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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 222-229, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the role of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (TGW) in the treatment of psoriatic dermatitis from a cellular immunological perspective.@*METHODS@#Mouse models of psoriatic dermatitis were established by imiquimod (IMQ). Twelve male BALB/c mice were assigned to IMQ or IMQ+TGW groups according to a random number table. Histopathological changes in vivo were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Ratios of immune cells and cytokines in mice, as well as PAM212 cell proliferation in vitro were assessed by flow cytometry. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#TGW significantly ameliorated the severity of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse skin lesions and restrained the activation of CD45+ cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes (all P<0.01). Moreover, TGW significantly attenuated keratinocytes (KCs) proliferation and downregulated the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor α, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Furthermore, it reduced the number of γ δ T17 cells in skin lesion of mice and draining lymph nodes (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TGW improved psoriasis-like inflammation by inhibiting KCs proliferation, as well as the associated immune cells and cytokine expression. It inhibited IL-17 secretion from γ δ T cells, which improved the immune-inflammatory microenvironment of psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Tripterygium , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Keratinocytes , Skin Diseases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Imiquimod/metabolism , Dermatitis/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Skin/metabolism
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 233-240, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971681

ABSTRACT

The stem and branch extract of Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) afforded seven new dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters [tripterysines A-G (1-7)] and eight known ones (8-15). The chemical structures of these new compounds were established based on combinational analysis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of tripterysines A-C (1-3) and E-G (5-7) were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and circular dichroism spectra. All the compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect on inflammation through determining their inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced BV2 macrophages. Compound 9 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production with an IC50 value of 8.77 μmol·L-1. Moreover, compound 7 showed the strongest inhibitory effect with the secretion of IL-6 at 27.36%.


Subject(s)
Tripterygium/chemistry , Esters/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Molecular Structure
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 730-744, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010986

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, Tripterygium hypoglaucum (Levl.) Hutch (THH) are widely used in Chinese folk to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to investigate whether the anti-RA effect of THH is related with the gut microbiota. The main components of prepared THH extract were identified by HPLC-MS. C57BL/6 mice with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) were treated with THH extract by gavage for one month. THH extract significantly alleviated swollen ankle, joint cavity exudation, and articular cartilage destruction in AIA mice. The mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory mediators in muscles and plasma indicated that THH extract attenuated inflammatory responses in the joint by blocking TLR4/MyD88/MAPK signaling pathways. THH extract remarkably restored the dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in AIA mice, featuring the increases of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, and Lactobacillus and the decreases of Butyricimonas, Parabacteroides, and Anaeroplasma. Furthermore, the altered bacteria were closely correlated with physiological indices and drove metabolic changes of the intestinal microbiota. In addition, antibiotic-induced pseudo germ-free mice were employed to verify the role of the intestinal flora. Strikingly, THH treatment failed to ameliorate the arthritis symptoms and signaling pathways in pseudo germ-free mice, which validates the indispensable role of the intestinal flora. For the first time, we demonstrated that THH extract protects joint inflammation by manipulating the intestinal flora and regulating the TLR4/MyD88/MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore, THH extract may serve as a microbial modulator to recover RA in clincial practice.ver RA in clincial practice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Tripterygium , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2639-2645, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981368

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of multi-glycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii(GTW) on renal injury in diabetic kidney disease(DKD) rats through Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3)/cysteine-aspartic acid protease-1(caspase-1)/gsdermin D(GSDMD) pyroptosis pathway and the mechanism. To be specific, a total of 40 male SD rats were randomized into the normal group(n=8) and modeling group(n=34). In the modeling group, a high-sugar and high-fat diet and one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ) were used to induce DKD in rats. After successful modeling, they were randomly classified into model group, valsartan(Diovan) group, and GTW group. Normal group and model group were given normal saline, and the valsartan group and GTW group received(ig) valsartan and GTW, respectively, for 6 weeks. Blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(Scr), alanine ami-notransferase(ALT), albumin(ALB), and 24 hours urinary total protein(24 h-UTP) were determined by biochemical tests. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. Serum levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-18(IL-18) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related proteins in renal tissue, and RT-PCR to determine the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related genes in renal tissue. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed high levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), low level of ALB(P<0.01), severe pathological damage to kidney, and high protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, valsartan group and GTW group had low levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), high level of ALB(P<0.01), alleviation of the pathological damage to the kidney, and low protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01 or P<0.05). GTW may inhibit pyroptosis by decreasing the expression of NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD in renal tissue, thereby relieving the inflammatory response of DKD rats and the pathological injury of kidney.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Tripterygium , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 1/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Uridine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Kidney , Valsartan/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2426-2434, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981319

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium glycosides liposome(TPGL) were prepared by thin film-dispersion method, which were optimized accor-ding to their morphological structures, average particle size and encapsulation rate. The measured particle size was(137.39±2.28) nm, and the encapsulation rate was 88.33%±1.82%. The mouse model of central nervous system inflammation was established by stereotaxic injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). TPGL and tripterygium glycosides(TPG) were administered intranasally for 21 days. The effects of intranasal administration of TPG and TPGL on behavioral cognitive impairment of mice due to LPS-induced central ner-vous system inflammation were estimated by animal behavioral tests, hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining of hippocampus, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and immunofluorescence. Compared with TPG, TPGL caused less damage to the nasal mucosa, olfactory bulb, liver and kidney of mice administered intranasally. The behavioral performance of treated mice was significantly improved in water maze, Y maze and nesting experiment. Neuronal cell damage was reduced, and the expression levels of inflammation and apoptosis related genes [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), BCL2-associated X(Bax), etc.] and glial activation markers [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1(IBA1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP)] were decreased. These results indicated that liposome technique combined with nasal delivery alleviated the toxic side effects of TPG, and also significantly ameliorated the cognitive impairment of mice induced by central nervous system inflammation.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Tripterygium , Liposomes , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Administration, Intranasal , Lipopolysaccharides , Central Nervous System , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cardiac Glycosides
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 668-675, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927949

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the detoxification effects of different processing methods on the cardiotoxicity induced by radix Tripterygium wilfordii, and preliminarily explore the detoxification mechanism via the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) pathway. The raw and processed products [stir-fried product, product stir-fried with Lysimachiae Herba(JQC), product stir-fried with Phaseoli Radiati Semen(LD), product stir-fried with Paeoniae Radix Alba(BS), product stir-fried with Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(GC), and product stir-fried with vinegar(CZ)] of radix T. wilfordii were administrated to mice by gavage at a dose of 2 g·kg~(-1)(based on crude drugs) for 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, we measured the serum biochemical indexes of mice to evaluate the detoxification effect. Furthermore, we determined the expression of key proteins of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in mouse heart tissue by Western blot and some oxidation/antioxidation-related indexes by corresponding kits to explore the detoxification mechanism. The administration of the raw product elevated the levels of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde, a product of cardiac lipid peroxidation(P<0.01), down-regulated the protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1(P<0.01), and reduced the levels of total superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase(P<0.01). However, after the administration of the products stir-fried with JQC, LD, BS, GC, and CZ, the abnormalities of the above indexes induced by the raw product were recovered(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In particular, the product stir-fried with JQC showed the best performance. Taken all together, the cardiotoxicity induced by radix T. wilfordii could be attenuated by stir-frying with JQC, LD, BS, GC, and CZ, and the stir-frying with JQC showed the best detoxification effect. The mechanism might be associated with the cardiac antioxidant defense and oxidative damage mitigation mediated by the up-regulated Nrf2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiotoxicity , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Tripterygium
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 949-954, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses of Tripterygium hypoglaucum in Yinning Tablets, a compound preparation of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.@*METHODS@#Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used for qualitative analysis of Tripterygium hypoglaucum in Yining Tablets and the analytical protocols were optimized. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantitatively analyze the content of triptolide (the main active ingredient of Tripterygium hypoglaucum) in Yinning Tablets.@*RESULTS@#The results of TLC analysis showed that the test sample of Yinning Tablets and the positive control samples both produced clear, well separated spots without obvious interference in the blank samples. Assessment of the influences of the thin-layer plates from different manufacturers, temperature and humidity on the test results demonstrated good durability of the test. HPLC analysis of triptolide showed a good linear relationship within the concentration range of 1-100 μg/mL (regression equation: A=22.219C-19.165, r=0.9999); the contents of triptolide in 3 batches of Yinning tablets were 0.34, 0.34, and 0.28 μg per tablet, all within the range of 0.28-0.34 μg per tablet. It was finally determined that each Yinning tablet should not contain more than 0.6 μg of triptolide.@*CONCLUSION@#TLC and HPLC are simple, accurate, durable and specific for qualitative and quantitative analyses of Tripterygium hypoglaucum in Yinning Tablets.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Preparations , Tablets , Tripterygium/chemistry
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1085-1094, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928028

ABSTRACT

This study systematically searched CNKI and Web of Science(WoS) for the research papers on the toxicity of Tripterygium wilfordii included from database inception to August 31, 2021, and visually displayed the authors, research institutions, keywords, and other contents using bibliometrics and CiteSpace 5.8.3. Furthermore, the current situation and research progress on T. wilfordii safety were also analyzed based on information extraction to find the research hotspot, evolution path, and development trend, and to provide references for future research. A total of 1 876 Chinese papers and 243 English papers were included in the study. The analysis of authors showed that WANG Qi and ZHANG Luyong had the most publications in Chinese and English papers, respectively. According to the analysis of research institutions, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control and China Pharmaceutical University possessed the largest number of Chinese and English papers, respectively, but there was less cooperation between them. The analysis of keywords in Chinese and English papers showed that the research contents of the safety of T. wilfordii mainly focused on clinical monitoring, mechanism, dosage form improvement, quality standard, component analysis, monomer research, efficiency and toxicity reduction, etc. Metabonomics, tripterine, and the underlying mechanism of toxicity were the research hotspots in the future. At present, the research on the toxicity of T. wilfordii is still under development. It is necessary to highlight the in-depth research and strengthen the inter-group and inter-region cooperation of authors or institutions to provide references for the research on the toxicity of T. wilfordii.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bibliometrics , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Tripterygium
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1128-1133, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879013

ABSTRACT

On the basis of the previous work of the research group, the orthogonal design method was further used to optimize the processing technology for reducing toxicity of fried Tripterygium wilfordii in Lysimachia christinae Decoction. A total of 9 processed products of T.wilfordii in L.christinae decoction were prepared by four factors and three levels orthogonal design table. The contents of triptolide in T.wilfordii were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) before and after processing: 4.27, 3.92, 3.57, 2.75, 2.42, 2.66, 3.51, 1.87, 1.75, 2.03 μg·g~(-1). On this basis, the above processed products were orally given to mice for 28 days. 12 hours after the last administration, food fasting except water was provided, and 24 hours later, the eyeballs were taken for blood and liver tissue. Serum biochemical indexes, liver lipid peroxidation and antioxidant related indexes were detected by kit method. Twenty-eight days after oral administration of raw T.wilfordii, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and liver malondialdehyde(MDA) in mice increased by 91%(P<0.01), 46%(P<0.05), 73%(P<0.01) and 99%(P<0.01), while the liver antioxidant indexes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione(GSH), glutathione peroxidase(GPX) and glutathione-S transferase(GST) significantly decreased(P<0.01). After administration of the processed products, the above indexes were significantly reversed(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Especially, the processing conditions of A_3B_2C_1D_3 had the best detoxification effect on T.wilfordii, which decreased the high levels of AST, ALT, ALP and MDA by 49%(P<0.01), 32%(P<0.01), 42%(P<0.01), and 17%(P<0.05). Therefore, the best processing conditions for T.wilfordii in L.christinae decoction were A_3B_2C_1D_3, namely "15% mass fraction of L.christinae, 1 h moistening time, 160 ℃ frying temperature, and 9 min frying time".


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antioxidants , Liver , Primulaceae , Technology , Tripterygium
10.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 750-757, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922758

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (GTW) is a commonly used compound for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and immune diseases in clinical practice. However, it can induce liver injury and the mechanism of hepatotoxicity is still not clear. This study was designed to investigate GTW-induced hepatotoxicity in zebrafish larvae and explore the mechanism involved. The 72 hpf (hours post fertilization) zebrafish larvae were administered with different concentrations of GTW for three days and their mortality, malformation rate, morphological changes in the liver, transaminase levels, and histopathological changes in the liver of zebrafish larvae were detected. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to examine the levels of microRNA-122 (miR-122) and genes related to inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation and liver function. The results showed that GTW increased the mortality of zebrafish larvae, while significant malformations and liver damage occurred. The main manifestations were elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), significant liver atrophy, vacuoles in liver tissue, sparse cytoplasm, and unclear hepatocyte contours. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of miR-122 significantly decreased by GTW; the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes il1β, il6, tnfα, il10, cox2 and ptges significantly increased; the mRNA level of tgfβ significantly decreased; the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes, caspase-8 and caspase-9, significantly increased; the mRNA level of bcl2 significantly decreased; the mRNA levels of cell proliferation-related genes, top2α and uhrf1, significantly reduced; the mRNA levels of liver function-related genes, alr and cyp3c1, significantly increased; and the mRNA level of cyp3a65 significantly decreased. In zebrafish, GTW can cause increased inflammation, enhanced apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and abnormal expression of liver function-related genes, leading to abnormal liver structure and function and resulting in hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Trans-Activators , Tripterygium , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish Proteins
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 798-808, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008504

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis(RA) has a high disability rate and is highly harmful. It has a long course of treatment and is prone to adverse reactions or events(ADR/ADE). Selection of drugs in particular shall give consideration to both benefits and risk. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(TGT) is one of the important drugs for the treatment of RA. It has a remarkable efficacy, but a strong toxicity, which is controversial in clinical use. The study was oriented to patients, and quantitatively evaluated the efficacy and risk of TGT in treatment of RA, providing an intuitive basis for clinical safety and effective application of TGT. A multi-criteria decision-making analysis(MCDA) model of TGT was built in the treatment of RA, and then benefit and risk indicators were weighted by SWING method. Totally 53 random clinical trials(RCT) in accordance with the evaluation criteria were included by Meta-analysis method. The RCT results were merged by Meta-analysis, indicating that compared with the conventional therapy of chemical immunosuppressant(CISD), TGT could improve the curative effect whether it was used alone or in combination with CISD, but it would increase the incidence of reproductive system damage. The combined administration with CISD would also increase the incidence of liver and kidney damages. Treatment outcomes varied according to the different conditions of the combined administration with CISD. Based on MCDA model and clinical results, the benefit value, risk value and benefit-risk value of different doses, courses and combined administration of TGT in the treatment with RA were compared. The results showed that when the benefit and risk of the drug were equally important to the patient, the benefit-risk value of the single administration of TGT was 59, while that of the combined administration of TGT and CISD was 39. Therefore, the benefit-risk value of the single administration of TGT was 100% better than the combined administration. When the combined administration of TGT and CISD is unavoidable, the benefit-risk value of low-dose TGT(0.10-0.99 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) was 48, while that of high-dose TGT was 36. Therefore, low-dose TGT combined with CISD was more easily accepted by patients. The 2 to 3-month treatment course had a benefit-risk value of 40, while the long treatment course had a benefit-risk value of 38. Based on existing evidences, the single administration of TGT may be better than the combined administration with CISD. If the patients need to combine with CISD to treat RA, low dosage and 2 to 3-month course may be relatively optimal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Decision Support Techniques , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Tablets , Tripterygium/chemistry
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 791-797, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008503

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the clinical efficacy of single administration of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(TGT) or combined administration with methotrexate(MTX) against rheumatoid arthritis(RA) based on American College of Rheumatology(ACR) efficacy standard. Six databases, namely CNKI, WanFang, VIP, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, were retrieved for randomized controlled trials(RCT), and clinical trials were screened out according to the preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then, the study quality was evaluated by the risk assessment tools. Data extraction and analysis were performed by using RevMan 5.3 software for Meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias analysis were made to test the stability and reliability of results. Until December 2018, a total of 1 709 articles were obtained, and finally 10 clinical RCT studies with a total of 1 184 patients were included. As a result, the single administration of TGT showed a significantly better ACR efficiency(RR=1.31, 95%CI[1.15, 1.49], P<0.000 1) than methotrexate(MTX). The combined administration of TGT and MTX showed a significantly better ACR efficiency(RR=1.28, 95%CI[1.20, 1.38], P<0.000 01) than the single administration of MTX. In conclusion, the single administration of TGT and the combined administration of TGT and MTX were more effective in achieving ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 compliance than the single administration of MTX. Further validations based on more RCT studies with high-quality are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Tablets , Treatment Outcome , Tripterygium/chemistry
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 775-790, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008502

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the adverse drug reaction(ADR) of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(TGT) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Four Chinese databases(CNKI, VIP, WanFang, SinoMed) and three English databases(Cochrane Library, EMbase, PubMed), from the time of database establishing to August 2019, were systematically retrieved to collect literature on the treatment of all types of RA with TG. Screening literature and extracting data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were assessed by using internationally recognized methodological quality assessment tools or reporting quality evaluation criteria, with data being extracted and Meta-analyzed. There were 79 studies included, randomized controlled trials(RCT) containing TGT in the treatment group, non-randomized controlled trials(non-RCT), case series, case reports, and RCT containing TGT only in the control group were covered. There were in the control group; 765 ADR of 2 214 patients in 30 RCT(treatment group given TGT), 11 non-RCT and 7 case reports. The results of Meta-analysis of these 48 literatures showed that the overall incidence of ADRs was 0.23(95%CI[0.22,0.24]); ADR mainly occured in the reproductive, gastrointestinal, skin and accessories, blood, hepatobiliary system damage and the incidence of ADR in systems mentioned about respectively were 0.14(95%CI[0.12,0.17]),0.07(95%CI[0.06,0.08]),0.06(95%CI[0.04,0.07]),0.04(95%CI[0.03,0.05]),0.04(95%CI[0.03,0.05]). Further subgroup analysis results showed that the incidence of total ADR, especially the gastrointestinal, reproductive and cutaneous ADR of patients with treatment alone was higher than that in those paients with MTX or MTX+LEF therapy; The incidence of ADR, especially the gastrointestinal ADR, was also positively correlated with daily dose and course of treatment, while the incidence of different systems ADR was also correlated with different drug manufacturers, for instance, damage on the female reproductive system occurs most frequently in Hunan manufacture TGT administration, same as the damage on skin and accessories induced by TGT from Jiangsu manufacture. Above all, The clinical treatment of TGT for RA will cause multi-system ADR, with the highest incidence in the reproductive system, followed by the gastrointestinal system, which is closely related to the way of medication(monotherapy), daily dose, course of medication and drug manufacturer. Therefore, it is recommended that, in the treatment of RA, using TGT in combination, low dose or short-course medication, take measures to protect the reproductive system, stomach and liver, and paying attention to the drug manufacturer as well response of patients during administration should be valued to avoid ADRs to the maximum possibility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Tablets , Tripterygium/chemistry
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 764-774, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008501

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the effects of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets alone or in combination with methotrexate(MTX) and leflunomide(LEF) on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients or animal models with rheumatoid arthritis(RA), and to provide reference for clinical application and related basic research, this study systematically searched databases of CNKI, VIP, WanFang, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, collected relevant clinical or animal experimental studies, used risk assessment tools to evaluate the quality of research, and used Revman 5.3 software to conduct Meta-analysis or descriptive analysis of the outcome indicators included in the literatures. Of the 1 709 papers retrieved, 3 clinical studies and 12 animal experiments were included. The results showed that compared with MTX alone, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX could further reduce the expression levels of peripheral blood TNF-α(SMD=-8.88,95%CI[-10.77,-6.99],P<0.000 01),IL-1β(P<0.000 01) and IL-6(SMD=-8.63, 95%CI[-10.57,-6.69], P<0.000 01) in RA patients. Compared with LEF alone, the combination of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and LEF could not further reduce the expression levels of TNF-α(P=0.20), IL-1β(P=0.17), IL-6(P=0.31). In RA animal model, compared with model group, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could reduce the expression levels of peripheral blood IL-1β(SMD=-6.29,95%CI[-9.64,-2.93],P<0.000 2)in peripheral blood(SMD=-1.39,95%CI[-1.77,-1.02],P<0.000 01), joint fluid(P<0.000 01) and paw plasma(P=0.02), and also reduce the expression levels of TNF-α in RA animal model group. Compared with MTX alone, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets alone reduced the same levels of TNF-α(P=0.42) and IL-6(P=0.08) in joint fluid, while Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX could further reduce the levels of IL-6(P=0.000 1) in joint fluid; compared with LEF alone, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets have the similar effects on reducing the expression levels of peripheral blood TNF-α(P=0.16), IL-1β(P=0.32), IL-6(P=0.12), while Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with LEF could further reduce the expression levels of TNF-α(P=0.008), IL-1β(P=0.02), IL-6(P<0.000 1) in peripheral blood. Therefore, Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX could further reduce the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood of RA patients. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets alone could reduce the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood and local joint of RA animal models. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets combined with MTX or LEF could further reduce the express levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood of RA animal models. Due to the limitation of literature, this conclusion needs to be further validated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Tablets , Tripterygium/chemistry
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 755-763, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008500

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to observe the toxic effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets on the reproductive system of Ⅱ type collagen induced arthritis(CIA) male rats, and to explore the toxic mechanism preliminarily. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group(Con), model group(CIA), Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets clinical equivalent dose groups of 1, 2, 4 times(9, 18, 36 mg·kg~(-1)), 10 rats in each group, and were given by gavage once a day for 42 days after the first immunization. The organ index of testis and epididymis were calculated on days 21 and 42. Histopathological and morphological changes of testis and epididymis were observed under optical microscope. Sperm count, sperm malformation rate and sperm kinetic parameters in epididymal tissues were observed by computer assisted sperm analysis(CASA). The concentration of testosterone(T), nitric oxide synthase(NOS) and aromatase(CYP19 A1) in serum were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 related proteins in the apoptosis pathway of testis and epididymis. The results showed that, compared with Con group, CIA group significantly increased the rate of testicular spermatogenic tubule lesion and sperm malformation, decreased the average path speed, and no significant changes were observed in other groups. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at 4 times clinical equivalent dose can significantly reduce the testis index(P<0.01), each dose group can reduce the epididymis index(P<0.05). Each dose group of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could cause different degrees of damage to the testis and epididymis, the proportion of testicular histopathology lesions increased, the number of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules decreased, and so on. It could reduce the number of sperm, increase the rate of sperm deformity, make the parameters of sperm dynamics abnormal, and so on. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at 4 times dose could significantly reduce the content of serum sex hormone T and key enzyme of androgen synthesis(P<0.05 or P<0.01), but had no effect on CYP19 A1. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in testis and epididymis were increased by 2 and 4 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(P<0.05, P<0.01 or P<0.01). The results showed that 21 d administration of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at equal or higher doses could induce obvious toxic effect to the reproductive organs of CIA male rats, and lower the level of serum sex hormone T and the key enzyme of androgen synthesis, NOS. The mechanism of abnormal changes of Bax and Bcl-2 in Testis and epididymis is still to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Genitalia, Male/drug effects , Glycosides/toxicity , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spermatozoa/pathology , Tablets , Testis/pathology , Tripterygium/chemistry
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 746-754, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008499

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to compare different effects of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 different manufacturers on multiple organ injuries in rats and to explore mechanism of hepatotoxicity preliminarily from the perspective of apoptosis and oxidative stress. Rats were randomly divided into the groups normal, Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Fujian(7 groups with 16 rats in each group, sex in half). Rats were given Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at 144 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)(16 times the clinical equivalent dose) once a day according to its corresponding group like rats in Zhejiang group was given Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from Zhejiang manufactures continuously for 20 days with the life and death situation of mice to be observed, then rats were executed to detect various indicators. RESULTS:: showed that 8 female rats in Zhejiang group died after 15 days of administration, the serum NEUT of rats in Hubei, Fujian and Shanghai groups was significantly lower than that of normal rats. The serum AST, ALT and/or TBiL levels were increased in all rats, and serum BUN and/or CRE levels of rats were also increased in Hunan, Hubei, Fujian and Shanghai groups. In dosage groups, testicular and ovarian coefficients of rats were reduced, the number of sperm were significant decreased while the rate of sperm malformation increased and sperm dynamics parameters of normal, especially in Jiangsu and Zhejiang groups. Liver histopathology and apoptosis of liver cells were observed in dosage groups, especially in Jiangsu and Hubei groups. In liver, Nrf2, HO-1 and Bcl-2 were inhibited and the protein expression level of Bax were increased simultaneously in dosage groups. These results showed that all Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 manufacturers could lead to chronic multiple organ injuries with disparate specialties in rats, and Jiangsu and Zhejiang groups were more toxic. It could be the mechanism promoting mitochondrial mediated Bax/Bcl-2 cell apoptosis signaling pathway and negatively regulating Nrf2/HO-1 oxidative stress signaling pathway that Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 different manufacturers resulted in chronic liver injury, the results above were for reference only in subsequent study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Apoptosis , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation , Signal Transduction , Tablets , Tripterygium/chemistry
17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 280-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010534

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F has significant anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and is widely used for treating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and kidney disease, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. The mechanisms underlying its effects may be diverse but they remain unclear, and its toxicity and side effects limit its wider clinical application. This review summarizes the clinical application of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F in recent years, as well as the results of studies into its mechanisms and toxicity, to provide a reference for its future clinical application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pyroptosis/drug effects , Tripterygium
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3358-3364, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773710

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets extract in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis( RA). Clinical trials of treating rheumatoid arthritis with Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets published by Meta-analysis were retrieved from EMbase,PubMed,Clinical Trials,Web of Science,Cochrane Library,CNKI,Wanfang,VIP,CBM and Chi CTR,and comprehensively analyzed. A total of 3 studies were enrolled,the modified Sharp score( m TSS),tender join joint erosions( JE) and joint space narrowing( JSN) of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets group were significant superior to those of control group,including positive drugs methotrexate( MTX) and salazopyridine( SSZ)( P<0. 01). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets had an effect in treating RA. Due to the small sample size,this study shall be verified with high-quality,large-sample-size double-blinded RCTs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antirheumatic Agents , Pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Drug Therapy , Glycosides , Pharmacology , Tablets , Tripterygium , Chemistry
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3365-3367, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773709

ABSTRACT

As entering a new era,our country has introduced a series of favorable policies,which may provide the powerful and new momentum for the development of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM). However,more and more attentions have been paid to the safety and effectiveness of TCM. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. is one of Chinese herbs with clinical efficacy and safety risk. In recent years,accumulating groups have carried out a series of exploratory studies on the clinical rational use of T. wilfordii-related preparations. Considering this situation,the goal of this special issue is to bring together a collection of original research and review articles addressing the expanding field of T. wilfordii. The special issue covers the clinical application,pharmacodynamics,toxicology,pharmacodynamics,resource identification and molecular pharmacognosy of T. wilfordii-related preparations. It focuses on the multi-disciplinary collaborative innovation,and may provide a stimulating resource for the fascinating subject of the safe and rational use of TCM,as well as have important practical significance and promotion value for the healthy development of TCM industry.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tripterygium
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3368-3373, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773708

ABSTRACT

Tripterygium wilfordii preparations,with various biological activities such as immunosuppressive,anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects,are widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis,lupus erythematosus,and nephrotic syndrome. They have definite therapeutic effect,but often cause serious adverse reactions and result in damages to liver,kidney,blood,reproduction,and other systems due to their complex compositions,great toxicity,and narrow margin between the toxic and therapeutic dosages. At present,T. wilfordii preparations produced by different manufacturers exhibit large variations in clinical efficacy and side effects in account of their different chemical compositions and quality fluctuation due to differences in raw materials and production process. However,the existing quality standards are controversial in terms of index components and content limit,which cannot be effectively used for the overall quality control of the preparations. In this paper,the research progress on chemical constituents,quality standard and quality control methods of four T. wilfordii preparations including Tripterygium Tablets,Tripterygium Zongtie Tablets,Tripterygium Shuangceng Tablets and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets was reviewed,in order to provide ideas and reference for the quality improvement of this type of preparations.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Tablets , Tripterygium , Chemistry
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