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1.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 8-13, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the cause of inconsistency between the results of trisomy 7 by expanded non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT-PLUS) and trisomy 18 by prenatal diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A pregnant woman who received genetic counseling at Jiaozuo Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital on July 5, 2020 was selected as the study subject. NIPT-PLUS, systematic ultrasound and interventional prenatal testing were carried out. The middle segment and root of umbilical cord, center and edge of the maternal and fatal surface of the placenta were sampled for the validation by copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The result of NIPT-PLUS indicated that the fetus has trisomy 7. Systematic ultrasound has shown multiple malformations including atrioventricular septal defect, horseshoe kidney, and rocker-bottom feet. However, QF-PCR, chromosomal karyotyping analysis, and CNV-seq of amniotic fluid samples all showed that the fetus was trisomy 18. Validation using multiple placental samples confirmed that the middle segment of the umbilical cord contains trisomy 18, the center of the placenta contained trisomy 7, and other placental sites were mosaicism for trisomy 7 and trisomy 18. Notably, the ratio of trisomy 18 became lower further away from the umbilical cord.@*CONCLUSION@#The false positive results of trisomy 7 and false negative trisomy 18 by NIPT-PLUS was probably due to the existence of placental mosaicism. Strict prenatal diagnosis is required needed aneuploidy is detected by NIPT-PLUS to exclude the influence of placental mosaicisms.


Subject(s)
Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Placenta , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Aneuploidy
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1-7, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the results of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for women with a high risk for fetal aneuploidies.@*METHODS@#A total of 747 cases of prenatal diagnosis by amniocentesis due to high risks by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) were selected from January 2015 to March 2022 in the Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School. The amniotic fluid samples were subjected to chromosomal karyotyping and/or chromosomal microarray analysis. All cases were followed up by searching the birth information or telephone calls, and the results were recorded. 2 test or F test were used for comparing the difference between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Among the 747 pregnant women with a high risk by NIPT, 387 were true positives, and the overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 51.81%. The PPVs for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), trisomy 13 (T13) and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) were 80.24% (199/248), 60% (48/80), 14% (7/50) and 38.97% (106/272), respectively. The PPV for T21 was significantly higher than T18 and T13 (χ2 = 85.216, P < 0.0001). The PPV for other chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were 11.11% (5/45) and 40.74% (22/52), respectively. The PPV for increased X chromosomes was significantly higher than X chromosome decreases (64.29% vs. 22.22%, χ2 = 5.530, P < 0.05). The overall PPV for elder women (≥ 35 years old) was significantly higher than younger women (69.35% vs. 42.39%, χ2 = 49.440, P < 0.0001). For T21 and T18, the PPV of Z ≥ 10 group was significantly higher than that for 3 ≤ Z < 5 group or 5 ≤ Z < 10 group (P < 0.05). Among 52 cases with a high risk for CNVs, the PPV for the ≤ 5 Mb group was significantly higher than the 5 Mb < CNVs < 10 Mb or > 10 Mb groups (60% vs. 30%60% vs. 23.53%, P < 0.05). Among the 387 true positive cases, 322 had opted for induced labor, 53 had delivered with no abnormal growth and development, and 12 were lost during the follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The PPVs for common chromosomal aneuploidies are related to the age and Z value of the pregnant women, which were higher in the elder group and higher Z value group. In addition, the PPV is associated with high risk types. The PPV for T21 was higher than T18 and T13, and that for 45,X was lower than 47,XXX, 47,XYY or 47,XXY syndrome. NIPT therefore has relatively high PPVs for the identification of chromosomal CNVs.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Aged , Adult , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/diagnosis , DNA , Trisomy/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1461-1465, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic analysis for a fetus with confined placental mosaicism (CPM) for trisomy 2 (T2) in conjunct with fetal uniparental disomy (UPD).@*METHODS@#Amniocentesis and chromosomal karyotyping was carried out for a pregnant woman with a high risk for chromosome 2 anomalies indicated by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) and trio-whole exome sequencing (Trio-WES) were carried out. Ultrasonography was used to closely monitor the fetal growth. Multifocal sampling of the placenta was performed after delivery for copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq).@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to have a normal chromosomal karyotype. SNP-array has revealed multiple regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 2. Trio-WES confirmed the presence of maternal UPD for chromosome 2. Ultrasonography has revealed intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios. Intrauterine fetal demise had occurred at 23+4 weeks of gestation. Pathological examination had failed to find salient visceral abnormality. The placenta was proved to contain complete T2 by CNV-seq.@*CONCLUSION@#T2 CPM can cause false positive result for NIPT and may be complicated with fetal UPD, leading to adverse obstetric outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios and intrauterine fetal demise.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniocentesis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetal Death , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Fetus , Mosaicism , Oligohydramnios , Placenta , Trisomy/genetics , Uniparental Disomy/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 933-938, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009237

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), trisomy 13 (T13), sex chromosome aneuploidies, chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications using cell-free fetal DNA from peripheral blood samples of pregnant women.@*METHODS@#A total of 15 237 pregnant women who had undergone NIPT testing at the Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital of Zaozhuang from February 2015 to December 2021 were enrolled in this study. For those with a high risk by NIPT, amniotic fluid samples were collected for G-banding chromosomal karyotyping analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis to verify the consistency of NIPT with results of prenatal diagnosis. All of the women were followed up by telephone for pregnancy outcomes.@*RESULTS@#Among the 15 237 pregnant women, 266 (1.75%) were detected with a high risk for fetal chromosomal abnormality were detected. Among these, 79 (29.7%) were at a high risk for T21, 26 (9.77%) were at a high risk for T18, 9 (3.38%) were at a high risk for T13, 74 (27.82%) were at a high risk for sex chromosome aneuploidies, 12 (4.51%) were at a high risk for other autosomal aneuploidies, and 66 (24.81%) were at a high risk for chromosomal microdeletions or microduplications. 217 women had accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis and respectively 50, 13, 1, 25, 1 and 18 were confirmed with T21, T18, T13, sex chromosome aneuploidies, autosomal aneuploidies and microdeletions/microduplications, and the positive predictive values were 75.76%, 68.42%, 11.11%, 40.32%, 10% and 35.29%, respectively. For 13 042 women (85.59%), the outcome of pregnancy were successfully followed up. During the follow-up, one false negative case of T21 was discovered. No false positive cases for T13 and T18 were found.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT has a sound performance for screening T13, T18 and T21, and is also valuable for screening other autosomal aneuploidies, sex chromosome aneuploidies and chromosomal microdeletions/microduplications.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/diagnosis , Aneuploidy , DNA/genetics , Trisomy/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 922-927, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To validate a fetus with high risk for trisomy 13 suggested by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).@*METHODS@#The fetus was selected as the study subject after the NIPT detection at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences on February 18, 2019. Clinical data of the pregnant woman was collected. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosomal karyotyping analysis and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were carried out on amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood and the couple's peripheral blood samples. Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) was also performed on the placental and amniotic fluid samples following induced labor.@*RESULTS@#The pregnant woman, a 38-year-old G4P1 gravida, was found to have abnormal fetal development by prenatal ultrasonography. NIPT test suggested that the fetus has a high risk for trisomy 13. Chromosomal karyotyping analysis of fetal amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood were 46,XN,add(13)(p10). The result of CMA was arr[hg19]1q41q44(223937972_249224684)×3, with the size of the repeat fragment being approximately 25.29 Mb, the fetal karyotype was thereby revised as 46,XN,der(13)t(1;13)(q41;p10). Chromosomal karyotyping analysis and CMA of the parents' peripheral blood samples showed no obvious abnormality. The CNV-seq analysis of induced placenta revealed mosaicisms of normal karyotype and trisomy 13. The CNV-seq test of induced amniotic fluid confirmed a duplication of chr1:22446001_249220000 region spanning approximately 24.75 Mb, which was in keeping with the CMA results of amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood samples.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT may yield false positive result due to placenta mosaicism. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be recommended to women with a high risk by NIPT test. And analysis of placenta can explain the inconsistency between the results of NIPT and invasive prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Placenta , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Fetus , Amniotic Fluid , Chromosome Aberrations , Trisomy/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 135-142, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the clinical efficacy and health economic value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the prenatal screening of common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.@*METHODS@#10 612 pregnant women from October 2017 to December 2019 presented at the antenatal screening clinic of the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University were selected as the study subjects. Results of NIPT and invasive prenatal diagnosis and follow-up outcome for the 10 612 pregnant women were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Meanwhile, NIPT data for two periods were analyzed for assessing the health economic value of NIPT as the second- or first-tier screening strategy for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13.@*RESULTS@#The NIPT was successful in 10 528 (99.72%) subjects, with the sensitivity for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 being 100%, 92.86% and 100%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) being 89.74%, 61.90% and 44.44%, respectively. The PPV of NIPT for sex chromosome aneuploidies was 34.21%. Except for one false negative case of trisomy 18, the negative predictive value for trisomy 21, trisomy 13 and other chromosomal abnormalities were 100%. For pregnant women with high risk by serological screening, advanced maternal age or abnormal ultrasound soft markers, NIPT has yielded a significantly increased high risk ratio. There was no statistical difference in the PPV of NIPT among pregnant women from each subgroup. NIPT would have higher health economic value as a second-tier screening until 2019, while compared to 2015 ~ 2017, its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as a first-tier screening had declined clearly.@*CONCLUSION@#The screening efficacy of NIPT for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 for a mixed population is significantly better than conventional serological screening, but it is relatively low for sex chromosomal abnormalities. NIPT can also be recommended for populations with relatively high risks along with detailed pre- and post-test genetic counselling. From the perspective of health economics, except for open neural tube defects, it is possible for NIPT to replace the conventional serological screening in the future as its cost continues to decrease.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Fetus
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 604-608, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To define the nature and origin of a chromosomal aberration in a child with unexplained growth and development retardation, and to analyze its genotype-phenotype correlation.@*METHODS@#A child who had presented at the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Zhengzhou University on July 9, 2019 was selected as the study subject. Chromosomal karyotypes of the child and her parents were determined with routine G-banding analysis. Their genomic DNA was also analyzed with single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array).@*RESULTS@#Karyotyping analysis combined with SNP array suggested that the chromosomal karyotype of the child was 46,XX,dup(7)(q34q36.3), whilst no karyotypic abnormality was found in either of her parents. SNP array has identified a de novo 20.6 Mb duplication at 7q34q36.3 [arr[hg19] 7q34q36.3(138335828_158923941)×3] in the child.@*CONCLUSION@#The partial trisomy 7q carried by the child was rated as a de novo pathogenic variant. SNP array can clarify the nature and origin of chromosomal aberrations. Analysis of the correlation between genotype and phenotype can facilitate the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Phenotype , Genotype , Karyotyping , Chromosome Banding
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 513-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981780

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the result of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for fetuses with rare autosomal trisomies (RATs) suggested by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT).@*METHODS@#A total of 69 608 pregnant women who underwent NIPT at Genetics and Prenatal Diagnosis Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2016 to December 2020 were selected as study subjects. The result of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for those with a high risk for RATs were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 69 608 pregnant women, the positive rate of NIPT for high-risk RATs was 0.23% (161/69 608), with trisomy 7 (17.4%, 28/161) and trisomy 8 (12.4%, 20/161) being the most common, and trisomy 17 (0.6%, 1/161) being the rarest. For 98 women who had accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis, 12 fetal chromosomal abnormalities were confirmed, and in 5 cases the results were consistent with those of NIPT, which yielded a positive predictive value of 5.26%. Among the 161 women with a high risk for RATs, 153 (95%) were successfully followed up. 139 fetuses were ultimately born, with only one being clinically abnormal.@*CONCLUSION@#Most women with a high risk for RATs by NIPT have good pregnancy outcomes. Invasive prenatal diagnosis or serial ultrasonography to monitor fetal growth, instead of direct termination of pregnancy, is recommended.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Trisomy/genetics , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Fetus , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 490-494, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with severe heart defect and mosaic trisomy 12, and the correlation between chromosomal abnormalities and clinical manifestations and pregnancy outcome.@*METHODS@#A 33-year-old pregnant woman who presented at Lianyungang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital on May 17, 2021 due to abnormal fetal heart development revealed by ultrasonography was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the fetus were collected. Amniotic fluid sample of the pregnant women was collected and subjected to G-banded chromosomal karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). The CNKI, WanFang and PubMed databases were searched with key words, with the retrieval period set as from June 1, 1992 to June 1, 2022.@*RESULTS@#For the 33-year-old pregnant woman, ultrasonography at 22+6 gestational weeks had revealed abnormal fetal heart development and ectopic pulmonary vein drainage. G-banded karyotyping showed that the fetus has a karyotype of mos 47,XX,+12[1]/46,XX[73], with the mosaicism rate being 1.35%. CMA results suggested that about 18% of fetal chromosome 12 was trisomic. A newborn was delivered at 39 weeks of gestation. Follow-up confirmed severe congenital heart disease, small head circumference, low-set ears and auricular deformity. The infant had died 3 months later. The database search has retrieved 9 reports. Literature review suggested that the liveborn infants with mosaic trisomy 12 had diverse clinical manifestations depending on the affected organs, which had included congenital heart disease and/or other organs and facial dysmorphisms, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes.@*CONCLUSION@#Trisomy 12 mosaicism is an important factor for severe heart defects. The results of ultrasound examination have important value for evaluating the prognosis of the affected fetuses.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Trisomy/genetics , Amniocentesis/methods , Chromosome Disorders , Mosaicism , Fetus , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1057-1061, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941041

ABSTRACT

Trisomy 11 mosaicism is clinically rare, for which making diagnostic and treatment decisions can be challenging. In this study, we used noninvasive prenatal testing, chromosome karyotype analysis, chromosome microarray analysis, copy number variation sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detecting trisomy 11 mosaicism in two cases and provided them with genetic counseling. In one of the cases, the fetus with confined placental mosaicism trisomy 11 presented with severe growth restriction and a placental mosaic level of 44%, and pregnancy was terminated at 25+3 weeks of gestation. In the other case with true low-level fetal mosaicism of trisomy 11, the pregnancy continued after exclusion of the possibility of uniparental disomy and structural abnormalities and careful prenatal counseling. The newborn was followed up for more than one year, and no abnormality was found. Noninvasive prenatal testing is capable of detecting chromosomal mosaicism but may cause missed diagnosis of true fetal mosaicism. For cases with positive noninvasive prenatal testing but a normal karyotype of the fetus, care should be taken in prenatal counseling and pregnancy management.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Chromosome Disorders/diagnosis , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genetic Testing , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Mosaicism , Placenta , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 176-180, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare a quality control sample for non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) and evaluate its quality and stability.@*METHODS@#According to the biological characteristics of cell-free fetal DNA derived from the plasma of pregnant women, the simulated samples were prepared by mixing genomic DNA fragments derived from individuals with trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 and background plasma. The samples were then compared with commercially made quality control products tested on various NIPS platforms and stored at -80℃, -20℃, 4℃, 24℃ and 37℃ for various periods of time.@*RESULTS@#The simulated samples have attained the expected results and could be detected on various platforms and stored at -80℃and -20℃ for at least 30 days.@*CONCLUSION@#A simulated sample was successfully prepared and possessed good stability. It can be used as the quality control sample for NIPS.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , Down Syndrome/genetics , Noninvasive Prenatal Testing , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
12.
Rev. venez. oncol ; 33(1): 2-10, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1147430

ABSTRACT

Presentar nuestra experiencia de 18 años en el tratamiento con radioterapia y evaluar cifras de control tumoral local en pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor de células gigantes tenosinovial difuso sinovitis villonodular pigmentada difusa. 33 pacientes, tratados durante el período 2000-2018. En 19 (57,6 %) se practicó sinovectomía parcial, 10 (30,3 %) fueron tratados con artroplastia y sinovectomía, 4 (12,2 %) con sinovectomía total. 32 pacientes recibieron radioterapia posoperatoria, 1 paciente preoperatoria. Técnica más empleada fue planificación 2D 51,5 % seguida de conformada con planificación 3D (RTC3D) 48,5 %. La dosis total promedio administrada 44 Gy (rango 10,5 - 50). Tiempo promedio de tratamiento radiante 28 días (8-35). Tiempo de seguimiento entre 0,7 - 240,8 meses, mediana 12 meses, promedio 52,1 meses. 26 pacientes (79 %) presentaron mejoría de la sintomatología inicial y 6 (18 %) refirieron estabilidad de los síntomas. La respuesta clínica al tratamiento en relación al tiempo de seguimiento, 12 pacientes (36,4 %) estaban asintomáticos, 10 con un seguimiento mayor a 60 meses; 14 (42,4 %) refieren respuesta clínica satisfactoria, (2 con un seguimiento mayor a 60 meses) 6 pacientes presentaban enfermedad estable, para un control local del 97 %. El 87,9 % presentaron dermatitis grado I, 1 desarrolló dermatitis grado II, 3 no presentaron efectos adversos. La radioterapia es una modalidad de tratamiento muy efectiva como adyuvante a la sinovectomía, observándose altas tasas de control local de la enfermedad con una baja morbilidad(AU)


To report our eighteen-year experience with radiation therapy in the treatment of diffuse tenosinovial giant cell tumor / diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis and to assess local control of the disease. A review of 33 patients with treated with radiation therapy during the period 2000-2018 was done. 19 (57.6 %) partial synovectomy was performed, 10 (30.3 %) underwent arthroplasty plus synovectomy, 4 (12.2 %) total synovectomy. 32 patients received radiotherapy postoperative and 1 pre-operative. Most common technique employed was conventional (2D) in 51.5 % and 3D conformal (3DCRT) in 48.5 %. The average total dose was 44 Gy (range 10.5-50), with a mean treatment time of 28 days (8-35). Follow-up time ranged from 0.7- 240.8 months, median time and mean time of 12 and 52.1 months respectively After RT 26 (79 %) of the patients obtained improvement of the initial symptoms and 6 (18 %) were stable. 12 patients (36.4 %) were asymptomatic with follow-up time longer than 36 months (10 of 12 had follow-up time >60 months), 14 (42.4 %) had significant clinical improvement (2 of 14 had follow-up time >60 months), and 6 had stable disease, local control of 97 %. Complications were few, acute skin toxicity was grade I in 29 (87.9%) and grade II in 1 patient. There was no significant chronic toxicity. Radiation therapy is an effective adjuvant treatment modality after synovectomy in patients with high local control rates and low morbidity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Trisomy/genetics , Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath/etiology , Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath/radiotherapy , Arthroscopy , Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena , Neoplasm Metastasis
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 369-372, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a neonate with Pierre-Robin sequence.@*METHODS@#The child was subjected to chromosomal karyotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array)-based comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis.@*RESULTS@#The child has featured microgthnia, glossoptosis, upper airway obstruction, mandible dehiscence and short neck. He was found to have a karyotype of 46,XY,der(4)add(4)(q34). Her mother's karyotype was determined as 46,XX,t(1;4)(q43;q34), while his father was 46,XY. SNP-array analysis suggested the child to be arr [hg19] 1q42.2q44 (232 527 958-249 202 755)× 3; 4q34.3q35.2 (168 236 901-190 880 409)× 1. The result of SNP-array for both parents was normal. FISH analysis confirmed that his mother has carried a balanced t(1;4)(q42;34) translocation. The aberrant chromosome 4 in the child has derived from his mother's translocation, which gave rise to partial 1q trisomy and 4q monosomy.@*CONCLUSION@#The 1q42.2q44 duplication and 4q34.3q35.2 deletion of the child probably underlay his abnormal phenotype of Pierre-Robin sequence.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Monosomy , Pierre Robin Syndrome/genetics , Translocation, Genetic , Trisomy/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 329-334, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the detection of fetal chromosome copy number variations (CNVs).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 18 661 pregnant women who underwent NIPT were collected. For fetuses suspected for carrying CNVs, amniotic fluid samples were collected for chromosomal karyotyping and/or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA).@*RESULTS@#Among all samples, NIPT suggested that 58 fetuses carried trisomy 21, 18 carried trisomy 18, 19 carried trisomy 13, 1 carried trisomies 18 and 21. Eighty eight women accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis. The results of CMA in 59 cases were consistent with those of NIPT, which yielded a consistency rate of 67.05%. In addition, 37 cases of fetal CNVs were detected by NIPT, of which 19 (15 microdeletions and 4 microduplications) have accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis. In 14 cases, the results were consistency with those of NIPT, with a consistent rate of 73.68%.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT features high sensitivity and accuracy. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be considered for CNVs detected by NIPT, and by tracing its parental origin, it can provide guidance for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetus , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1245-1249, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with mental retardation.@*METHODS@#G-banded karyotyping analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP array) were used to detect the genetic variants within the family, and the origin of the variants was analyzed using UPDtool Statistics software.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 26-year-old female, was found to have a chromosomal karyotype of 46,XX,dup(4)(q28.2q31.3),and SNP array revealed a 25.71 Mb duplication at 4q28.2-q31.3. The duplication was inherited from her father, and her fetus was found to carry the same duplication.@*CONCLUSION@#The duplication of the patient probably underlay the mental retardation. The gender of the carrier and parental origin of the duplication might have led to the variation in their clinical phenotype.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Chromosome Banding , Genetic Testing , Karyotyping , Pedigree , Trisomy/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1045-1050, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the clinical value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the screening of trisomy and copy number variations (CNVs) of chromosomes 21, 18 and 13.@*METHODS@#From January 2015 to December 2019, 40 628 pregnant women underwent NIPT testing using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to test the cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. High-risk pregnant women underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis, while low-risk ones were followed up by telephone.@*RESULTS@#The three most common indications included intermediate risk of serological screening, high risk of serological screening and advanced maternal age. Among all pregnant women, 257 cases were detected as trisomy 21, 18 and 13 (170, 49 and 38 cases, respectively). 227 cases chose invasive prenatal diagnosis, with respectively 122, 28 and 10 cases confirmed. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 81.33% (122/150), 65.12% (28/43), 29.41% (10/34), respectively. Two false negative cases of trisomy 18 were found during follow-up. Meanwhile, NIPT has detected 46 cases (15, 16 and 15 cases, respectively) CNVs on chromosomes 21, 18 and 13, among which 37 cases underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis. There were 5, 3 and 5 positive cases, which yielded a PPV of 41.67% (5/12), 25%(3/12) and 33.33%(5/15), respectively. Two other chromosome CNVs were accidentally discovered among the false positive samples.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the serological screening high-risk group was 52.02%, which was significantly higher than other groups. NIPT has a high sensitivity and specificity for the screening of trisomies 21, 18 and 13, while its accuracy for detecting CNVs of chromosomes 21, 18 and 13 needs to be improved. As a screening method, NIPT has a great clinical value, though there are still limitations of false positive and false negative results.Comprehensive pre- and post-test genetic counseling should be provided to the patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Down Syndrome/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 783-786, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with absent nasal bone by using cytogenetic and molecular techniques.@*METHODS@#Chromosomal karyotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were applied for the diagnoses. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from the parents for chromosomal karyotyping and FISH analysis.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to have a 46,XX,add(21)(p11.2) karyotype, and SNP-array has revealed a 11.3 Mb duplication at 21q22.12q22.3 (hg19: 36 762 648-48 093 361), which was confirmed by FISH. Both parents were found to be normal by chromosomal karyotyping and FISH analysis. The fetus was ultimately found to have a karyotype of 46,XX,der(21)t(21;21)(p11.2;q22.1), resulting a de novo partial trisomy of 21q22.1.@*CONCLUSION@#Combined use of various techniques has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for the fetus.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Nasal Bone , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 771-774, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888392

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To review the clinical data of a fetus with false positive result of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to confined placental mosaicism (CPM).@*METHODS@#Amniotic fluid sample was taken from a pregnant women with high risk for chromosome 16 aneuploidy for karyotyping analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Genetic testing was also conducted on the fetal and maternal surface of the placenta, root of umbilical cord and fetal skin tissue after induced abortion.@*RESULTS@#Cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid sample yielded a normal karyotype. SNP array revealed mosaicism (20%) of trisomy 16 in the fetus. FISH confirmed the presence of mosaicism (25%) for trisomy 16. After induced labor, all sampled sites of placenta were confirmed to contain trisomy 16 by SNP array, while the analysis of fetal skin tissue yielded a negative result.@*CONCLUSION@#CPM is an important factor for false positive NIPT result. Prenatal identification of CPM and strengthened pregnancy management are important to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amniocentesis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Fetus , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Molecular Biology , Mosaicism , Placenta , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
19.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 68-73, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092777

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La hipoplasia de timo es una entidad que puede asociarse a múltiples patologías fetales de ahí la importancia de su diagnóstico y su manejo. OBJETIVO: Utilidad y métodos de evaluación del timo en la ecografía morfológica y valor de la interpretación del análisis genético de los microarrays. CASO CLÍNICO: Se presenta el caso clínico de una gestante en la que se detecta una glándula tímica hipoplásica utilizando para su medición el índice timo-torácico en un plano de tres vasos. Ante estos hallazgos se realiza una amniocentesis para análisis genético usando la QF-PCR y un análisis ARRAY-CGH. RESULTADOS: En el análisis de ARRAY-CGH se observa una duplicación patológica en mosaico compatible con una trisomía del cromosoma 10, alteración genética infrecuente de la que se han reportado unos 50 casos en recién nacidos vivos. Esta alteración presenta un rango muy amplio de alteraciones, desde malformaciones graves a niños completamente normales. En los controles posteriores la gestación es normoevolutiva y finaliza en la semana 40 mediante un parto eutócico de inicio espontáneo naciendo un bebé fenotípicamente normal con un timo de menor tamaño del habitual siendo pronto para saber las consecuencias de esta alteración en su inmunidad. CONCLUSIONES: Por un lado, el timo es una estructura fácil de visualizar en la ecografía morfológica de la semana 20 y su medición mediante el índice timo-torácico nos aporta información útil acerca de posibles patologías fetales. Por otro, tener en cuenta que debemos ser muy cautelosos con la interpretación de resultados de pruebas genéticas cuando éstas no tienen un significado clínico claro.


INTRODUCTION : Thymus hypoplasia can associate many different pathologies so is highly important the diagnosis and the management. OBJECTIVE: Utility and methods in the evaluation of the fetal thymus in the morphological ultrasound and interpretation of microarray results. CLINICAL CASE: We present a case of fetal hypoplastic thymus gland in a pregnant woman. We measure it using the thymus-torax index in a three vessel view. A genetical analysis was made using QF-PCR and Array-CGH. RESULTS: In the ARRAY-CGH analysis it is found a pathological mosaicism that match with chromosome 10 trisomy, a very uncommon genetical alteration with only 50 reported cases. This trisomy can traduce from serious malformations to complete normal children. The parents decide to continue with the pregnancy and in week 40 it finishes with an uncomplicated delivery of a healthy child. In the newborn pediatrics remark a thymus gland smaller than expected but it is early to say if it will have or not consequences in its immunity. CONCLUSION: On one hand the thymus is a structure that we can easily display in the morphological ultrasound in the 20 week of pregnancy and its measure, using the thymus-torax index, can be very helpful in the detection of fetal pathologies. On the other hand, is important being careful when we interpret a genetical alteration without a clear clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Thymus Gland/abnormalities , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy/diagnosis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Aberrations , Microarray Analysis , Amniocentesis
20.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 19(1): 73-79, ene.-abr. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-840643

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: La trisomía del cromosoma 13 es una enfermedad genética con una incidencia reportada de 1x 20 000 nacidos vivos, que resulta de la presencia de un cromosoma 13 supernumerario; es la trisomía reportada menos frecuente en la especie humana y con diferentes expresiones clínicas. Objetivo: Reportar el caso debido a su poca frecuencia y a su forma de presentación clínica. Reporte del caso: Recién nacido a término, que nace en buenas condiciones, bajo peso al nacer, con diagnóstico prenatal de trisomía parcial 13. Evolucionó tempranamente con distres respiratorio siendo necesario el uso de ventilación mecánica y convulsiones. Se retiró de la ventilación con esfuerzo respiratorio efectivo. Otra anomalía presentada fue una comunicación interauricular e insuficiencia cardiaca. Conclusiones: El pronóstico de vida en estos pacientes se relaciona claramente con la gravedad de las malformaciones y a su vez con el grado de alteración cromosómica, es esta forma de presentación la menos complicada y la de mayor sobrevida, por lo que se recomienda una atención médica de alta especialización para lograr la estabilidad de este paciente el mayor tiempo posible.


Background: Trisomy of chromosome 13 is a genetic disease with a reported incidence of 1x 20 000 live births, resulting from the presence of a supernumerary chromosome 13; is the trisomy reported less frequent in the human species and with different clinical expressions. Objective: To report the case due to its infrequency and to its clinical presentation. Case report: Newborn to term, born in good condition, underweight at birth, with prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 13. Early evolution with respiratory distress with the need of using the mechanical ventilation and convulsions. Ventilation was retired with effective respiratory effort. Another anomaly presented was atrial septal defect and heart failure. Conclusions: The prognosis of life in these patients is clearly related to the severity of the malformations and, in turn, to the degree of chromosomal alteration, this form of presentation is the least complicated and the one with the highest survival rate, Of high specialization to achieve the stability of this patient as long as possible.


Subject(s)
Trisomy/genetics , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Disorders
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