabis has shown high effectiveness in treating different oral conditions, constituting a safe treatment with a low probability of generating unwanted systemic repercussions. It is currently being incorporated into conventional materials for dental use and hygiene in order to take advantage of its therapeutic effects. Cannabis has multiple uses in dentistry: as a component of mouthwashes and solutions for disinfecting root canals, in the treatment of oral anxiety disorders, as a complement in oncological therapies, as an analgesic to reduce inflammatory and neuropathic pain, as a muscle relaxant and chondroprotective to treat temporomandibular joint disorders and bruxism, as an osteomodulator for the treatment of pathologies that compromise bone integrity, such as periodontal disease and osteoporosis, and or bone healing associated with fractures, dental extractions and implants, and as immunomodulator with therapeutic potential to treat autoimmune pathologies such as rheumatic diseases. Local treatment with cannabis is effective, well tolerated by the patient and with few adverse effects. Local treatment with cannabis is effective, well tolerated by the patient and with few adverse effects. Therefore, it can be concluded that cannabis provides an enormous range of therapeutic possibilities to treat different dental conditions, although more scientific studies are still required to support its use in each particular pathophysiological situation (AU)

Humans , Dronabinol/therapeutic use , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Receptors, Cannabinoid/therapeutic use , Oral Hygiene/instrumentation , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Pulpitis/drug therapy , Trigeminal Neuralgia/drug therapy , Bone Diseases/drug therapy , Facial Pain/drug therapy , Bruxism/drug therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Dental Anxiety/drug therapy , Mouth Diseases/drug therapy
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ; 32(5): 905-912, 5 September 2022. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398219


Little is known about the characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in epileptic patients in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to characterize the EEG patterns, indications, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and epilepsy risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective observational review of EEG test records of 433 patients referred to our electrophysiology unit between July 01, 2020, and December 31, 2021. Results: The age distribution in the study participants was right skewed unipolar age distribution for both sexes and the mean age of 33.8 (SD=15.7) years. Male accounted for 51.7%. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was the most common seizure type. The commonest indication for EEG was abnormal body movement with loss of consciousness (35.2%). Abnormal EEG findings were observed in 55.2%; more than half of them were Interictal epileptiform discharges, followed by focal/or generalized slowing. Phenobarbitone was the commonest AEDs. A quarter (20.1%) of the patients were getting a combination of two AEDs and 5.2% were on 3 different AEDs. Individuals taking the older AEDs and those on 2 or more AEDs tended to have abnormal EEG findings. A cerebrovascular disorder (27.4%) is the prevalent risk factor identified followed by brain tumor, HIV infection, and traumatic head injury respectively. CONCLUSION: High burden of abnormal EEG findings among epileptic patients referred to our unit. The proportion of abnormal EEG patterns was higher in patients taking older generation AEDs and in those on 2 or more AEDs. Stroke, brain tumor, HIV infection and traumatic head injury were the commonest identified epilepsy risk factors

Patient Discharge , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Risk Factors , Ethiopia
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(1): 59-70, 29/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362228


Objective The aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the initial and the long-term clinical outcome of internal neurolysis (IN) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) without neurovascular compression (NVC). Methods A total of 170 patients diagnosed with TN were treated by posterior fossa exploration, during the period between April 2012 and October 2019. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (50 patients)was treated by IN and Group B (120 patients) received microvascular decompression (MVD). Surgical outcomes and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Pain intensity was assessed by the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity score and BNI facial numbness score. Pain recurrence was statistically evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Pain was completely relieved in 44 patients (88%) who underwent IN (group A); 3 (6%) experienced occasional pain but did not require medication (BNI 2). In group B, 113 (94%) experienced immediate pain relief after MVD. The median duration of follow-ups was 4 years (6 months to 7.5 years). In Group A, there was a meantime recurrence of 27 months in 3 patients (6%). The recurrence in Group B was of 5.8% during the follow-up period. There were no statistically significant differences in the surgical outcomes between the two groups. All patients with IN experienced some degree of numbness, 88% of the cases resolved in 6 months, on average. Conclusion Internal neurolysis is an effective, safe and durable treatment option for trigeminal neuralgia when NVC is absent.

Humans , Male , Female , Trigeminal Neuralgia/surgery , Trigeminal Neuralgia/physiopathology , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Microvascular Decompression Surgery/methods , Observational Study , Nerve Block/methods , Nerve Compression Syndromes/epidemiology
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 46-50, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284307


La neuralgia del trigémino es un trastorno neuropático paroxístico que afecta a una o varias de las ramas sensoriales del nervio trigémino cuya etiología es variada, la más aceptada es por compresiones vasculares a nivel del ángulo ponto cerebeloso que generan conflicto de espacio. Dentro de las posibilidades de tratamiento, la descompresión microvascular permite la cura fisiopatológica de la neuralgia del trigémino, teniendo resultados satisfactorios a corto/largo plazo, y bastantes ventajas en comparación a otras técnicas de mínima invasión. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con tratamiento médico máximo no efectivo, a la cual se realizó descompresión microvascular evidenciando conflicto arterial y venoso con el nervio.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a paroxysmal neuropathic disorder that affects one or more of the sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve, the etiology of which is varied, the most accepted being due to vascular compressions at the level of the brainstem that generate conflict of space. Within the treatment possibilities, microvascular decompression allows the pathophysiological cure of trigeminal neuralgia, having satisfactory results in the short / long term, and many advantages compared to other minimally invasive techniques. We present the case of a patient with maximum ineffective medical treatment, who underwent microvascular decompression, showing arterial and venous conflict with the nerve.

Decompression , Microvascular Decompression Surgery , Trigeminal Nerve , Trigeminal Neuralgia
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(1): 51-55, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153146


ABSTRACT Background: About 50% of patients that suffer from trigeminal neuralgia do not experience sustained benefit from the use of oral medication. For their adequate management, a few surgical procedures are available. Of these, percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) and microvascular decompression (MD) are two of the most performed worldwide. In this retrospective study, we present the outcomes of these techniques through estimation of initial pain relief and subsequent recurrence rate. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with medically refractory trigeminal pain surgically treated at Hospital Cajuru, Curitiba, Brazil, with PBC, MD or both between 2013 and 2018 were enrolled into this retrospective study. The post-procedural rate for pain relief and recurrence and associations between patient demographics and outcomes were analyzed. Results: MD had an earlier recurrence time than balloon compression. Of the 37 patients, the mean age was 61.6 years, approximately one third were male and most had type I neuralgia. The most affected branch was the maxillary (V2). The time for recurrence after surgery was on average 11.8 months for PBC and 9.0 months for MD. Complications were seen only with microsurgery. Conclusions: MD presented with a more precocious recurrence of pain than PBC in this article. Moreover, it had a higher recurrence rate than described in the literature as well, which is possibly explained by the type of graft (muscle) that was used to separate the neurovascular structures.

RESUMO Introdução: Cerca de 50% dos pacientes com neuralgia do trigêmeo não apresenta benefícios a longo prazo com o uso de medicação oral. Para a manutenção do tratamento, algumas opções cirúrgicas estão disponíveis, sendo a compressão percutânea por balão (CPB) e a descompressão microvascular (DM) algumas das modalidades mais realizadas em todo o mundo. Neste estudo retrospectivo, apresentamos os desfechos dessas técnicas por meio de estimativa da melhora inicial da dor e da taxa de recorrência subsequente. Métodos: Trinta e sete pacientes com dor trigeminal refratária ao tratamento medicamentoso tratados cirurgicamente no Hospital Cajuru, Curitiba, Brasil, com CPB, DM ou ambos entre 2013 e 2018 foram incluídos neste estudo retrospectivo. A taxa pós-procedimento para alívio e recorrência da dor e suas associações com a demografia e desfechos dos pacientes foram analisadas. Resultados: A DM foi associada a menor recorrência que a compressão por balão. Entre os 37 pacientes, a idade média foi de 61,6 anos, aproximadamente um terço eram do sexo masculino e a maioria apresentava neuralgia do tipo I. O ramo mais afetado foi o maxilar (V2). O tempo de recorrência após a cirurgia foi em média de 11,8 meses para CPB e 9,0 meses para DM. Foram vistas complicações apenas na microcirurgia. Conclusões: A DM apresentou recidiva mais precoce da dor em comparação à CPB. Além disso, apresentou uma taxa de recorrência mais alta do que a descrita na literatura, o que é possivelmente explicado pelo tipo de enxerto (músculo) usado para separar as estruturas neurovasculares.

Humans , Male , Trigeminal Neuralgia/surgery , Microvascular Decompression Surgery , Recurrence , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1089-1094, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921015


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical therapeutic effect between deep needling at Xiaguan (ST 7) with round sharp needle combined with plum-blossom needle and conventional acupuncture in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) of wind and heat, and explore its mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with TN of wind and heat were randomized into an observation group (30 cases) and a control group (30 cases). In the observation group, deep needling with round sharp needle was applied at Xiaguan (ST 7), and tapping with plum-blossom needle was applied at Yangbai (GB 14), Quanliao (SI 18), Dicang (ST 4), Sibai (ST 2), etc. of affected side. In the control group, conventional acupuncture was applied at the same acupoints selected in the observation group. The treatment was given once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks in the both groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), TCM syndrome, patient global impression of change (PGIC) and comprehensive symptom were observed, the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and β-endorphin (β-EP) were detected, and the adverse reaction was observed in the both groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of PRI, PPI, VAS, TCM syndrome, PGIC and comprehensive symptom and the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and VIP were decreased compared before treatment in the both groups (@*CONCLUSION@#Deep needling at Xiaguan (ST 7) with round sharp needle combined with plum-blossom needle can effectively treat the trigeminal neuralgia of wind and heat and relieve pain, its therapeutic effect is superior to conventional acupuncture. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of serum IL-6, TNF-α, VIP and β-EP.

Flowers , Hot Temperature , Humans , Prunus domestica , Trigeminal Neuralgia/therapy , Wind
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-7, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145575


Objective: Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia often consults a dentist for relief of their symptoms as the pain seems to be arising from teeth and allied oral structures. Basilar artery Dolichoectasia is an unusual and very rare cause of secondary Trigeminal Neuralgia as it compresses the Trigeminal nerve Root Entry Zone. Case reports: We report three cases of Trigeminal Neuralgia caused by Basilar artery Dolichoectasia compression. The corneal reflex was found absent in all three of the cases along with mild neurological deficits in one case. Multiplanar T1/T2W images through the brain disclosed an aberrant, cirsoid (S-shaped) and torturous Dolichoectasia of basilar artery offending the Trigeminal nerve Root Entry Zone. Discussion:Based on these findings we propose a protocol for general dentist for diagnosis of patients with trigeminal neuralgia and timely exclusion of secondary intracranial causes. Conclusion: General dentists and oral surgeons ought to consider this diagnosis in patients presenting with chronic facial pain especially pain mimicking neuralgia with loss of corneal reflex or other neurosensory deficit on the face along with nighttime pain episodes. Timely and accurate diagnosis and prompt referral to a concerned specialist can have an enormous impact on patient survival rate in such cases (AU)

Objetivo: Pacientes com Neuralgia do Trigêmeo frequentemente consultam um dentista para alívio de seus sintomas visto que a dor parece surgir dos dentes e estruturas orais relacionadas. A Dolicoectasia da artéria basilar é uma causa incomum e muito rara de Neuralgia do Trigêmeo secundária, pois comprime a zona de entrada da raiz do nervo trigêmeo. Relatos de casos: Relatamos três casos de Neuralgia do Trigêmeo causada por compressão por Dolicoectasia da artéria basilar. O reflexo da córnea se encontrava ausente em todos os três casos, juntamente com leves déficits neurológicos em um caso. Imagens multiplanares T1/T2W através do cérebro revelaram uma Dolicoectasia cirsóide (em forma de S) anômala e tortuosa da artéria basilar que atingiu a zona de entrada da raiz do nervo trigêmeo. Discussão: Com base nesses achados, propomos para o dentista clínico-geral um protocolo para diagnóstico de pacientes com Neuralgia do Trigêmeo e exclusão oportuna de causas intracranianas secundárias. Conclusão: Os dentistas clínicos-gerais e cirurgiões orais devem considerar este diagnóstico em pacientes que apresentam dor facial crônica, especialmente dor que mimetiza neuralgia com perda do reflexo da córnea ou outro déficit neurossensorial na face junto com episódios de dor noturna. O diagnóstico oportuno e preciso e o encaminhamento imediato a um especialista em questão podem ter um enorme impacto na taxa de sobrevida do paciente em tais casos (AU)

Humans , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Basilar Artery , Blinking , Facial Pain
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0027, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341149


ABSTRACT Description of a patient with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy submitted to a corneal transplant, performed by Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty, which evolved with sudden, paroxysmal pain in the frontotemporal region, postoperatively. Due to the ophthalmologic picture of the patient, the attending physician believed in possible rejection of the graft, neglecting the complaint of pain. Even after a successful second transplant, performed due to primary failure, disabling pain persisted and the physician did not manage it. After years of investigation, consulting with several specialists, it was concluded the patient presented trigeminal neuralgia that had not been treated since the surgical procedure. In addition, it led to several psychosocial consequences. Therefore, it is essential to be aware trigeminal neuralgia is a possible outcome of corneal transplantation, and its symptoms should not be neglected by the attending physician, thus contributing to better management for transplanted patients.

RESUMO Descrição do relato de caso de uma paciente com distrofia endotelial de Fuchs submetida a transplante de córnea, realizado pela técnica DMEK, que evoluiu com quadro de dor súbita, paroxística, em região frontotemporal, no pós-operatório. Devido ao quadro oftalmológico da paciente, o médico assistente acreditava em possível rejeição do enxerto, negligenciando a dor. Mesmo após sucesso do segundo transplante, realizado devido à falência primária, as dores incapacitantes persistiam, e nenhuma conduta, por parte do médico, foi realizada. Após anos de investigação, mediante consultas com diversos especialistas, concluiu-se que a paciente apresentava um quadro de neuralgia do nervo trigêmeo que não tinha sido tratada desde a realização do procedimento cirúrgico. Além disso, apresentava uma série de consequências psicossociais. Portanto, torna-se imprescindível entender que a neuralgia do nervo trigêmeo é um possível desfecho do transplante de córnea, e seus sintomas não devem ser negligenciados por parte do médico assistente, contribuindo para melhores condutas para os pacientes transplantados.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Corneal Transplantation/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Trigeminal Neuralgia/etiology , Trigeminal Neuralgia/drug therapy , Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy/surgery , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Descemet Membrane/surgery , Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty/adverse effects , Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty/methods , Eye Pain/etiology , Pain Management , Malpractice
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 149-162, sept. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120864


Introducción: Introducción: La compresión percutánea con balón (CPB) es una de las técnicas estándar para el tratamiento de la neuralgia del trigémino. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la eficacia de la compresión percutánea con balón (CPB) del ganglio de Gasser y raíz trigeminal en el tratamiento de la neuralgia del trigémino (TN). Métodos: Se usó un estudio observacional analítico de cohorte prospectivo. Un total de 293 pacientes con neuralgia del trigémino fueron tratados con la CPB entre octubre de 2008 y octubre de 2019 en Lima, Perú. Los datos fueron obtenidos de los registros hospitalarios y entrevistas. La CPB se realizó bajo sedación con propofol y remifentanilo. Se administróoxígeno a través de cánula nasal y se monitorizó la frecuencia cardíaca y la presión arterial durante todo el procedimiento. Elprocedimiento se realizó usando fluoroscopia con arco en C para facilitar la introducción de la aguja 14 G hasta que se ingresaal agujero oval y la visualización del catéter Fogarty 4F inflado en el cavum de Meckel. En la posición correcta, generalmenteaparece claramente definido una forma de pera o de reloj de arena después de la inyección de 0.5-1 ml de material decontraste. Resultados: La edad media fue de 64.2 años (rango 27-90). Treinta y seis pacientes (12%) tuvieron otros procedimientosquirúrgicos previos. Doscientos sesenta y dos pacientes (89.4%) experimentaron un alivio inmediato de la neuralgia despuésdel procedimiento. Se obtuvo un balón con forma de pera en 162 casos (55.3%), reloj de arena 73 (24.9%) y oval 58 (19.8%). En 245 pacientes (83.6%) el balón se mantuvo inflado durante 60 - 90 segundos. Es crucial obtener una forma de pera o de reloj de arena porque este es probablemente el factor más importante para obtener un buen alivio del dolor y duradero. Todo el procedimiento dura unos 15 minutos. La hipoestesia hemifacial después del procedimiento fue moderada o severa en el 76.5% de los pacientes. A los tres meses, la mayoría de los pacientes tienen una recuperación significativa en la sensibilidad facial, que continúa recuperándose con el tiempo. Todos los pacientes tuvieron alguna dificultad transitoria para masticar en el lado afectado. Se observó recurrencia en 26 pacientes (9.2%) en un tiempo de seguimiento de 6 meses a 11 años (5.75 años). La forma más común de balón asociada con recurrencia fue la oval (65.4%).Conclusiones: La CPB es técnicamente simple, bien tolerada por los pacientes. La tasa de éxito de la operación es alta. Los pacientes con balón en forma de pera o de reloj de arena obtuvieron los mejores resultados.

Introduction: Percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) is one of the standards techniques for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PBC of the Gasserian ganglion and trigeminal rootlets as treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods: A prospective cohort analytical observational study was used. A total of 293 patients with trigeminal neuralgia were treated with PBC between october 2008 and October 2019 in Lima, Perú. The data were obtained from hospital records and interviews. PBC was performed under sedation with propofol and remifentanil. Oxygen was administered through nasal cannula and the heart rate and blood pressure were monitored throughout the procedure. The procedure is carried out with C-arm fluoroscopy to facilitate the introduction of the 14 G needle until the foramen oval is entered and the visualization of the inflated catheter Fogarty 4F in the Meckel ́s cave. Once in the right position, a clearly defined pear shape or hourglass is seen after injection of 0.5 ­ 1 mL of contrast material. Results: The mean age was 64.2 years (range, 27-90). Thirty-six patients (12%) had other previous surgical procedures. Two hundred sixty-two patients (89.4%) experienced immediate relief from neuralgia following the procedure. A pear-shaped balloon was obtained in 162 cases (55.3%), hourglass 73 (24.9%) and oval 58 (19.8%). In 245 patients (83.6%) the balloon is kept inflated for 60­90 seconds. It is crucial to obtain a pear shape or hourglass because this probably is the most significant factor for obtaining good, long-lasting pain relief. The whole procedure takes 15 minutes. Following the procedure, hemifacial hypoesthesia was moderate or severe in 76.5% of patients. Most patients have a significant recovery in facial sensitivity at three months post-procedure and continue to improve over time. All patients faced some transient difficulty chewing in the affected side. Recurrence was observed in 26 patients (9.2%) during a follow-up time of 6 months to 11 years (5.75 years). The most common form of balloon associated with recurrence was oval (65.4%).Conclusions: PBC is a technically simple, well tolerated by patients. The operation success rate is high. Patients with pear or hourglass shape balloon obtained the best results.

Humans , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Therapeutics , Trigeminal Ganglion , Mastication , Neuralgia
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 163-171, sept. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120874


Objetivos: Describir resultados de los últimos 11 años en el tratamiento de neuralgia del trigémino con termocoagulación por radiofrecuencia, analizar variables relacionadas a complicaciones y resultados. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, longitudinal, comparativo y analítico. Se analizaron los resultados de los últimos 11 años de nuestro servicio evaluando las temperaturas de las lesiones armando dos grupos, de 65°C-70°C y 71°C-75°C para analizar su relación con resultados y complicaciones. Resultados: Se trataron 59 pacientes en los cuales se realizaron 74 procedimientos, la edad media fue 59.22 años (±13,45). Se observó recidiva en 23 procedimientos con una tasa global de 31%. El tiempo medio de recidiva fue de 28,19 meses (±26,21). El tiempo medio de seguimiento fue de 33,10 meses (±33,49). El tiempo medio de evolución del dolor, previo al primer procedimiento, fue de 5,35 años (±4,37). Analizando los grupos se observó que no existía relación significativamente estadística (p = 0,74) entre el grupo de pacientes de 65ºC-70ºC y el grupo de 71ºC-75ºC y recidiva. No se observó relación estadísticamente significativa entre el grupo de 65ºC-70ºC y el grupo de 71ºC-75ºC y tiempo de recidiva (p=0,12). Se observó más pacientes con hipoestesia inmediata en el grupo de pacientes de 65ºC-70ºC, sin significación estadística (p=0,47). Conclusión: La termocoagulación por radiofrecuencia de ganglio de Gasser es un procedimiento accesible, mínimamente invasivo que demostró buenos resultados y buen manejo del dolor con bajo índice de complicaciones.

Objectives: Describe results of the last 11 years in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia with radiofrequency thermocoagulation, analyze variables related to complications and results. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, longitudinal, comparative and analytical study. The results of the last 11 years of our service were analyzed by assessing the temperatures of the lesions by assembling two groups, 65° C-70° C and 71 ° C-75° C to analyze their relationship with results and complications. Results: 59 patients were treated in which 74 procedures were performed; the mean age was 59.22 years (± 13.45). Recurrence was observed in 23 procedures with an overall rate of 31%. The average recurrence time was 28.19 months (± 26.21). The average follow-up time was 33.10 months (± 33.49). The average time of pain evolution, prior to the first procedure, was 5.35 years (± 4.37). Analyzing the groups, it was observed that there was no significant statistical relationship (p = 0.74) between the group of patients from 65ºC-70ºC and the group from 71ºC-75ºC and recurrence. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the 65ºC-70ºC group and the 71ºC-75ºC group and recurrence time (p = 0.12). More patients with immediate hypoaesthesia were observed in the group of patients from 65ºC-70ºC, without statistical significance (p = 0.47). Conclusion: Gasser's ganglion radiofrequency thermocoagulation is an accessible, minimally invasive procedure that demonstrated good results and good pain management with a low complication rate

Humans , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Temperature , Therapeutics , Trigeminal Ganglion , Electrocoagulation , Pain Management , Neuralgia
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(1): 67-73, ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124802


La neuralgia del trigémino se define como (dolor paroxístico, unilateral, severo, penetrante, de corta duración y recurrente en la distribución de una o varias de las ramas del V par craneal). Puede ser esencial o secundaria. Su prevalencia es alta y ha ido aumentando junto con la expectativa de vida, constituye el 89% de las neuralgias faciales en personas mayores de 60 años. Su diagnóstico se basa en el cuadro clínico con exploración física y neurológica. Existen estudios complementarios como tomografía y resonancia de encéfalo, los cuales están enfocados a diferenciar entre una neuralgia esencial o secundaria. Esta patología continúa siendo una enfermedad desconocida para muchos médicos generales y lo que resulta aún peor, mal manejada por muchos de los especialistas encargados de la misma. En este trabajo se resumen las principales características anatomoclínicas, fisiopatológicas, y una descripción de la técnica quirúrgica de la descompresión microvascular como la mejor opción terapéutica para la neuralgia del trigémino.

Trigeminal neuralgia is defined as (paroxysmal, unilateral, severe, penetrating, short-term and recurrent pain in the distribution of one or more of the branches of the V cranial nerve). It can be essential or secondary. Its prevalence is high and has been increasing along with life expectancy; it constitutes 89% of facial neuralgia in people over 60 years. Their diagnosis is based on the clinically, physical and neurological examination. There are complementary studies such as tomography and brain resonance, which are focused on differentiating between an essential or secondary neuralgia. This pathology continues to be an unknown disease for many general physicians and what is even worse, poorly managed by many of the specialists in charge of it. This dossier abstracts the main anatomoclinic, pathophysiological characteristics, and a detailed description of microvascular decompression as the best therapeutic option for trigeminal neuralgia.

Trigeminal Neuralgia
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(6): 321-330, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131719


ABSTRACT Background: Diagnostic tools are necessary for the anamnesis and examination of orofacial pain, in order to fulfill diagnostic criteria and to screen potential causes of pain. Objective: To evaluate the Orofacial Pain Clinic Questionnaire (EDOF-HC) in the assessment and diagnosis of orofacial pain. Methods: Overall, 142 patients were evaluated and classified according to the criteria of the International Headache Society and International Association for the Study of Pain. All of them were evaluated with the EDOF-HC questionnaire, which consists of the orofacial and medical history, as well as the orofacial examination. Data were statistically analyzed with chi-square test and Bonferroni correction, one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test, the two-step cluster and decision tree methods. Results: There were diferences in pain descriptors, pain in maximum mouth opening, number of trigger points, and history of previous surgery between the groups, which were classified into trigeminal neuralgia, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders and trigeminal posttraumatic neuropathic pain with classification analysis. Conclusions: The EDOF-HC is a clinical supportive tool for the assessment of orofacial pain. The instrument may be used to support data collection from anamnesis and examination of patients according to the diagnostic criteria of most common orofacial conditions. It is also useful in the investigation of local and systemic abnormalities and contributes for the diagnosis of conditions that depend on exclusion criteria.

RESUMO Introdução: Instrumentos diagnósticos são necessários para a anamnese e exame da dor orofacial, auxiliando na identificação das causas potenciais de dor. Objetivo: Avaliar o Questionário da Equipe de Dor Orofacial (EDOF-HC) na abordagem e diagnóstico da dor orofacial. Métodos: Ao todo, 142 pacientes foram avaliados e classificados de acordo com os critérios da Sociedade Internacional de Cefaleias e da Associação Internacional para o Estudo da Dor. Todos foram avaliados com o questionário EDOF-HC, que consiste na anamnese orofacial e médica, além do exame físico orofacial. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente com os testes qui-quadrado com correção de Bonferroni, ANOVA de um fator e post hoc de Tukey, além dos métodos de classificação em cluster e árvore decisória. Resultados: Houve diferenças entre os diagnósticos quanto aos descritores da dor, dor na abertura bucal máxima, número de pontos-gatilho mastigatórios e história prévia de cirurgia, o que esteve de acordo com a classificação nos diagnósticos de neuralgia do trigêmeo, síndrome da ardência bucal, disfunção temporomandibular e dor neuropática pós-traumática trigeminal. Conclusões: O Questionário da Equipe de Dor Orofacial (EDOF-HC) mostrou ser um instrumento de apoio para a avaliação da dor orofacial, útil na coleta de dados de anamnese e exame clínico dos pacientes, observando os principais sinais e sintomas relacionados aos critérios diagnósticos das condições orofaciais dolorosas mais comuns. Também é útil na avaliação de comorbidades locais e sistêmicas e contribui para o diagnóstico de condições que dependem em critérios de exclusão.

Humans , Trigeminal Neuralgia/diagnosis , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnosis , Facial Pain/diagnosis , Facial Pain/etiology , Facial Pain/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Headache
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 76-84, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123315


Introducción: La Academia Americana de Neurología propone que, para que un paciente sea candidato a descompresiva neurovascular trigeminal (DNV), se debe demostrar la presencia de contacto neurovascular a través de la resonancia magnética (RM). Sin embargo, recientes estudios han demostrado que la sensibilidad de la RM para diagnosticar un conflicto neurovascular (CNV) es muy variable. Estos conceptos antagónicos ubican al neurocirujano ante un verdadero dilema a la hora de tomar decisiones. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar la utilidad de la clínica y la RM como factor predictor de un verdadero CNV. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio analítico retrospectivo que incluye a 81 pacientes a los que se les realizó una DNV por neuralgia trigeminal (NT), desde enero de 2013 hasta abril de 2019, en la provincia de Tucumán. Resultados: Al considerar la serie completa: A) Un total de 65 pacientes cursaron con NT Típicas; de estos, 64 (98,5%) presentaron CNV durante la cirugía y B) De las 16 Atípicas, ninguna presentó CNV en el intraoperatorio. Al considerar los pacientes con NT primaria: A) un 98% de los pacientes con clínica de NT típica presentaran CNV en el intraoperatorio y B) hubo un grupo de pacientes donde se evidencio un CNV en el intraoperatorio pero en su RM preoperatoria no se objetivo el mismo (n=15), el valor predictivo negativo de la RM fue sólo un 6%. Conclusión: La clínica del paciente es más efectiva que la RM para decidir si realizar o no una cirugía de DNV.

Introduction: The American Academy of Neurology proposes that, for a patient to be a candidate for trigeminal neurovascular decompression (NVD), the presence of neurovascular contact must be demonstrated through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent studies have shown that the sensitivity of MRI to diagnose a neurovascular conflict (NVC) is highly variable. These antagonistic concepts put, the neurosurgeon, in a real dilemma when making decisions about this entity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of clinical and MRI as a predictor of a real NVC. Methods: This is a retrospective analytical study including 81 patients undergoing NVD to treat trigeminal neuralgia (TN), from January 2013 to April 2019, in Tucumán. Results: When considering the complete series: A) Of the total of 65 patients who had typical TN, 64 (98.5%) presented NVC during surgery and B) Of the 16 atypical TN, none of then presented NVC during the surgery. When considering patients with primary TN: A) 98% of the patients with typical NT presented a NVC during surgery and B) there was a group of patients where NVC was evidenced during surgery but it wasn`t noticed during the preoperative MRI (n=15), the negative predictive value of the MRI was only 6%. Conclusion: The patient's clinic is more effective than the MRI deciging whether or not to perform NVD surgery.

Humans , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Therapeutics , Neuralgia
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(1): 22-26, 15/03/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362414


Arachnoid cysts are benign intracranial lesions. They are usually located in the middle fossa, but can be found in other locations. We present a case of symptomatic Meckel cave (MC) arachnoid cyst - a very rare location - and a treatment strategy not elsewhere described before for this condition. A 54-year-old female with trigeminal neuralgia with previous history of radiofrequency rhizotomy treatment 6 years before admission had been experiencing pain recurrence with progression, which required successive increases in carbamazepine dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed dilatation of the right MC with extension to the petrous apex. The lesion was compatible with arachnoid cyst, and due to the worsening of the clinical condition, surgical treatment was chosen. Percutaneous puncture of the cyst through the foramen ovale with injection of intracystic fibrin sealant was performed. The patient woke up from anesthesia with pain improvement and was discharged asymptomatic the next day. After 12 months of follow-up, she remained pain-free. In the literature review, we found only eight cases reported as MC arachnoid cyst. These are likely to progress and become symptomatic owing to their communication with the subarachnoid space and a unidirectional valve mechanism. Pain improvement with this technique is probably secondary to the interruption of these mechanisms.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/therapeutic use , Arachnoid Cysts/surgery , Arachnoid Cysts/diagnosis , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Administration, Cutaneous , Arachnoid Cysts/etiology
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 130-137, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098380


Resumen La neuralgia del trigémino (NT) es una enfermedad cuya prevalencia es alta y corresponde a un porcentaje importante de neuralgias faciales; en donde las personas más afectadas son mayores de 50 años. Su manifestación clínica suele ser de cuadros de dolor facial severo y recurrentes, unilateral; en la distribución de una o más divisiones del nervio trigémino y no se explica con otro diagnóstico. El diagnóstico se basa en el cuadro clínico y usualmente no se encuentra déficit sensorial, sin embargo, si está presente se deben hacer neuroimágenes para descartar otras causas. En primera instancia está el manejo farmacológico. La carbamazepina se ha establecido como efectivo, llegando a producir un alivio del dolor dentro de las 24 horas. Cuando la farmacoterapia falla, se opta por la cirugía que se divide generalmente en dos: técnicas que destruyen la porción sensitiva del nervio; y la descompresión microvascular (DMV), que es la que tiene mejores resultados.

Abstract Trigeminal neuralgia is a disease whose prevalence is high and corresponds to a significant percentage of facial neuralgia; where the most affected people are over 50 years old. The clinical picture is usually of episodes of severe and recurring facial pain, unilateral; in the distribution of one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve and this is not explained with another diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on the clinic and usually no sensory deficit is found, however, if present, neuroimaging should be done to rule out other causes. In the first instance is the pharmacological management. Carbamazepine has been established as effective, leading to pain relief within 24 hours. When pharmacological therapy fails, surgery is generally divided into two: techniques that destroy the sensitive portion of the nerve and microvascular decompression, which has the best results.

Trigeminal Neuralgia/diagnosis , Trigeminal Neuralgia/drug therapy , Pons/pathology , Microsurgery , Nerve Crush
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(1): 1-5, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1050062


Painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN) involves spontaneous and evoked pain, of moderate to severe intensity, continuous and described as burning or shooting. The first line treatment is pharmacological. However, botulinum toxin - A (BoNT-A) can be used when medications cannot control pain. This article describes the use of BoNT-A in a case of PTTN refractory to conventional pharmacological treatment. A 44-year-old male patient presented with an 8-years history of pain in the lower left second molar region. Pain was burning, lasting for seconds, with multiple pain episodes per day. Diagnosis hypothesis was PTTN. After no improvement with conventional pharmacological treatment, injections of BoNT-A were elected. Somatosensory assessment showed a significant reduction in visual analog scale for touch, cold and pinprick sensitivity. Likewise, patient's impression of change in pain significantly improved after BoNT-A injections. Our results suggest that BoNT-A could be used as a treatment for PTTN refractory to conventional treatments. (AU)

A neuropatia trigeminal pós-traumática dolorosa (PTTN) envolve dor espontânea e evocada, de intensidade moderada a grave, contínua e descrita como queimante ou lascinante. O tratamento de primeira linha é farmacológico. No entanto, a toxina botulínica - A (BoNT-A) pode ser usada quando os medicamentos não conseguem controlar a dor. Este artigo descreve o uso da BoNT-A em um caso de PTTN refratário ao tratamento farmacológico convencional. Paciente de sexo masculino, 44 anos, com 8 anos de dor na região do segundo molar inferior esquerdo. A dor foi descrita como queimante, com duração de segundos e com vários episódios por dia. A hipótese de diagnóstico foi PTTN. Após nenhuma melhora com o tratamento farmacológico convencional, as injeções de BoNT-A foram eleitas. A avaliação somatossensorial mostrou uma redução significativa na escala visual analógica para sensibilidade ao toque, frio e picada após BoNT-A. Da mesma forma, a impressão de mudança do paciente na dor melhorou significativamente após as injeções de BoNT-A. Nossos resultados sugerem que o BoNT-A poderia ser usada como tratamento para PTTN refratário a tratamentos convencionais. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Facial Nerve Diseases
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(4): 232-238, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001356


ABSTRACT Gamma Knife® radiosurgery (GKRS) for trigeminal neuralgia is an effective treatment with at least a 50% reduction of pain in 75-95% of patients. Objective: To present the first series of patients treated for trigeminal neuralgia using GKRS in Latin America. Methods: Retrospective analysis. Analysis consisted of time to improvement of symptoms, best Barrow Neurological Institute scale (BNI) score after procedure, time without pain, time to recurrence and post-procedural hypoesthesia. Results: Nineteen cases of classical trigeminal neuralgia were analyzed and three cases of symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia were described. Mean time from symptom onset to radiosurgery was 99.6 months, and 78.9% of patients had undergone invasive procedures before treatment. Patients were followed for a mean of 21.7 months. BNI I was achieved in 36.8%, IIIa in 21.1%, IIIb in 21.1%, IV in 5.3% and V in 15.7%. New hypoesthesia developed in 12.1% patients, which was associated with achieving BNI I after the procedure (p < 0.05). Time from diagnosis to GKRS was higher in patients who failed to achieve BNI I (143 vs. 76 months). The distance from the root entry zone in patients who achieved BNI I was greater than patients who did not (1.94 vs. 1.14 mm). Mean distance from the root entry zone in patients with new hypoesthesia was 2.85 mm vs. 1.06 mm (p = 0.06). Conclusion: Clinical response to GKRS is related to the time between diagnosis and procedure, thus its indication should be considered early in the management of these patients.

RESUMO A radiocirurgia por Gamma Knife (GKRS) para neuralgia do trigêmeo é um tratamento comprovado, com redução de pelo menos 50% da dor em 75-95% dos casos. Objetivo: Apresentar a primeira série de pacientes tratados por neuralgia do trigêmeo com GKRS na America Latina. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva. A análise consistiu no tempo até melhora do sintoma, melhor escala do Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) depois do procedimento, tempo sem dor, tempo até recorrência e hipoestesia pós-procedimento. Resultados: Dezenove casos de neuralgia do trigêmeo clássica foram analisados e três casos de neuralgia do trigêmeo sintomática foram descritos. Tempo médio entre começo dos sintomas e GKRS foi de 99,6 meses e 78,9% dos pacientes já tinham sido submetidos a procedimento invasivo prévio. O tempo de acompanhamento médio foi de 21,7 meses. BNI I foi conseguido em 36,8%, IIIa em 21,1%, IIIb em 21,1%, IV em 5,3% e V em 15,7%. Nova hipoestesia apareceu em 12,1% dos casos, o que foi associado a conseguir BNI I pós-procedimento (p < 0,05). Tempo desde o diagnóstico até GKRS foi maior em pacientes que não conseguiram BNI I (143 vs. 76 meses). Distância da zona de entrada do nervo em pacientes que conseguiram BNI I foi maior (1,94 vs. 1,14mm). Distância do zona de entrada do nervo em pacientes com nova hipoestesia foi de 2,85mm vs. 1,06mm (p = 0,06) Conclusão: A resposta à GKRS está relacionada ao tempo entre diagnóstico e procedimento, pelo que a indicação de GKRS deve ser considerada cedo no tratamento desses pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Trigeminal Neuralgia/radiotherapy , Radiosurgery/methods , Recurrence , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Rhizotomy/methods , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Latin America
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 38(1): 20-24, 15/03/2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362622


Introduction Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors represent an important cause of persistent and refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN). It is believed that between 1 and 9.9% of the cases of patients presenting with TN painful manifestation are caused by space-occupying lesions. Objective The objective of the present study is to describe the clinical and surgical experience of the operative management of patients presenting with secondary type TN associated with CPA tumors. Method An observational investigation was conducted with data collection from patients with secondary type TN associated with CPA tumors who were treated with surgical resection of the space-occupying lesion and decompression of the trigeminal nerve from January 2013 to November 2016 in 2 different centers in the western region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Results We operated on 11 consecutive cases in which TN was associated with CPA during the period of analysis. Seven (63.6%) patients were female, and 4 (36.4%) were male. Seven (63.6%) patients presented with right-side symptoms, and 4 (36.4%) presented with left-side symptoms. After 2 years of follow-up, we observed that 8 (72.7%) patients showed a complete improvement of the symptoms, with an excellent outcome, and that 3 (27.3%) patients showed an incomplete improvement, with a good outcome. No patient reported partial improvement or poor outcome after the follow-up. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion Cerebellopontine angle tumors represent an important cause of TNandmust be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with refractory and persistent symptoms. Surgical treatment with total resection of the expansive lesion and effective decompression of the trigeminal nerve are essential steps to control the symptoms.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications , Trigeminal Neuralgia/surgery , Trigeminal Neuralgia/diagnostic imaging , Neuroma, Acoustic/complications , Medical Records , Statistics, Nonparametric , Decompression, Surgical/methods , Observational Study