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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Plant Diseases/genetics , Chromosomes, Plant , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e253864, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350300

ABSTRACT

Abstract Wheat breeders frequently use generation mean analysis to obtain information on the type of gene action involved in inheriting a trait to choose the helpful breeding procedure for trait improvement. The present study was carried out to study the inter-allelic and intra-allelic gene action and inheritance of glaucousness, earliness and yield traits in a bread wheat cross between divergent parents in glaucousness and yield traits; namely Mut-2 (P1) and Sakha 93 (P2). The experimental material included six populations, i.e. P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 for this wheat cross. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used, and a six parameters model was applied. Additive effects were generally more critical than dominance for all studied traits, except for plant height (PH) and grain yield/plant (GYPP). The duplicate epistasis was observed in spike length; SL, spikes/plant; SPP and days to heading; DTH. All six types of allelic and non-allelic interaction effects controlled SL, GYPP, DTH and glaucousness. All three types of epistasis, i.e. additive x additive, additive x dominance, and dominance x dominance, are essential in determining the inheritance of four traits (SL, GYPP, DTH and glaucousness). Dominance × dominance effects were higher in magnitude than additive × dominance and additive × additive in most traits. The average degree of dominance was minor than unity in six traits (glaucousness, grains/spike, spike weight, days to maturity, 100-grain weight and SL), indicating partial dominance and selection for these traits might be more effective in early generations. Meanwhile, the remaining traits (PH, SPP, GYPP and DTH) had a degree of dominance more than unity, indicating that overdominance gene effects control such traits and it is preferable to postpone selection to later generations. The highest values of narrow-sense heritability and genetic advance were recorded by glaucousness trait followed by SL and SPP, indicating that selection in segregating generations would be more effective than other traits.


Resumo Os criadores de trigo frequentemente usam a análise da média de geração para obter informações sobre o tipo de ação do gene envolvida na herança de uma característica para escolher o procedimento de melhoramento útil para o aprimoramento da característica. O presente estudo foi conduzido para estudar a ação do gene interalélico e intraalélico e a herança de características de glaucosidade, precocidade e produção em um cruzamento de trigo mole entre pais divergentes em glaucosidade e características de produção; nomeadamente Mut-2 (P1) e Sakha 93 (P2). O material experimental incluiu seis populações, ou seja, P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 e BC2 para este cruzamento de trigo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com três repetições e aplicado um modelo de seis parâmetros. Os efeitos aditivos foram geralmente mais críticos do que a dominância para todas as características estudadas, exceto para altura da planta (AP) e rendimento de grãos / planta (GYPP). A epistasia duplicada foi observada no comprimento da ponta; SL, espigas/planta; SPP e dias para o cabeçalho; DTH. Todos os seis tipos de efeitos de interação alélica e não alélica controlaram SL, GYPP, DTH e glaucosidade. Todos os três tipos de epistasia, ou seja, aditivo x aditivo, aditivo x dominância e dominância x dominância, são essenciais na determinação da herança de quatro características (SL, GYPP, DTH e glaucosidade). Os efeitos de dominância × dominância foram maiores em magnitude do que aditivo × dominância e aditivo × aditivo na maioria das características. O grau médio de dominância foi menor do que a unidade em seis características (glaucosidade, grãos / espiga, peso da espiga, dias até a maturidade, peso de 100 grãos e SL), indicando dominância parcial, e a seleção para essas características pode ser mais eficaz nas gerações iniciais. Enquanto isso, os traços restantes (PH, SPP, GYPP e DTH) tiveram um grau de dominância maior do que a unidade, indicando que os efeitos do gene de superdominância controlam tais traços e é preferível adiar a seleção para gerações posteriores. Os maiores valores de herdabilidade no sentido restrito e avanço genético foram registrados pelo traço de glaucosidade seguido por SL e SPP, indicando que a seleção em gerações segregadas seria mais eficaz do que outros caracteres.


Subject(s)
Triticum/genetics , Bread , Phenotype , Crosses, Genetic
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 719-727, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153409

ABSTRACT

Abstract Six different bread wheat genotypes; two Egyptian commercial varieties (control); Giza-168 and Gemmeiza-11, and four promising lines; L84 and L148, resulted via hybridization and M10 and M34 via radiation mutation program) were rheologically evaluated using extensograph and for protein, analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The radiation mutant M10 and M34 had the highest maximum resistance which is a very good indicator of strong gluten. The amount of gluten content was higher in M10, L148, and M34 compared to the control samples Gz168 and Gm11. Sulfide amino acids (CYS and MET) are slightly higher in M10. The electrophoretic results and amino acid analyzers show that the best technological quality was exhibited by M10. Radiation mutants wheat genotypes have a protein with good characteristics, mainly gluten which is significantly higher compared to control samples. The rheological properties measured as extensograph and gel electrophoresis were much better in irradiated lines M10 and M34.


Resumo Seis diferentes genótipos de trigo de pão, duas variedades comerciais egípcias (controle) - Giza-168 e Gemmeiza-11 - e quatro linhas promissoras - L84 e L148, obtidas via hibridação, e M10 e M34, via programa de mutação por radiação - foram avaliados reologicamente por meio de extensógrafo, enquanto, para proteínas, foram feitas análises utilizando eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Os mutantes de radiação M10 e M34 apresentaram a maior resistência máxima, o que é um indicador muito bom de glúten forte. A quantidade de glúten foi maior em M10, L148 e M34 em comparação com as amostras de controle Gz168 e Gm11. Os aminoácidos sulfurados (CYS e MET) são um pouco mais altos no M10. Os resultados eletroforéticos e analisadores de aminoácidos mostram que a melhor qualidade tecnológica foi exibida pelo M10. Os genótipos de trigo mutantes da radiação possuem uma proteína com boas características, principalmente o glúten, que é significativamente maior em comparação às amostras do grupo controle. As propriedades reológicas medidas, como extensógrafo e eletroforese em gel, foram muito melhores nas linhas irradiadas M10 e M34.


Subject(s)
Bread , Flour , Triticum/genetics , Genotype , Glutens
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2703-2718, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887835

ABSTRACT

Plants with alien genomic components (alien chromosomes / chromosomal fragments / genes) are important materials for genomic research and crop improvement. To date, four strategies based on trait observation, chromosome analysis, specific proteins, and DNA sequences have been developed for the identification of alien genomic components. Among them, DNA sequence-based molecular markers are mainly used to identify alien genomic components. This review summarized several molecular markers for identification of alien genomic components in wheat, cabbage and other important crops. We also compared the characteristics of nine common molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeat (SSR), insertion-deletion (InDel) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In general, the accuracy of using a combination of different identification methods is higher than using a single identification method. We analyzed the application of different combination of identification methods, and provided the best combination for wheat, brassica and other crops. High-throughput detection can be easily achieved by using the new generation molecular markers such as InDel and SNP, which can be used to determine the precise localization of alien introgression genes. To increase the identification efficiency, other new identification methods, such as microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), may also be included.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Plant , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Genome, Plant/genetics , Genomics , Triticum/genetics
5.
Biol. Res ; 53: 23, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) genes are a class of plant specific transcription factors (TFs), which play important roles in plant development, growth and abiotic stress responses. The wheat ASRs have not been described in genome-wide yet. METHODS: We predicted the transmembrane regions and subcellular localization using the TMHMM server, and Plant-mPLoc server and CELLO v2.5, respectively. Then the phylogeny tree was built by MEGA7. The exon-intron structures, conserved motifs and TFs binding sites were analyzed by GSDS, MEME program and PlantRegMap, respectively. RESULTS: In wheat, 33ASR genes were identified through a genome-wide survey and classified into six groups. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the TaASR proteins in the same group tightly clustered together, compared with those from other species. Duplication analysis indicated that the TaASR gene family has expanded mainly through tandem and segmental duplication events. Similar gene structures and conserved protein motifs of TaASRs in wheat were identified in the same groups. ASR genes contained various TF binding cites associated with the stress responses in the promoter region. Gene expression was generally associated with the expected group-specific expression pattern in five tissues, including grain, leaf, root, spike and stem, indicating the broad conservation of ASR genes function during wheat evolution. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that several ASRs were up-regulated in response to NaCl and PEG stress. CONCLUSION: We identified ASR genes in wheat and found that gene duplication events are the main driving force for ASR gene evolution in wheat. The expression of wheat ASR genes was modulated in responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including drought/osmotic and salt stress. The results provided important information for further identifications of the functions of wheat ASR genes and candidate genes for high abiotic stress tolerant wheat breeding.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Abscisic Acid/analysis , Genome, Plant/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Droughts , Phylogeny , Transcription Factors/genetics , Triticum/classification , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 11-17, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the most important crops cultivated all over the world. New high-yielding cultivars that are more resistant to fungal diseases have been permanently developed. The present study aimed at the possibility of accelerating the process of breeding new cultivars, resistant to eyespot, by using doubled haploids (DH) system supported by marker-assisted selection. RESULTS: Two highly resistant breeding lines (KBP 0916 and KBH 4942/05) carrying Pch1 gene were crossed with the elite wheat genotypes. Hybrid plants of early generations were analyzed using endopeptidase EpD1 and two SSR markers linked to the Pch1 locus. Selected homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for the Pch1-linked EpD1b allele were used to produce haploid plants. Molecular analyses were performed on haploids to identify plants possessing Pch1 gene. Chromosome doubling was performed only on haploid plants with Pch1 gene. Finally, 65 DH lines carrying eyespot resistance gene Pch1 and 30 lines without this gene were chosen for the eyespot resistance phenotyping in a field experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the experiment confirmed higher resistance to eyespot of the genotypes with Pch1 in comparison to those without this gene. This indicates the efficiency of selection at the haploid level.


Subject(s)
Selection, Genetic , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism , Haploidy , Plant Diseases , Breeding/methods , Gene Expression , Microsatellite Repeats , Genotype
7.
Biol. Res ; 52: 14, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress affecting global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Exploration of drought-tolerant genes is essential for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in wheat. Previous studies have shown that some histone encoding genes are involved in plant drought tolerance. However, whether the H2B family genes are involved in drought stress response remains unclear. METHODS: Here, we identified a wheat histone H2B family gene, TaH2B-7D, which was significantly up-regulated under drought stress conditions. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to further verify the function of TaH2B-7D in wheat drought tolerance. The phenotypic and physiological changes were examined in the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants. RESULTS: In the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants, relative electrolyte leakage rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content significantly increased, while relative water content (RWC) and proline content significantly decreased compared with those in the non-knocked-down plants under drought stress conditions. TaH2B-7D knock-down plants exhibited severe sagging, wilting and dwarf phenotypes under drought stress conditions, but not in the non-knocked-down plants, suggesting that the former were more sensitive to drought stress. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that TaH2B-7D potentially plays a vital role in conferring drought tolerance in wheat.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gene Silencing , Droughts , Phenotype , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Triticum/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plant Physiological Phenomena/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1615-1623, nov.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910798

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de dois genótipos de trigo de duplo propósito, BRS Tarumã e BRS Umbu, submetidos ao pastejo com vacas em lactação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (genótipos), três repetições (piquetes) e medidas repetidas no tempo (pastejos). Avaliaram-se a precocidade, a composição estrutural dos trigos, as produções de forragem e de biomassa de lâminas foliares, as taxas de acúmulo diário de forragem e de lâminas foliares, a taxa de lotação, as ofertas de forragem e de lâminas foliares, a eficiência de pastejo, o consumo aparente e a produção de grãos. O trigo mais precoce para produção de forragem foi o BRS Umbu. Houve diferença para a produção de forragem (3196 vs. 4143kg MS/ha) e de lâminas foliares (2281 vs. 3205kg MS/ha) para os genótipos BRS Umbu e BRS Tarumã, respectivamente. Valores similares foram encontrados para taxa de lotação (2,26UA/ha); eficiência de pastejo (52,26%), consumo aparente (2,91%) e produção de grãos (1716kg/ha). O genótipo BRS Tarumã é o mais indicado para o manejo de duplo propósito em condições de pastejo com vacas em lactação.(AU)


The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity of two dual-purpose wheat genotypes BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu under grazing with lactating cows. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments, three replications (paddocks) and repeated measures (grazing cycles). Studied variables were early growth, the structural composition of wheat, forage production, leaf blade biomass, the stocking rate, the herbage and leaf blade allowance, the grazing efficiency, the herbage intake and grain yield. The earliest genotype for forage production was the BRS Umbu. Differences in herbage yield between BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã genotypes (3196 vs. 4143kg DM/ha) and leaf blade production (2281 vs. 3205kg DM/ha), respectively, were detected. Similar values between cultivars were found in stocking rate (2,26AU/ha); grazing efficiency (52,26%), herbage intake (2,91 %) and grain yield (1716kg/ha). The BRS Tarumã genotype is the most suitable for dual-purpose under grazing with dairy cows.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Genotype , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Edible Grain , Pasture/analysis
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 977-989, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769669

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h). Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA) production (49.2 mg/L) and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase) activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase). The six endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus/microbiology , China/classification , China/genetics , China/growth & development , China/isolation & purification , China/metabolism , China/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Endophytes/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/genetics , Indoleacetic Acids/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/isolation & purification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/microbiology , Lonicera/classification , Lonicera/genetics , Lonicera/growth & development , Lonicera/isolation & purification , Lonicera/metabolism , Lonicera/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data/classification , Molecular Sequence Data/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data/microbiology , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/microbiology , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Phylogeny/microbiology , Plant Roots/classification , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Siderophores/classification , Siderophores/genetics , Siderophores/growth & development , Siderophores/isolation & purification , Siderophores/metabolism , Siderophores/microbiology , Triticum/classification , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/isolation & purification , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology
10.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Apr; 52 (2): 169-178
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158215

ABSTRACT

Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which protect plants against pathogen attack. However, the precise role of chitinases in disease resistance has not been explored in wheat. In the present study, in silico approach, including secondary structure analysis, detailed signature pattern study, cis-acting regulatory elements survey, evolutionary trends and three-dimensional molecular modeling was used for different chitinase classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Homology modeling of class I, II, IV and 3 chitinase proteins was performed using the template crystal structure. The model structures were further refined by molecular mechanics methods using different tools, such as Procheck, ProSA and Verify3D. Secondary structure studies revealed greater percentage of residues forming α helix conformation with specific signature pattern, similar to casein kinase II phosphorylation site, amidation site, N-myristoylation (N-MYR) site and protein kinase C phoshorylation site. The expression profile suggested that wheat chitinase gene was highly expressed in cell culture and callus. We found that wheat chitinases showed more functional similarity with rice and barley. The results provide insight into the evolution of the chitinase family, constituting a diverse array of pathogenesis-related proteins. The study also provides insight into the possible binding sites of chitinase proteins and may further enhance our knowledge of fungal resistance mechanism in plants.


Subject(s)
Chitinases/analysis , Chitinases/anatomy & histology , Chitinases/genetics , Chitinases/physiology , Gene Expression/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing/methods , Triticum/genetics
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157958

ABSTRACT

Plants, being sessile in nature, have developed mechanisms to cope with high salt concentrations in the soil. In this study, the effects of NaCl (50-200 mM) on expression of high-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs), antioxidant enzymes and their isozyme profiles were investigated in two contrasting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes viz., HD2329 (salt-sensitive) and Kharchia65 (salt-tolerant). Kharchia65 can successfully grow in salt affected soils, while HD2329 cannot tolerate salt stress. Differential expression studies of two HKT genes (TaHKT2;1.1 and TaHKT2;3.1) revealed their up-regulated expression (~1.5-fold) in the salt-sensitive HD2329 and down-regulated (~5-fold) inducible expression in the salt-tolerant genotype (Kharchia65). Specific activity of antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) was found to be higher in the salt-tolerant genotype. Isozyme profile of two (POX and GR) antioxidant enzymes showed polymorphism between salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes. A new gene TaHKT2;3.1 was also identified and its expression profile and role in salt stress tolerance in wheat was also studied. Partial sequences of the TaHKT2;1.1 and TaHKT2;3.1 genes from bread wheat were submitted to the EMBL GenBank database. Our findings indicated that defence responses to salt stress were induced differentially in contrasting bread wheat genotypes which provide evidences for functional correlation between salt stress tolerance and differential biochemical and molecular expression patterns in bread wheat.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Genotype/genetics , Salt Tolerance/physiology , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/physiology
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jun; 52(6): 650-657
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153744

ABSTRACT

Manganese deficiency in wheat has become an important nutritional disorder particularly in alkaline calcareous soils where rice-wheat rotation is followed. This experiment was aimed to study the mechanism of Mn efficiency during various developmental stages in six wheat cultivars grown at two Mn levels viz. 0 and 50 mg Mn kg-1soil (Mnapplied as MnSO4.H20) in pots. The Mn vegetative efficiency calculated on the basis of shoot dry weight at anthesis indicated HD 2967 and PBW 550 (bread wheat) as Mn efficient and durums as Mn inefficient. The efficient cultivars recorded highest values for influx, uptake, shoot dry weight, leaf area/plant, SPAD index, Fv/Fmratio and root length that explained their higher efficiencies whereas inefficiency of durum cultivars was attributed to their smaller roots and lower influx. Under Mn deficiency, PDW 314 and PDW 291 retained 68% and 64%, respectively, of total Mn uptake in vegetative parts (stem and leaves) and lowest in grains 7% and 5%, respectively, whereas PBW 550, BW 9178 and HD 2967 retained 29, 37 and 34% in vegetative parts, and 21, 17 and 15 % in grains, respectively at maturity. Higher utilization efficiency of efficient genotypes also indicated that increased Mn uptake with Mn supply produced more efficiently grains in efficient genotypes but vegetative parts in inefficient genotypes. Hence Mn efficiency of a cultivar could be explained by longer roots, higher uptake, influx and efficiency index during vegetative phase and higher grain yield and utilization efficiency during generative phase.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Manganese/analysis , Manganese/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(1): 2-2, Jan. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706516

ABSTRACT

Background The quality of wheat grain depends on several characteristics, among which the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits, encoded by Glu-1 loci, are the most important. Application of biotechnological tools to accelerate the attainment of homozygous lines may influence the proportion of segregated genotypes. The objective was to determine, whether the selection pressure generated by the methods based on in vitro cultures, may cause a loss of genotypes with desirable Glu-1 alleles. Results Homozygous lines were derived from six winter wheat crosses by pollination with maize (DH-MP), anther culture (DH-AC) and single seed descent (SSD) technique. Androgenetically-derived plants that originated from the same callus were examined before chromosome doubling using allele-specific and microsatellite markers. It was found that segregation distortion in SSD and DH-MP populations occurred only in one case, whereas in anther-derived lines they were observed in five out of six analyzed combinations. Conclusions Segregation distortion in DH-AC populations was caused by the development of more than one plant of the same genotype from one callus. This distortion was minimized if only one plant per callus was included in the population. Selection of haploid wheat plants before chromosome doubling based on allele-specific markers allows us to choose genotypes that possess desirable Glu-1 alleles and to reduce the number of plants in the next steps of DH production. The SSD technique appeared to be the most advantageous in terms of Mendelian segregation, thus the occurrence of residual heterozygosity can be minimized by continuous selfing beyond the F6 generation.


Subject(s)
Triticum/genetics , Chromosome Segregation , Seeds/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , Microsatellite Repeats , Zea mays , Alleles , Genotype , Glutens/analysis , Homozygote
14.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Aug; 49(4): 257-265
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140244

ABSTRACT

In an effort to determine the biochemical markers for identifying genotypes before sowing for drought tolerance, changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined in the seedlings of five drought-tolerant and five drought-sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, each with different genetic background growing under normal and water deficit conditions induced by 6% mannitol. In comparison with non-stressed seedlings, the catalase (CAT) activity was upregulated by more than 50% in the roots of water-stressed seedlings in drought-tolerant genotypes. Water deficit stress also led to the upregulation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the endosperms and glutathione reductase (GR), CAT and peroxidase (POD) in the shoots of stressed seedlings in drought-tolerant genotypes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was very low in roots and shoots and showed non-significant increase under water-stress in tolerant genotypes. Out of five specified enzyme activities (CAT in roots and shoots, APX in endosperms, GR and POD in shoots), if any three are upregulated in the specified tissues under water deficit conditions, the genotype is likely to be drought-tolerant. Wheat seedlings with low GR and APX activities and high POD activity in shoots with a low ratio of GR activity of shoot to root of non-stressed seedlings are likely to perform better under rainfed conditions. The observed data showed that status of antioxidant enzymes could provide a meaningful tool for depicting drought tolerance of a wheat genotype.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Droughts , Enzymes , Plants , Plants/enzymology , Triticum/enzymology , Triticum/genetics , Forecasting , Seedlings/growth & development
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 14(3): 9-9, May 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602986

ABSTRACT

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. is a common and widespread disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), in Argentina. Host resistance is the most economical, effective and ecologically sustainable method of controlling the disease. Gene postulation helps to determine leaf rust resistance genes (Lr genes) that may be present in a large group of wheat germplasm. Additionally presence of Lr genes can be determined using associated molecular markers. The objective of this study was to identify Lr genes that condition leaf rust resistance in 66 wheat cultivars from Argentina. Twenty four differential lines with individual known leaf rust resistance genes were tested with 17 different pathotypes of leaf rust collected from Argentina. Leaf rust infection types produced on seedling plants of the 66 local cultivars were compared with the infection types produced by the same pathotypes on Lr differentials to postulate which seedling leaf rust genes were present. Presence of Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr25, Lr26, Lr29, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr47 and Lr51 was also determined using molecular markers. Eleven different Lr genes were postulated in the material: Lr1, Lr3a, Lr3ka, Lr9, Lr10, Lr16, Lr17, Lr19, Lr24, Lr26, Lr41. Presence of Lr21, Lr25, Lr29, and Lr47 could not be determined with the seventeen pathotypes used in the study because all were avirulent to these genes. Eleven cultivars (16.7 percent) were resistant to all pathotypes used in the study and the remaining 55 (83.3 percent) showed virulent reaction against one or more local pathotypes. Cultivars with seedling resistance gene combinations including Lr16 or single genes Lr47 (detected with molecular marker), Lr19 and Lr41, showed high levels of resistance against all pathotypes or most of them. On the opposite side, cultivars with seedling resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr3a + Lr24, Lr10, Lr3a + Lr10, Lr3a + Lr10 + Lr24 showed the highest number of virulent reactions against local...


Subject(s)
Genetic Markers , Genes, Plant/genetics , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Pest Control, Biological , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/microbiology , Argentina , Bread , Basidiomycota/physiology , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 14(1): 1-2, Jan. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591919

ABSTRACT

Flowering time in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is controlled by vernalization and photoperiod response, and earliness per se genes. The genetic basis of flowering time has not been investigated in Pakistani bread wheat. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the allelic composition at Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Vrn-B3 and Ppd-D1a loci of 59 Pakistani spring bread wheat cultivars. These cultivars, along with 4 isogenic lines for vernalization genes were characterized with previously reported DNA markers designed for detecting allelic variation at 4 Vrn (Vernalization) and 1 Ppd (Photoperiod) loci. Spring habit Vrn-A1a allele was found in 36 percent cultivars either alone or with spring habit Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 alleles. Two wheat cultivars had the dominant Vrn-A1c allele, whereas none of the cultivars had Vrn-A1b. Spring habit Vrn-B1 was the most frequent allele (64 percent) present either alone or with Vrn-A1a, Vrn-A1c and Vrn-D1. Spring habit Vrn-D1 was found in 61 percent cultivars. Vrn-D1 was singly found in 25 percent cultivars and along with Vrn-B1 in 29 percent cultivars. Dominant Vrn-B3 was absent in all cultivars studied. All cultivars except Era had the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a. We did not find any association between the flowering time and Vrn allelic composition of the studied cultivars. This indicated that the partial vernalization requirement of cultivars with Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 alleles is probably fulfilled during Pakistani growing season. Earliness per se and the photoperiod sensitive loci other than Ppd-D1 need to be investigated to further understand the genetic basis of flowering time in Pakistani wheat.


Subject(s)
Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/genetics , Pakistan , Photoperiod , Seasons/methods
17.
Genet. mol. biol ; 34(4): 606-615, 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-605921

ABSTRACT

In this work, we examined the genetic diversity and evolution of the WAG-2 gene based on new WAG-2 alleles isolated from wheat and its relatives. Only single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and no insertions and deletions (indels) were found in exon sequences of WAG-2 from different species. More SNPs and indels occurred in introns than in exons. For exons, exons+introns and introns, the nucleotide polymorphism Π decreased from diploid and tetraploid genotypes to hexaploid genotypes. This finding indicated that the diversity of WAG-2 in diploids was greater than in hexaploids because of the strong selection pressure on the latter. All dn/ds ratios were < 1.0, indicating that WAG-2 belongs to a conserved gene affected by negative selection. Thirty-nine of the 57 particular SNPs and eight of the 10 indels were detected in diploid species. The degree of divergence in intron length among WAG-2 clones and phylogenetic tree topology suggested the existence of three homoeologs in the A, B or D genome of common wheat. Wheat AG-like genes were divided into WAG-1 and WAG-2 clades. The latter clade contained WAG-2, OsMADS3 and ZMM2 genes, indicating functional homoeology among them.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Triticum/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genotype , Plants, Genetically Modified
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(3): 1-2, May 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-577096

ABSTRACT

Genetic diversity was assessed among 32 advanced wheat breeding lines included in the National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (2006-07) of Pakistan using molecular (DNA) and biochemical (SDS-PAGE) markers. Of the 72 RAPD primers used for initial screening, 15 were found polymorphic. A total of 140 bands (61.4 percent polymorphic) were generated by the 15 random decamer primers. Genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 for rainfed and from 0.70 to 0.93 for the normal seeding date group. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) clustered the 32 advanced wheat breeding lines into one major and three small groups. Maximum level of polymorphism (90 percent) was observed for the primer OPA-05. Lines N9 and N11 showed the least genetic similarities (0.70-0.82 and 0.71-0.83, respectively) with rest of the lines studied. Line RF1 had the maximum similarity (0.81-0.94) with other lines. Wheat lines included in the normal seeding date were relatively distantly related than those in the rainfed group. Seed storage protein analysis produced 19 subunits ranging from 29-120KDa. Similarity coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 1.0 for the normal seeding date and from 0.47 to 1.0 for the rainfed group. High molecular weight subunits (particularly 120KDa) showed greater polymorphism than the lower molecular weight subunits. Narrow genetic base was observed in wheat lines included in the rainfed group. DNA fingerprinting of advanced breeding lines may help to avoid release of varieties with narrow genetic base in the future.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Triticum/genetics , Agricultural Cultivation , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genetic Markers , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Seeds/genetics
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(3): 4-5, July 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-551882

ABSTRACT

Four commercially grown wheat varieties of Pakistan, namely Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97, Tatara and Manthar were used for this investigation. For callus induction different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4-D) along with 0.1 mg/L of Kinetin were evaluated. For regeneration initially different concentrations of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) and 6-BenzylAminoPurine (BAP) were tested. Best hormone combinations were further subjected to Kinetin and 6-ã-ã-dimethylallylaminopurine (2iP). For Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97 and Manthar, 3 mg/L of 2,4-D was found optimum, which induced 83.25 percent, 77.75 percent and 95.20 percent of embryogenic calli, respectively. Maximum callus induction (97.18 percent) was observed in Tatara when 2 mg/L of 2,4-D was used. As regard to regeneration, Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97 and Manthar showed maximum regeneration on media containing 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.4 mg/L Kinetin and 0.5 mg/L 2iP, regenerating 87.25 percent, 81.75 percent and 68.75 percent respectively. For Tatara maximum regeneration of 12.25 percent was obtained on 0.1 mg/L IAA and 2 mg/L of BAP. Presently optimized regeneration method holds promise for facilitating the deployment of agronomical important trait through genetic transformation for the improvement of this important food crop.


Subject(s)
Embryonic Development , Embryonic Development/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism , Agricultural Cultivation , Pakistan
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(1): 4-5, Jan. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538044

ABSTRACT

Amylose and amylopectin are the two polysaccharides that constitute starch in bread wheat and the enzyme GBSSI (Granule-bound starch synthase I), also known as waxy protein, is responsible for amylose synthesis in storage tissues. Decrease of the amylose content in starch has been associated with the lack of waxy protein(s). In this work, different sets of PCR markers were used to characterize the genetic variability of waxy loci from 103 Argentinean bread wheat cultivars. For the Wx-A1 locus, Wx-A1a and a novel molecular allele designed Wx-A1g were detected. Wx-B1 locus showed three alleles (Wx-B1a, Wx-B1b, Wx-B1e), and Wx-D1 locus showed only the Wx-D1a allele. Novel single-locus allele specific markers for Wx-A1b, Wx-B1b and Wx-D1b null alleles were also described. To our best knowledge this is the first study focused to characterize the genetic variability for waxy genes in bread wheat cultivars from South America.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Bread , Triticum/genetics , Genetic Variation , Alleles , Argentina , Starch/analysis , Starch/analogs & derivatives
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