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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249472, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364512


Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores. To study the genetic structure of the leaf rust population 20 RAPD primers were evaluated on 15 isolates samples collected in Pakistan. A total of 105 RAPD fragments were amplified with an average of 7 fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 to 12. GL Decamer L-07 and GL Decamer L-01 amplified the highest number of bands (twelve) and primer GL Decamer A-03 amplified the lowest number of bands i.e one. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different that confirms high genetic diversity within the leaf rust population. Rust spores can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor areas. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 74.9% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different areas. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Pakistani leaf rust populations were detected between the leaf rust population in NARC isolate (NARC-4) and AARI-11and the highest similarity was observed between NARC isolates (NARC-4) and (NARC-5). The present study showed the leaf rust population in Pakistan is highly dynamic and variable.

A ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, é a ferrugem mais comum do trigo. O fungo é um parasita obrigatório, capaz de produzir urediniósporos infecciosos. Para estudar a estrutura genética da população de ferrugem da folha, 20 primers RAPD foram avaliados em 15 amostras de isolados coletadas no Paquistão. Um total de 105 fragmentos RAPD foram amplificados com uma média de 7 fragmentos por primer. O número de fragmentos amplificados variou de 1 a 12. GL Decamer L-07 e GL Decamer L-01 amplificaram o maior número de bandas (doze), e o primer GL Decamer A-03 amplificou o menor número de bandas, ou seja, um. Os resultados mostraram que quase todos os isolados investigados eram geneticamente diferentes, o que confirma a alta diversidade genética na população de ferrugem da folha. Os esporos de ferrugem podem seguir o padrão de migração em distâncias curtas e longas para áreas vizinhas. Os resultados indicaram que a maior variabilidade foi revelada por 74,9% da diferenciação genética nas populações de ferrugem. Esses resultados sugeriram que cada população não era completamente idêntica e um alto fluxo gênico ocorreu entre a população de ferrugem da folha de diferentes áreas. A maior diferenciação e distância genética entre as populações de ferrugem da folha do Paquistão foram detectadas entre a população de ferrugem da folha no isolado NARC (NARC-4) e AARI-11 e a maior similaridade foi observada entre os isolados NARC (NARC-4) e (NARC-5). O presente estudo mostrou que a população de ferrugem da folha no Paquistão é altamente dinâmica e variável.

Triticum/parasitology , Biomarkers , Agricultural Pests , Fungi/genetics , Puccinia/genetics
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395


Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.

Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.

Basidiomycota/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Plant Diseases/genetics , Chromosomes, Plant , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 24-25, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396707


The droplet evaporation method (DEM) is based on the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets and is applied mainly for medical diagnosis[1].Here, we present aseries of experiments performed by our team showing DEMs potential also forhomeopathy basic research, in particular, for the investigation of(i) low potencies, (ii) low potency complexes (physical model), and (iii) the action of high potencies (plant-based model).Methods:(i) DEM differentiated significantly between Luffa, Baptisia, Echinacea, and Spongiauntil 4x[2]. Furthermore, the patterns varied in function of the numberof succussion strokes (0, 10, or 100) applied during potentization[3]. The performance of chaotic succussions vs. laminar flow vs. slight mixing during the potentization of Viscum album quercus3x influenced the DEM patterns; the chaotic succussions reduced, whereas laminar flow enhanced the patterns complexity vs. the unsuccussed control.(ii) The addition of Mercurius bijodatus9x to Luffa4x changed significantly the DEM patterns, even if the material quantity present in the 9x potency lied far beyond that of ultrapure water.(iii) Leakages obtained by placing healthy or arsenic-damaged wheat-seeds into Arsenicum album45x orheat-damaged intoZincum metallicum30c vs. water created significantly different DEM structures [4, 5]. Results:The damaged seeds put into the potency created structures characterized by a higher complexity than those obtained from damaged seeds put into control water. Furthermore, the potency action seemed to increase with rising numbers ofsuccussion strokes applied during potentization,ascould be shown by means of DEM patterns and germination rate using the same wheat-seed model[6].In all our studies, the pattern evaluation was computerized (texture and fractal analysis performed by means of ImageJ) or based on deep-learning algorithms and the robustness of the experimental system was checked by means of systematic control experiments.Conclusion:DEM together with other similarmethods has also been reviewed by our team for what concerns theapplication in homeopathy basic research[7].

Triticum , Low Potencies , Basic Homeopathic Research , Lipid Droplets/chemistry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18837, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374558


Abstract Recently, the acetate wheat starch (AWS) has been prepared by acetylation with an acetyl content of 2.42%, containing of rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) with 25.0%; 22.9% and 34.5%, respectively. In this study, this kind of starch was continuously evaluated with the postprandial blood glucose response and determined short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) metabolized from AWS in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy mice by HPLC. The result showed that the mice fed with AWS exhibited a very limited increase in blood glucose level and remained stable for 2 hours after meals efficiently comparing with the control group fed with natural wheat starch (NWS). Simultaneously, the content of SCFAs produced in the caecum of the mice fed with AWS was significantly higher than mice fed with NWS, especially with acetic and propionic acids by 28% and 26%, respectively. Thus, AWS has shown to limit the postprandial hyperglycemia in mice effectively through the resistance to amylase hydrolysis in the small intestine. When going into the caecum, it is fermented to form SCFAs providing a part of energy for the body's activities, avoiding rotten fermentation causing digestive disorders which are inherent restrictions of normal high cellulose and fiber food.

Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Starch/adverse effects , Triticum/classification , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Acetates/agonists , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Food/classification , Glucose/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927419


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) on the expressions of Beclin-1 and GRP78 in spinal dorsal horn in rats with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR), and to explore the possible analgesic mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion for CSR.@*METHODS@#A total of 48 SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a wheat-grain moxibustion group and a wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, 12 rats in each group. The CSR model was prepared by spinal cord insertion method. Three days after modeling, the rats in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time) on the basis of the model group; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group were intraperitoneally injected with 3-MA solution and wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time). The three groups were intervened for 7 days, once a day. The gait score and mechanical pain threshold were observed before treatment and 7 days into treatment; after the treatment, the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 in spinal dorsal horn were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry; the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot method; the autophagosomes and ultrastructure in spinal dorsal horn neurons were observed by electron microscope.@*RESULTS@#After the treatment, compared with the sham operation group, in the model group, the gait score was increased and the mechanical pain threshold was decreased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group and the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, in the wheat-grain moxibustion group, the gait score was decreased and mechanical pain threshold was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was decreased, and the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 were increased (P<0.01). Under electron microscope, the ultrastructure of spinal dorsal horn neurons in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was not significantly damaged, and its structure was basically close to normal, and the number of autophagosomes was more than the other three groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) has analgesic effect on CSR rats. The mechanism may be related to moderately up-regulate the expression of Beclin-1, enhance autophagy and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Animals , Rats , Beclin-1/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger , Radiculopathy/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spondylosis , Triticum/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927418


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion on behavior, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cortisol in the serum, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus in rats with hypothyroidism complicated with depression, and to explore the possible mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion on improving depression in rats with hypothyroidism.@*METHODS@#A total of 32 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and a wheat-grain moxibustion group, 8 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, the rats in the remaining groups were treated with intragastric administration of 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) suspension at 1 mL/100 g, once a day for 4 weeks to establish the rat model of hypothyroidism, and whether the rats were accompanied with depression-like behavior determined through behavioristics evaluation. The rats in the medication group were intervened with euthyrox at 0.9 mL/100 g, once a day, for 4 weeks; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Mingmen" (GV 4), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Pishu" (BL 20), 7 cones each acupoint, once a day, six times a week for 4 weeks. After the intervention, the depression status was observed by behavioristics test; the contents of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), 5-HT and cortisol in the serum were detected by ELISA; the protein expressions of MR and GR in hippocampus were detected by Western blot; the expressions of MR mRNA and GR mRNA in the hippocampus were detected by real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#Before the intervention, compared with the blank group, the scores of open field test (OFT) were decreased and the immobility time of tail suspension test (TST) was prolonged (P<0.05); the serum TSH contents were increased and TT4 contents were decreased (P<0.01) in the other three groups. After the intervention, compared with the model group, the vertical score of OFT was increased and the immobility time of forced swimming test (FST) was prolonged in the medication group (P<0.05), while the scores of three items of OFT were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the immobility time of FST and TST was shortened in the wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the medication group, the immobility time of TST and FST in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was shorter (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were increased (P<0.01, P<0.001), while the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.001). Compared with the model group, the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were increased, while the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were decreased in the medication group and wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR, GR in the hippocampus in the model group was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001); compared with the model group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the medication group were increased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of MR, GR and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, the expression of MR mRNA in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion could significantly improve thyroid function and depression in rats with hypothyroidism. Its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the protein and mRNA expression of MR and GR in the hippocampus, and then affecting the expression of serum cortisol and 5-HT.

Animals , Rats , Acupuncture Points , Depression/therapy , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/metabolism , Serotonin , Thyrotropin/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939830


Folic acid belongs to the group of water-soluble B vitamins and naturally exists in multiple forms in a wide variety of foods such as legumes, vegetables, liver, and milk (Iyer and Tomar, 2009; Lyon et al., 2020). It is involved in many biochemical reactions critical for cell division, such as purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, DNA/RNA biosynthesis, and amino acid metabolism (Iyer and Tomar, 2009). Mammals cannot synthesize folic acid and thus they must acquire it from food. Although folic acid is ubiquitous in foods, folic acid deficiency still often occurs due to various causes such as unhealthy diet (Hildebrand et al., 2021; Iimura et al., 2022), disease-related malabsorption (Arcot and Shrestha, 2005), medication-related depletion (Arcot and Shrestha, 2005), or vitamin B12 deficiency (Fishman et al., 2000). Folic acid deficiency has been associated with several health problems, such as anemia (Carmel, 2005; Bailey and Caudill, 2012), cancer (Duthie, 1999), cardiovascular diseases (Wald et al., 2002), neural tube defects in newborns (van der Put et al., 2001), neuropsychiatric dysfunction (Shea et al., 2002), depression (Falade et al., 2021), inflammatory diseases (Suzuki and Kunisawa, 2015; Jones et al., 2019), and eye diseases (Sijilmassi, 2019). To prevent folic acid deficiency, its daily intake (400 μg/d) has been recommended for adults in the European Union, and its increased intake (600 μg/d) is advised for women before and during pregnancy (FAO/WHO, 2002; IOM, 2004). The New Zealand government mandated the fortification of non-organic wheat flour with folic acid in July 2021, and the UK government mandated the fortification of non-wholemeal wheat flour with folic acid in September 2021 (Haggarty, 2021).

Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Flour , Folic Acid/metabolism , Folic Acid Deficiency/prevention & control , Food, Fortified , Mammals/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939503


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of wheat grain moxibustion combined with rehabilitation training and simple rehabilitation training on finger spasm after stroke.@*METHODS@#A total of 80 patients with finger spasm after stroke were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each group. The control group was given routine rehabilitation training, once a day, 30 min each time. The observation group was given wheat grain moxibustion at Shixuan (EX-UE 11) on the basis of the control group, 8~10 moxibustion cones at each point, once a day. Both groups were treated for 6 days as one course of treatment for 4 courses. The motor function of the affected hand (Fugl-Meyer assessment [FMA] score) and muscle tension (modified Ashworth scale [MAS] grading), surface EMG indexes (wrist dorsiflexor muscle and flexor carpal metacarpal muscle mean square [RMS] value), hand muscle strength (neurological deficit score [NDS]) and daily living ability (modified Barthel index [MBI] score) were compared between the two groups before and after treatment, and clinical efficacy was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, FMA and MBI scores in the 2 groups were increased compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). The RMS value of wrist dorsiflexor muscle and flexor carpal metacarpal muscle in relaxation and passive function testsand and NDS in the 2 groups were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). MAS grading in the 2 groups was improved compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and that in the observation group was better than the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate of the observation group was 92.5% (37/40), which was higher than that of the control group (80.0%, 32/40, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat grain moxibustion at Shixuan (EX-UE 11) combined with rehabilitation training can improve the hand motor function and daily living ability of patients with finger spasm after stroke, improve the degree of spasm and the function of wrist dorsiflexor muscle and flexor carpal metacarpal muscle, the clinical effect is better than simple rehabilitation training.

Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Moxibustion , Spasm/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome , Triticum
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240199, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278495


One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.

Uma das características mais importantes que os produtores de plantas visam melhorar é o rendimento de grãos, que é uma particularidade altamente quantitativa e controlada por várias características agromorfológicas. Foram considerados 12 traços morfológicos como fatores independentes, como Porcentagem de Germinação, Dias para Emergência da Espiga, Altura da Planta, Comprimento da Espiga, Comprimento da Aresta, Perfilhos /Planta, Ângulo da Folha, Sementes /Espiga, Espessura da Planta, Peso de 1000 Grãos, Índice de Colheita e Dias até a Maturidade,. A correlação, regressão e análise de componentes principais (em inglês Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) são usadas para identificar as diferentes características do trigo duro, que contribuem significativamente para o rendimento. As suposições necessárias exigidas para a aplicação da modelagem de regressão foram testadas e todas as suposições são adequadas de acordo com os dados observados. Os outliers são detectados nas observações de características fixas e rendimento de grãos. Algumas observações são detectadas como outliers, mas as observações outliers não mostraram qualquer influência no ajuste da regressão. Para selecionar um modelo de regressão parcimonioso para o trigo duro, foram aplicadas tanto a melhor regressão de subconjunto quanto as técnicas de regressão stepwise. A melhor análise de regressão de subconjunto revelou que a porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos /planta e sementes /espiga tem um efeito de aumento acentuado, enquanto a espessura da planta tem um efeito negativo sobre o rendimento do trigo duro. Enquanto a análise de regressão passo a passo identificou que as características, porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos/planta e sementes /espiga contribuem significativamente para aumentar a produtividade do trigo duro. O coeficiente de correlação simples especificou a correlação positiva significativa do rendimento de grãos com a porcentagem de germinação, número de perfilhos/planta, sementes / espiga e índice de colheita. Esses resultados da análise de correlação direcionaram a importância dos caracteres morfológicos e seu impacto positivo e significativo no rendimento de grãos. Os resultados da PCA mostraram que a maior parte da variação (70%) entre o conjunto de dados pôde ser explicada pelos cinco primeiros componentes. Também identificou que Sementes / Espiga, Peso de 1000 Grãos e Índice de Colheita têm uma maior influência na contribuição para o rendimento do trigo duro. Com base nos resultados, recomenda-se que esses importantes parâmetros possam ser considerados e focados em futuros programas de melhoramento de trigo duro para desenvolver variedades de alto rendimento.

Triticum , Plant Breeding , Pakistan , Phenotype , Seeds
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e253864, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350300


Wheat breeders frequently use generation mean analysis to obtain information on the type of gene action involved in inheriting a trait to choose the helpful breeding procedure for trait improvement. The present study was carried out to study the inter-allelic and intra-allelic gene action and inheritance of glaucousness, earliness and yield traits in a bread wheat cross between divergent parents in glaucousness and yield traits; namely Mut-2 (P1) and Sakha 93 (P2).The experimental material included six populations, i.e. P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 for this wheat cross. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used, and a six parameters model was applied. Additive effects were generally more critical than dominance for all studied traits, except for plant height (PH) and grain yield/plant (GYPP). The duplicate epistasis was observed in spike length; SL, spikes/plant; SPP and days to heading; DTH. All six types of allelic and non-allelic interaction effects controlled SL, GYPP, DTH and glaucousness. All three types of epistasis, i.e. additive x additive, additive x dominance, and dominance x dominance, are essential in determining the inheritance of four traits (SL, GYPP, DTH and glaucousness). Dominance × dominance effects were higher in magnitude than additive × dominance and additive × additive in most traits. The average degree of dominance was minor than unity in six traits (glaucousness, grains/spike, spike weight, days to maturity, 100-grain weight and SL), indicating partial dominance and selection for these traits might be more effective in early generations. Meanwhile, the remaining traits (PH, SPP, GYPP and DTH) had a degree of dominance more than unity, indicating that overdominance gene effects control such traits and it is preferable to postpone selection to later generations. The highest values of narrow-sense heritability and genetic advance were recorded by glaucousness trait followed by SL and SPP, indicating that selection in segregating generations would be more effective than other traits.

Os criadores de trigo frequentemente usam a análise da média de geração para obter informações sobre o tipo de ação do gene envolvida na herança de uma característica para escolher o procedimento de melhoramento útil para o aprimoramento da característica. O presente estudo foi conduzido para estudar a ação do gene interalélico e intraalélico e a herança de características de glaucosidade, precocidade e produção em um cruzamento de trigo mole entre pais divergentes em glaucosidade e características de produção; nomeadamente Mut-2 (P1) e Sakha 93 (P2). O material experimental incluiu seis populações, ou seja, P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 e BC2 para este cruzamento de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com três repetições e aplicado um modelo de seis parâmetros. Os efeitos aditivos foram geralmente mais críticos do que a dominância para todas as características estudadas, exceto para altura da planta (AP) e rendimento de grãos / planta (GYPP). A epistasia duplicada foi observada no comprimento da ponta; SL, espigas/planta; SPP e dias para o cabeçalho; DTH. Todos os seis tipos de efeitos de interação alélica e não alélica controlaram SL, GYPP, DTH e glaucosidade. Todos os três tipos de epistasia, ou seja, aditivo x aditivo, aditivo x dominância e dominância x dominância, são essenciais na determinação da herança de quatro características (SL, GYPP, DTH e glaucosidade). Os efeitos de dominância × dominância foram maiores em magnitude do que aditivo × dominância e aditivo × aditivo na maioria das características. O grau médio de dominância foi menor do que a unidade em seis características (glaucosidade, grãos / espiga, peso da espiga, dias até a maturidade, peso de 100 grãos e SL), indicando dominância parcial, e a seleção para essas características pode ser mais eficaz nas gerações iniciais. Enquanto isso, os traços restantes (PH, SPP, GYPP e DTH) tiveram um grau de dominância maior do que a unidade, indicando que os efeitos do gene de superdominância controlam tais traços e é preferível adiar a seleção para gerações posteriores. Os maiores valores de herdabilidade no sentido restrito e avanço genético foram registrados pelo traço de glaucosidade seguido por SL e SPP, indicando que a seleção em gerações segregadas seria mais eficaz do que outros caracteres.

Triticum/genetics , Bread , Phenotype , Crosses, Genetic
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00342020, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416869


The identification of the application stage and correct dose of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide is important so that wheat is not harmed. In view of this, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2,4-D doses applied at different development stages of wheat crop. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, arranged in a 4 × 5 factorial scheme, with four replications. In factor A, the application stages (before tillering, tillering, first node and booting) were allocated and the doses of 2,4-D (0, 349, 698, 1047 and 1396 g.ha­1) were allocated in factor B. The variables evaluated were phytotoxicity at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application of the treatments (DAT), photosynthetic activity, CO2 internal concentration, stomatal conductance, efficient water use and carboxylation efficiency. The number of spikes·m­2, spike length and number of full and sterile grains were determined in the preharvest. Thousand grain mass, grain yield and hectoliter weight were determined after harvest. The results demonstrate that the herbicide caused phytotoxicity to wheat, being greater in increasing doses and mainly before tillering, causing grain sterility and decreased productivity. The other yield components did not present difference when increasing the dose and application in different stages as well as the physiological variables. The increase of the 2,4-D doses applied before tillering and in the booting stage caused linear decrease in wheat grain yield.

Triticum/growth & development , 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid/administration & dosage , Herbicides/analysis , Herbicides/toxicity , Life Cycle Stages
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 719-727, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153409


Abstract Six different bread wheat genotypes; two Egyptian commercial varieties (control); Giza-168 and Gemmeiza-11, and four promising lines; L84 and L148, resulted via hybridization and M10 and M34 via radiation mutation program) were rheologically evaluated using extensograph and for protein, analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The radiation mutant M10 and M34 had the highest maximum resistance which is a very good indicator of strong gluten. The amount of gluten content was higher in M10, L148, and M34 compared to the control samples Gz168 and Gm11. Sulfide amino acids (CYS and MET) are slightly higher in M10. The electrophoretic results and amino acid analyzers show that the best technological quality was exhibited by M10. Radiation mutants wheat genotypes have a protein with good characteristics, mainly gluten which is significantly higher compared to control samples. The rheological properties measured as extensograph and gel electrophoresis were much better in irradiated lines M10 and M34.

Resumo Seis diferentes genótipos de trigo de pão, duas variedades comerciais egípcias (controle) - Giza-168 e Gemmeiza-11 - e quatro linhas promissoras - L84 e L148, obtidas via hibridação, e M10 e M34, via programa de mutação por radiação - foram avaliados reologicamente por meio de extensógrafo, enquanto, para proteínas, foram feitas análises utilizando eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Os mutantes de radiação M10 e M34 apresentaram a maior resistência máxima, o que é um indicador muito bom de glúten forte. A quantidade de glúten foi maior em M10, L148 e M34 em comparação com as amostras de controle Gz168 e Gm11. Os aminoácidos sulfurados (CYS e MET) são um pouco mais altos no M10. Os resultados eletroforéticos e analisadores de aminoácidos mostram que a melhor qualidade tecnológica foi exibida pelo M10. Os genótipos de trigo mutantes da radiação possuem uma proteína com boas características, principalmente o glúten, que é significativamente maior em comparação às amostras do grupo controle. As propriedades reológicas medidas, como extensógrafo e eletroforese em gel, foram muito melhores nas linhas irradiadas M10 e M34.

Bread , Flour , Triticum/genetics , Genotype , Glutens
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 684-691, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153408


Abstract Plants adjust their shoot growth to acclimate to changing environmental factors, such as to enhanced Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. However, people have ignored that plant roots can also respond to UV-B light. Here, we find the morphology curled wheat roots under UV-B radiation, that we call, "bending roots." The curly region is the transition zone of the root after observed at the cellular level. After exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation for 2 d (10.08 KJ/m2/d), cell size decreased and actin filaments gathered in wheat roots. We also find that H2O2 production increased and that content of the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased remarkably. The pharmacological experiment revealed that actin filaments gathered and polymerized into bundles in the wheat root cells after irrigated H2O2 and IAA. These results indicated that actin filaments changed their distribution and formed the "bending root," which was related to H2O2 production and increase in IAA. Overall, actin filaments in wheat root cells could be a subcellular target of UV-B radiation, and its disruption determines root morphology.

Resumo As plantas ajustam o crescimento da parte aérea para se adaptarem a fatores ambientais variáveis, como o aumento da radiação ultravioleta B (UVB). No entanto, as pessoas ignoram que as raízes das plantas também podem responder à luz UVB. Neste estudo, verificamos a morfologia das raízes enroladas de trigo sob radiação UVB, o que chamamos de "raízes dobradas". A região encaracolada é a zona de transição da raiz no nível celular. Depois de exposição à radiação UVB aprimorada por 2 dias (10,08 KJ/m2/d), o tamanho das células diminuiu, e os filamentos de actina se reuniram. Também constatamos que a produção de H2O2 aumentou e que o conteúdo do ácido indol-3-acético (IAA) aumentou notavelmente. O experimento farmacológico revelou que os filamentos de actina se reuniram e polimerizaram em feixes nas células da raiz de trigo após irrigação com H2O2 e IAA. Esses resultados indicam que os filamentos de actina alteraram sua distribuição e formaram a "raiz dobrada", relacionada à produção de H2O2 e ao aumento do IAA. No geral, os filamentos de actina nas células da raiz de trigo podem ser um alvo subcelular da radiação UVB, e sua interrupção determina a morfologia da raiz.

Triticum , Hydrogen Peroxide , Ultraviolet Rays , Actin Cytoskeleton , Plant Roots
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(4): 380-389, ago. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388674


OBJETIVO: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad de Triticum vulgare en el tratamiento del síndrome genitourinario de la menopausia (SGUM). MÉTODO: Estudio cuasiexperimental (antes-después, con grupo control) en mujeres posmenopáusicas (amenorrea ≥ 36 meses, hormona estimulante del folículo > 40 U/l y estradiol < 25 pg/ml), sexualmente activas, con un índice de maduración vaginal (IMV) < 50 y pH ≥ 5, citología cervical negativa (Papanicolaou) y diagnóstico de SGUM, atendidas en el programa de climaterio y menopausia de una clínica privada de mediana complejidad, en Armenia, Quindío (Colombia). Se seleccionaron 207 mujeres con edad promedio de 55,19 ± 7,28 años. Se realizó un muestreo consecutivo. Se asignaron dos grupos: A (n = 105), que recibió T. vulgare, y B (n = 102), que recibió placebo. Se hizo seguimiento al inicio (basal) y 4, 8 y 12 semanas después, utilizando el IMV y el Índice de Función Sexual Femenina (IFSF). Los síntomas del SGUM se evaluaron con una escala visual analógica (EVA). Se aplicó estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: La puntuación media del IMV fue mayor en las semanas 4, 8 y 12 en todas las mujeres del grupo A (p = 0,01). Se observó una diferencia significativa en el promedio final de la puntuación del IMV de T. vulgare frente al placebo (p < 0,05). Al final del estudio, el grupo A mostró una mejoría significativa en la puntuación promedio del IFSF, en comparación con el grupo B (p < 0,001). Las puntuaciones de la EVA presentaron una disminución progresiva a lo largo del estudio, pero fueron comparables entre los dos grupos (p = 0,813). CONCLUSIONES: T. vulgare es una efectiva, segura e innovadora alternativa, no hormonal, para el tratamiento del SGUM. No se registraron eventos adversos, por lo que se demostró su seguridad.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Triticum vulgare in the treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. METHOD: Quasi-experimental study (before-after, with control group) in postmenopausal women (amenorrhea ≥ 36 months, FSH > 40 U/L and estradiol < 25 pg/ml), sexually active, with a vaginal maturation index (VMI) < 50 and pH ≥ 5, negative cervical cytology (Papanicolaou) and with a diagnosis of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (SGUM); who were treated in the climacteric and menopause program of a private clinic of medium complexity, in Armenia, Quindío (Colombia). 207 participants were selected, with a mean age of 55.19 ± 7.28 years. A consecutive sampling was carried out. Two groups were assigned: A (n = 105) with T. vulgare and B (n = 102) with placebo. Follow-up was done at baseline (baseline), four, eight and twelve weeks later, using the VMI and the female sexual function index (IFSF). Symptoms of SGUM were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Descriptive statistics were applied. RESULTS: The mean score of the IMV was higher in weeks 4, 8 and 12 in all the participants of group A (p = 0.01). A significant difference was observed in the final mean MVI score of T. vulgare versus placebo (p < 0.05). At the end of the study, group A showed a significant improvement in the mean IFSF score, compared to placebo (p < 0.001). The VAS scores showed a progressive decrease throughout the study but were comparable between the two groups (p = 0.813). CONCLUSIONS: T. vulgare is an effective, safe and innovative non-hormonal alternative for the treatment of SGUM. No adverse events were recorded, guaranteeing their safety.

Humans , Female , Triticum/chemistry , Menopause , Female Urogenital Diseases/drug therapy , Pruritus Vulvae/drug therapy , Dyspareunia/drug therapy , Sexual Health
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-18, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284378


INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad crónica que conlleva a la aparición de enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). Pacientes con sobrepeso, obesidad o DM2 presentan generalmente un perfil lipídico con niveles sanguíneos elevados de colesterol, triglicéridos, LDL (lipoproteínas de baja densidad) y VLDL-c (lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad unidas al colesterol) y niveles bajos de HDL-c (lipoproteínas de alta densidad). Pseudocereales como Amaranthus caudatus (Amaranto), Chenopodium quinoa (Quinua) y Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) presentes en la región Andina de Bolivia, tienen propiedades potencialmente nutracéuticas, con un alto contenido de macronutrientes y diversos fitoquímicos con actividad biológica como alcaloides de quinolizidina, saponinas, triterpenos y γ-conglutina. OBJETIVO: determinar el efecto del consumo de un producto natural elaborado a base de granos de Amaranto, Quinua y Tarwi (AQT), sobre el perfil lipídico en pacientes con obesidad y DM2. MÉTODO: estudio clínico preliminar controlado, prospectivo, doble ciego y cruzado realizado en el Área de Farmacología del Instituto de Investigaciones Fármaco Bioquímicas de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. RESULTADOS: el consumo de un producto elaborado a base de harinas de Amaranto, Quinua y Tarwi (AQT) durante 3 meses, promovió la disminución significativa de colesterol, triglicéridos, LDL y VLDLc en pacientes diabéticos (DM2) con sobrepeso (IMC>25), sin embargo, los niveles de HDL-c no sufrieron cambios significativos. CONCLUSIÓN: por tanto, el producto AQT tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre el perfil lipídico en pacientes con sobrepeso u obesidad y con riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares y DM2.

INTRODUCTION: obesity is a chronic disease that leads to the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Overweight, obese or T2DM patients generally have a lipid profile with high blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and VLDL-c (very low-density lipoprotein) and low levels of HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein of cholesterol). Pseudocereals such as Amaranthus caudatus (Amaranth), Chenopodium quinoa (Quinoa) and Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) present in the Andean region of Bolivia, have potentially nutraceutical properties, with a high content of macronutrients and various phytochemicals with biological activity such as quinolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes and γ-conglutin. OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect due to natural product intake made with Amaranth, Quinoa and Tarwi (AQT) on the lipid profile in patients with obesity and T2DM. METHOD: controlled, prospective, double blinded and crossed Preliminary Clinical Assay, performed in the Pharmacology Area of Instituto de Investigaciones Fármaco Bioquímicas from Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. RESULTS: the intake of a product made from Amaranth, Quinoa and Tarwi (AQT) flour for 3 months, promoted a significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-c in overweight diabetic patients (DM2) (BMI> 25) However, HDL-c levels did not undergo significant changes. CONCLUSION: therefore, the AQT product has beneficial effects on the lipid profile in patients who are overweight or obese and at risk of cardiovascular disease and T2DM.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Triticum , Amaranthus , Chenopodium quinoa , Lipids , Obesity
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 304-309, oct. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292011


Introducción. El enriquecimiento de la harina de trigo es una de las estrategias de salud pública recomendadas para prevenir las deficiencias de micronutrientes, entre ellos el hierro. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el contenido de hierro en harina de trigo enriquecida y sus derivados, y la contribución de estos a las recomendaciones nutricionales en niños. Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, basado en la metodología de estudio de dieta total. Se analizaron la harina de trigo enriquecida (según la ley 25630) y sus derivados más consumidos. Para seleccionar los alimentos, se realizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo y recordatorio de 24 horas a los padres de niños con edades entre 6 meses y 7 años. Se determinó la concentración de hierro en los alimentos mediante absorción atómica y se evaluó su contribución al requerimiento promedio estimado. Resultados. La harina enriquecida y sus derivados tuvieron la cantidad de hierro esperada, excepto el pan francés y el pan rallado. La contribución a los requerimientos de hierro de los alimentos evaluados fue el 7 % en niños de 6 meses a 1 año, el 81 % en el grupo de 1 a 3 años y el 45 % en los mayores de 4 años. Conclusiones. Excepto el pan francés y el pan rallado, las harinas y sus derivados analizados presentaron el nivel de enriquecimiento esperado. El consumo de estos alimentos no aporta cantidades significativas de hierro en los lactantes, pero sí en los niños mayores de 1 año.

Introduction. Wheat flour enrichment is a public health strategy recommended to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, including iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine iron content in enriched wheat flour and flour products and their contribution to nutritional recommendations for children. Population and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study based on the total diet study method. Enriched wheat flour (as per Law no. 25630) and the most frequently consumed flour products were analyzed. Products were selected using a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and a 24-hour recall interview with the parents of children aged 6 months to 7 years. Food iron levels were determined based on atomic absorption spectrometry and their contribution to the estimated average requirement was assessed. Results. Enriched flour and flour products showed the expected iron amount, except for French bread and breadcrumbs. The contribution of studied products to iron requirements was 7 % in children aged 6 months to 1 year, 81 % in those aged 1-3 years, and 45 % in those older than 4 years. Conclusions. Except for French bread and breadcrumbs, studied flour and flour products showed the expected enrichment level. The consumption of this type of food does not provide significant amounts of iron to infants, but it does to children older than 1 year.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Food, Fortified , Flour , Iron , Triticum , Cross-Sectional Studies
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200149, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285552


HIGHLIGHTS Yoghurts were supplemented with milky and dough stage wheat grain flours. Total antioxidant capacity was improved by wheat grain flour supplementation. Milky stage wheat provided higher fructan content than that of dough stage wheat. Fermentation reduced phytic acid levels in yoghurts containing wheat grain flours.

Abstract Experimental design was performed by using immature wheat grain (IWG) harvested in two different maturation stages for set-type yoghurt production. IWG was harvested at milky (20 days after anthesis) and dough (30 days after anthesis) stages and was milled. Yoghurt samples were supplemented with milky stage grain flour (MSGF) and dough stage grain flour (DSGF) at 1, 2, and 3% concentrations except for control. All treatments were evaluated with respect to physicochemical, antioxidative, microbiological, textural, and sensorial aspects throughout the 28 days of storage. Phytic acid content of all samples diminished depending on increasing pH values over the storage while it was found higher in MSGF fortified yoghurts. The highest fructan content was determined in yoghurt fortified with 3% MSGF. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of yoghurts were improved with IWG fortification. MSGF showed higher antioxidant activity as compared to DSGF. On the other hand, DSGF addition presented better water holding capacity in comparison with MSGF. Likewise, DSGF provided higher firmness and consistency values. Firmness was enhanced with IWG supplementation by reducing syneresis except 1% MSGF added samples. The addition of IWG was found to slightly increase the growth of yoghurt bacteria. Both DSGF and MSGF had adverse effect on the sensory characteristics of yoghurts with their increasing concentrations. Based on the results of this study, to obtain better textural properties and higher antioxidant activity, IWG in different ripening stages can be tried with half combinations (total 3%) in yoghurt. Also, sensorial properties can be improved by flavoring agents.

Triticum , Yogurt/analysis , Fructans , Antioxidants
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1333-1337, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921055


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of acupuncture combined with wheat-grain moxibustion and oral sertraline hydrochloride dispersible tablets in the treatment of mild to moderate postpartum depression.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with mild to moderate postpartum depression were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. Both groups were treated with psychotherapy. The control group was treated with oral sertraline hydrochloride dispersible tablets, 50 mg each time, once a day; the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Qihai (CV 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Xuehai (SP 10), Hegu (LI 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Taixi (KI 3), etc. combined with wheat-grain moxibustion at Xinshu (BL 15), Pishu (BL 20), Ganshu (BL 18) and Shenshu (BL 23), once every other day, 3 times a week. Both groups were treated for 4 weeks as a course, with 2 consecutive courses of treatment. Before and after treatment and follow-up of 3 months after the end of treatment, the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and World Health Organization quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) score of the two groups were compared, and the clinical effect was assessed.@*RESULTS@#After treatment and during follow-up, the HAMD and EPDS scores of the two groups were lower than before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with wheat-grain moxibustion can improve the depressive symptoms of patients with mild to moderate postpartum depression and improve their quality of life, and the clinical effect is more lasting and stable than oral sertraline hydrochloride dispersible tablets.

Female , Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Depression, Postpartum/therapy , Moxibustion , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome , Triticum