The identification of the application stage and correct dose of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide is important so that wheat is not harmed. In view of this, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2,4-D doses applied at different development stages of wheat crop. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, arranged in a 4 × 5 factorial scheme, with four replications. In factor A, the application stages (before tillering, tillering, first node and booting) were allocated and the doses of 2,4-D (0, 349, 698, 1047 and 1396 g.ha1) were allocated in factor B. The variables evaluated were phytotoxicity at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application of the treatments (DAT), photosynthetic activity, CO2 internal concentration, stomatal conductance, efficient water use and carboxylation efficiency. The number of spikes·m2, spike length and number of full and sterile grains were determined in the preharvest. Thousand grain mass, grain yield and hectoliter weight were determined after harvest. The results demonstrate that the herbicide caused phytotoxicity to wheat, being greater in increasing doses and mainly before tillering, causing grain sterility and decreased productivity. The other yield components did not present difference when increasing the dose and application in different stages as well as the physiological variables. The increase of the 2,4-D doses applied before tillering and in the booting stage caused linear decrease in wheat grain yield.
Subject(s)Triticum/growth & development , 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid/administration & dosage , Herbicides/analysis , Herbicides/toxicity , Life Cycle Stages
Abstract Three phosphate solubilizing bacteria were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp and Pseudomonas fulva . The strains were subjected to plant biochemical testing and all the PGPR attributes were checked in the presence of pesticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen). The phosphate solubilizing index of strain Ros2 was highest in NBRIP medium i.e 2.23 mm. All the strains showed acidic pH (ranges from 2.5-5) on both medium i.e PVK and NBRIP. Strain Ros2 was highly positive for ammonia production as well as siderophore production while strain Rad2 was positive for HCN production. The results obtained by the strains Rad1, Rad2 and Ros2 for auxin production were 33.1, 30.67 and 15.38 µg ml-1, respectively. Strain Rad1 showed 16% increase in percentage germination in comparison to control in the presence of pesticide stress. Most promising results for chlorophyll content estimation were obtained in the presence of carotenoids upto 6 mgg-1 without stress by both strains Rad1 and Rad2. Study suggests that especially strain Ros2 can enhance plant growth parameters in the pesticide stress.
Resumo Três bactérias solubilizantes de fosfato foram isoladas e identificadas por seqüenciamento de rRNA 16S como Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp e Pseudomonas fulva. As estirpes foram submetidas a testes bioquímicos de plantas e todos os atributos PGPR foram verificados na presença de pesticidas (clorpirifos e piriproxifeno). O índice de solubilização de fosfato da estirpe Ros2 foi mais elevado no meio NBRIP, isto é, 2,23 mm. Todas as estirpes apresentaram um pH ácido (varia de 2,5-5) em ambos os meios, isto é PVK e NBRIP. A estirpe Ros2 foi altamente positiva para a produção de amoníaco, bem como a produção de sideróforos enquanto a estirpe Rad2 foi positiva para a produção de HCN. Os resultados obtidos pelas estirpes Rad1, Rad2 e Ros2 para a produção de auxina foram 33,1, 30,67 e 15,38 μg ml-1 , respectivamente. A deformação Rad1 mostrou aumento de 16% na germinação percentual em comparação com o controlo na presença de stress de pesticida. Os resultados mais promissores para a estimativa do teor de clorofila foram obtidos na presença de carotenóides até 6 mgg-1 sem estresse por ambas as cepas Rad1 e Rad2. Estudo sugere que especialmente a estirpe Ros2 pode melhorar parâmetros de crescimento de plantas no estresse de pesticidas.
Subject(s)Phosphates/metabolism , Pseudomonas/physiology , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Triticum/growth & development , Chlorpyrifos/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Pakistan , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , RNA, Bacterial/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Pseudomonas putida/drug effects , Pseudomonas putida/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) may play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Plant roots are the main organs of nutrient and water uptake. However, whether circRNAs involved in the regulation of plant root growth remains to be elucidated. METHODS: LH9, XN979 and YN29 are three Chinese wheat varieties with contrasting root lengths. Here, the root circRNA expression profiles of LH9, XN979 and YN29 were examined by using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS: Thirty-three and twenty-two differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) were identified in the YN29-LH9 comparison and YN29-XN979 comparison, respectively. Among them, ten DECs coexisted in both comparisons. As the roots of both LH9 and XN979 were significantly larger and deeper than YN29, the ten DECs coexisting in the two comparisons were highly likely to be involved in the regulation of wheat root length. Moreover, three of the ten DECs have potential miRNA binding sites. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the potential binding miRNAs exhibited significant differences between the long root plants and the short root plants. CONCLUSIONS: The expression levels of some circRNAs exhibited significant differences in wheat varieties with contrasting root phenotypes. Ten DECs involved in the regulation of wheat root length were successfully identified in which three of them have potential miRNAs binding sites. The expression levels of putative circRNA-binding miRNAs were correlated with their corresponding circRNAs. Our results provide new clues for studying the potential roles of circRNAs in the regulation of wheat root length.
Subject(s)Triticum/growth & development , RNA/physiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Triticum/physiology , Down-Regulation/physiology , Up-Regulation/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Circular
ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.
Subject(s)Soil/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Archaea/enzymology , Archaeal Proteins/genetics , Fungi/enzymology , Hydrolases/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development , Brazil , Archaea/isolation & purification , Archaea/classification , Archaea/genetics , Zea mays/growth & development , Agriculture , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
Abstract Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) (0, 500, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/L) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (0 and 100 μM) as nitric oxide (NO) donor, on wheat seed germination and seedling growth were investigated under cadmium (Cd) stress (0, 50 and 100 mM CdCl2). Concentration-dependent declining trends were observed in wheat germination indices upon seed exposure to CdCl2 suspensions which were more obvious under higher Cd stress. Exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) positively affected most germination indices under normal and stress conditions. In most cases, combined application of TiO2 NPs and SNP suspensions boosted stimulatory function of both compounds and moderated adverse effects of Cd treatments on wheat seed germination and seedling growth. 2 000 mg/L TiO2 + SNP (100 μM) treatment recorded the best results regarding most germination indices under lower and higher (50 and 100 mM CdCl2) Cd stress. Overall, it could be concluded that application of TiO2 NPs in combination with SNP might be a promising approach in counteracting the adverse effects of Cd stress on wheat seed germination and early growth.
Resumen Se investigó el efecto de nanopartículas de dióxido de titanio (TiO2 NPs) (0, 500, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/L) y nitroprusiato de sodio (SNP) (0 and 100 μM) como donador de óxido nítrico (NO), en la germinación de las semillas y el crecimiento de las plántulas de trigo bajo estrés por Cadmio (Cd) (0, 50 and 100 mM CdCl2). Se observaron tendencias decrecientes en los índices de germinación de las semillas de trigo expuestas a suspensiones de CdCl2. Estas tendencias fueron dependientes de la concentración, y más obvias ante alto estrés por Cd. El Nitroprusiato de Sodio exógeno (SNP) y las nanopartículas de TiO2 (NPs) afectaron positivamente la mayoría de los índices de germinación bajo condiciones normales y de estrés. En la mayoría de los casos, la aplicación combinada de suspensiones de TiO2 NPs y SNP incrementó la función estimulante de ambos componentes y moderó los efectos adversos de los tratamientos de Cd en la geminación de las semillas de trigo y el crecimiento de las plántulas. Con el tratamiento de 2000 mg/L TiO2 + SNP (100 μM) se registraron los mejores resultados en cuanto a los índices de germinación sometidos a bajo y alto estrés por Cd (50 and 100 mM CdCl2). En general, podría concluirse que la aplicación de TiO2 NPs en combinación con SNP podría ser una aproximación promisoria para contrarrestar los efectos adversos del estrés por Cd en la germinación de las semillas de trigo y en su crecimiento temprano.
Resumo Foram investigados os efeitos de nanopartículas de dióxido de titânio (TiO2 NPs) (0, 500, 1000 e 2000 mg/L) e nitroprussiato de sódio (SNP) (0 e 100 pM) como donadoras de óxido nítrico (NO) na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plántulas de trigo sob estresse por cádmio (Cd) (0, 50 e 100 mM CdCl2). Se observaram tendências decrescentes nos índices de germinação de sementes de trigo expostas a suspensões de CdCl2. Essas tendências foram dependentes da concentração, sendo mais evidentes frente ao alto estresse por Cd. O nitroprussiato de sódio (SNP) e as nanopartículas de TiO2 (NPs) afetaram positivamente a maioria dos índices de germinação sob condições normais e de estresse. Na maioria dos casos, a aplicação combinada de suspensões de TiO2 NPs e SNP aumentou a função estimulante de ambos componentes e moderou os efeitos adversos dos tratamentos de Cd na germinação de semestres de trigo e no crescimento das plántulas. Com o tratamento de 2 000 mg/L TiO2 + SNP (100 μM) se registraram os melhores resultados em quanto aos índices de germinação submetidos a baixo e alto estresse por Cd (50 e 100 mM CdCl2). De modo geral, se pode concluir que a aplicação de TiO2 NPs em combinação com SNP poderia ser uma aproximação promissora para combater os efeitos adversos do estresse por Cd na germinação de sementes de trigo e no seu crescimento inicial.
Subject(s)Triticum/anatomy & histology , Triticum/growth & development , Nanoparticles/analysis
BACKGROUND: CircRNAs are widespread in plants and play important roles in response to abiotic stresses. Low nitrogen (LN) promotes the growth of plant root system, allowing it to explore more nitrogen. However, whether circRNAs involved in the response to LN stress and the regulation of LN-promoted root growth in wheat remains unclear. METHODS: Two wheat varieties (LH9 and XN979) with contrasting root phenotypes to LN stress were used as materials to identify circRNAs under control and LN conditions by using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS: Six differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) involved in the common response to LN stress and 23 DECs involved in the regulation of LN-promoted root growth were successfully identified. GO analysis of the DEC-host genes involved in the regulation of LN-promoted root growth showed that GO terms related to biological regulation, responses to stimuli and signalling were significantly enriched. Moreover, seven DECs were predicted to have miRNA binding sites and may serve as miRNA sponges to capture miRNAs from their target genes. CONCLUSIONS: LN stress altered the expression profiles of circRNAs in wheat. This is the first report of LN stress responsive circRNAs in plants. Our results provided new clues for investigating the functions of circRNAs in response to LN stress and in the regulation of LN-promoted wheat root growth.
Subject(s)Stress, Physiological/physiology , Triticum/growth & development , RNA/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/growth & development , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Nitrogen/metabolism , Triticum/physiology , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Circular
Abstract Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1 tiller−1), and highest plant height (85.8 cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320 m−2), straw yield (8.6 Mg ha−1), and grain yield (4.8 Mg ha−1) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity.
Subject(s)Animals , Aphids/growth & development , Pseudomonas/physiology , Bacillus/physiology , Triticum/growth & development , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/microbiology , Triticum/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological , Population Dynamics
Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100 NP kg ha−1) and half dose (75-50 NP kg ha−1) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate.
Subject(s)Phosphates/pharmacokinetics , Phosphorus/metabolism , Bacillus/metabolism , Triticum/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Climate
Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de dois genótipos de trigo de duplo propósito, BRS Tarumã e BRS Umbu, submetidos ao pastejo com vacas em lactação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (genótipos), três repetições (piquetes) e medidas repetidas no tempo (pastejos). Avaliaram-se a precocidade, a composição estrutural dos trigos, as produções de forragem e de biomassa de lâminas foliares, as taxas de acúmulo diário de forragem e de lâminas foliares, a taxa de lotação, as ofertas de forragem e de lâminas foliares, a eficiência de pastejo, o consumo aparente e a produção de grãos. O trigo mais precoce para produção de forragem foi o BRS Umbu. Houve diferença para a produção de forragem (3196 vs. 4143kg MS/ha) e de lâminas foliares (2281 vs. 3205kg MS/ha) para os genótipos BRS Umbu e BRS Tarumã, respectivamente. Valores similares foram encontrados para taxa de lotação (2,26UA/ha); eficiência de pastejo (52,26%), consumo aparente (2,91%) e produção de grãos (1716kg/ha). O genótipo BRS Tarumã é o mais indicado para o manejo de duplo propósito em condições de pastejo com vacas em lactação.(AU)
The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity of two dual-purpose wheat genotypes BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu under grazing with lactating cows. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments, three replications (paddocks) and repeated measures (grazing cycles). Studied variables were early growth, the structural composition of wheat, forage production, leaf blade biomass, the stocking rate, the herbage and leaf blade allowance, the grazing efficiency, the herbage intake and grain yield. The earliest genotype for forage production was the BRS Umbu. Differences in herbage yield between BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã genotypes (3196 vs. 4143kg DM/ha) and leaf blade production (2281 vs. 3205kg DM/ha), respectively, were detected. Similar values between cultivars were found in stocking rate (2,26AU/ha); grazing efficiency (52,26%), herbage intake (2,91 %) and grain yield (1716kg/ha). The BRS Tarumã genotype is the most suitable for dual-purpose under grazing with dairy cows.(AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Female , Cattle , Genotype , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Edible Grain , Pasture/analysis
Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) is cultivated across a wide region; however, water is scarce during the growing season of wheat in the Northern Plain of China. Therefore, winter wheat should be irrigated to maintain a stable and high grain yield. The aim of this field study was to develop a water-conserving precision planting pattern for winter wheat that is grown in the Northern China Plain with the purpose of exploring the benefits in maintaining water and effects on wheat productivity. To accomplish this, several production variables and photosynthetic indexes were measured, including the number of stems, the leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate, and grain yield. The study was carried out during the 20112012 and 20122013 winter wheat growing seasons. The experiment included a double-row planting pattern (DRPP) and a single-row planting pattern (SRPP), both of which were either irrigated or rainfed. The area of each plot was 9 m2, and the experimental design was a randomized blocks design with three replicates. All results were analyzed with an ANOVA, the F test, and the LSD (p 0.05) for means comparison. PAR capture ratios in the DRPP were higher than those in the SRPP at 50120 cm above the ground. The photosynthetic traits of flag leaves under irrigated conditions were not significantly influenced by the respective planting pattern. However, at a growth stage of 80 under the rainfed conditions, the mean photosynthetic rate within flag leaves in the DRPP was higher than that in the SRPP. Furthermore, the DRPP under rainfed conditions was more likely to increase the apparent quantum yield (AQY) of flag leaves than the yield obtained under irrigation. These results suggest that DRPP optimizes the canopy PAR distribution in winter wheat and contributes to the maintenance of a higher photosynthetic capacity in the flag leaves under water stress (the rainfed condition). This relationship may be applied in demonstration trials to encourage winter wheat farmers to incorporate the use of DRPP in the drought-prone areas, which are subjected to insufficient precipitation during the growing stage of wheat in Northern China.
O trigo de inverno (Triticum aestivum) é cultivado em uma vasta região; no entanto, a água é escassa durante a estação de crescimento do trigo na Planície do Norte da China. Assim, o trigo de inverno deve ser irrigado para manter um rendimento de grãos estável e elevado. O objetivo deste trabalho de campo foi o de desenvolver um padrão de plantação de precisão que conserve a água para o trigo de inverno que é cultivado na Planície do Norte da China com o propósito de explorar os benefícios da retenção de água e os efeitos na produtividade do trigo. Para isso, diversas variáveis de produção e índices fotossintéticos foram medidos, incluindo o número de hastes, o índice de área da folha (do inglês, LAI - leaf area index), a radiação fotossinteticamente disponível (do inglês, PAR - photosynthetically available radiation), taxa fotossintética líquida e o rendimento de grãos. O estudo foi conduzido durante as estações de crescimento do trigo de inverno em 2011-2012 e 2012-2013. O experimento incluiu um padrão de plantação em fila dupla (do inglês, DRPP - double-row planting pattern) e um padrão de plantação em fila única (do inglês, SRPP - single-row planting pattern), em ambos os casos ou foram irrigados artificialmente ou através da chuva (regadio e sequeiro). A área de cada lote de terra foi de 9 m2, e o delineamento experimental foi um de blocos aleatórios com três repetições. Todos os resultados foram analisados com uma ANOVA, um teste F, e um LSD (p 0.05) para a comparação das médias. As taxas de captura de PAR no DRPP foram maiores do que aquelas no SRPP a 50-120 cm acima do solo. As características fotossintéticas das folhas-bandeira (do inglês, flag leaves) sob condições de irrigação artificial não foram significativamente influenciadas pelo respectivo padrão de plantação. No entanto, num estágio de crescimento de 80% abaixo das condições de irrigação pela chuva, a taxa fotossintética média dentre as folhas-bandeira no DRPP foi maior que aquela observada no SRPP. Além disso, o DRPP sob condições de irrigação pela chuva foi mais suscetível ao aumento do rendimento quântico aparente (do inglês, AQY - apparent quantum yield) das folhas-bandeira do que o rendimento obtido através da irrigação artificial. Estes resultados sugerem que o DRPP otimiza a distribuição PAR do dossel no trigo de inverno e contribui para a manutenção de uma maior capacidade fotossintética nas folhas bandeira sob estresse hídrico (a condição de sequeiro). Esta relação pode ser aplicada em ensaios de demonstração para encorajar os agricultores de trigo de inverno a incorporar o uso do DRPP em áreas propensas à seca, que estão submetidas a precipitação insuficiente durante a fase de crescimento do trigo no Norte da China.
Subject(s)Triticum/growth & development , Agricultural Cultivation , Droughts
Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h). Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA) production (49.2 mg/L) and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase) activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase). The six endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.
Subject(s)Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus/microbiology , China/classification , China/genetics , China/growth & development , China/isolation & purification , China/metabolism , China/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Endophytes/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/genetics , Indoleacetic Acids/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/isolation & purification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/microbiology , Lonicera/classification , Lonicera/genetics , Lonicera/growth & development , Lonicera/isolation & purification , Lonicera/metabolism , Lonicera/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data/classification , Molecular Sequence Data/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data/microbiology , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/microbiology , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Phylogeny/microbiology , Plant Roots/classification , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Siderophores/classification , Siderophores/genetics , Siderophores/growth & development , Siderophores/isolation & purification , Siderophores/metabolism , Siderophores/microbiology , Triticum/classification , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/isolation & purification , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology
The strain JPL-2, capable of degrading fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (FE), was isolated from the soil of a wheat field and identified as Rhodococcus ruber. This strain could utilize FE as its sole carbon source and degrade 94.6% of 100 mg L−1 FE in 54 h. Strain JPL-2 could also degrade other aryloxyphenoxy propanoate (AOPP) herbicides. The initial step of the degradation pathway is to hydrolyze the carboxylic acid ester bond. A novel esterase gene feh, encoding the FE-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase (FeH) responsible for this initial step, was cloned from strain JPL-2. Its molecular mass was approximately 39 kDa, and the catalytic efficiency of FeH followed the order of FE > quizalofop-P-ethyl > clodinafop-propargyl > cyhalofop-butyl > fluazifop-P-butyl > haloxyfop-P-methyl > diclofop-methy, which indicated that the chain length of the alcohol moiety strongly affected the hydrolysis activity of the FeH toward AOPP herbicides.
Subject(s)Carboxylesterase/genetics , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Herbicides/metabolism , Oxazoles/metabolism , Propionates/metabolism , Rhodococcus/isolation & purification , Rhodococcus/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cloning, Molecular , Cluster Analysis , Carboxylesterase/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Phylogeny , /genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Rhodococcus/enzymology , Rhodococcus/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , Substrate Specificity , Triticum/growth & development
The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 mM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 M of Ca2+; 50 M of Fe2+ and 60 M of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.
Subject(s)Arachis/drug effects , Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental/drug effects , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/metabolism , Enterobacter/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/growth & development
Two wheat cultivars, C306 and PBW343 contrasting in drought tolerance were compared for their antioxidant response and Lea genes’ expression under salt stress (SS) and combined stress (CS) of salt stress plus water stress during seedlings growth. The drought susceptible cultivar (PBW343) behaved different towards SS/CS than towards WS. It accumulated more dry masses in shoots, more ascorbate, had higher ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lesser dehydroascorbate, lesser malondialdehyde (MDA), more proline and higher antioxidant enzymes under SS than under WS. CS increased dry masses, ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, antioxidant enzymes and decreased dehydroascorbate and MDA contents from levels under WS. The drought tolerant cultivar (C306) though showed higher levels of ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lower levels of dehydroascorbate, showed lesser dry biomasses in shoots, higher MDA and lesser ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities under SS than under WS and these features were improved on combining WS with SS. All lea genes were induced under all stresses in both cultivars except Wrab17 in C306 only, was not induced under any stress. Eight Lea genes out of ten were induced higher under WS than SS in C306 but induced same in PBW343. Wdhn13 gene was higher salt-responsive than other lea genes in both cultivars.
Subject(s)Adaptation, Physiological , Antioxidants/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Droughts , Gene Expression , Genes, Plant , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Sodium Chloride , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/physiology
In order to select phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria to control weed plants, twenty five bacterial strains previously isolated from the rhizospheres of various plants were grown in a liquid medium and, after cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and the products were extracted with ethyl acetate/methanol. The extracts were concentrated to dryness under vacuum and dissolved in water and sucrose solution to be submitted to in vitro assays of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptile growth. Although most samples affected coleoptile growth, only those from four strains reduced lettuce seed germination. Two strains of Bacillus cereus, one strain of B. pumilus and one of Stenotrophoonas altophilia were the most promising microorganisms for producing phytotoxin and, consequently, for the development of new weed control products.
Com o objetivo de selecionar rizobactérias produtoras de fitotoxinas para uso no controle de plantas daninhas, vinte e cinco isolados bacterianos previamente obtidos das rizosferas de diferentes plantas foram cultivados em meio líquido e, após remoção das células por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e os resíduos obtidos foram submetidos à extração com acetato de etila/metanol. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo até secura e dissolvidos em água e solução de sacarose para serem submetidos a testes in vitro de germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) e de crescimento de coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.). Embora a maior parte das amostras tenha desfavorecido o crescimento dos coleóptilos de trigo, somente as provenientes de quatro isolados reduziram a germinação das sementes de alface. Dois isolados de Bacillus cereus, um isolado de B. pumilus e um de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia foram os microrganismos mais promissores para a produção de fitotoxinas, com possibilidade de uso no desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de plantas daninhas.
Subject(s)Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/isolation & purification , Lettuce/drug effects , Rhizosphere , Triticum/drug effects , Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis , Cytotoxins/biosynthesis , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/chemistry , Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/metabolism , Lettuce/growth & development , Plant Weeds/drug effects , Plant Weeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development
Flowering time in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is controlled by vernalization and photoperiod response, and earliness per se genes. The genetic basis of flowering time has not been investigated in Pakistani bread wheat. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the allelic composition at Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Vrn-B3 and Ppd-D1a loci of 59 Pakistani spring bread wheat cultivars. These cultivars, along with 4 isogenic lines for vernalization genes were characterized with previously reported DNA markers designed for detecting allelic variation at 4 Vrn (Vernalization) and 1 Ppd (Photoperiod) loci. Spring habit Vrn-A1a allele was found in 36 percent cultivars either alone or with spring habit Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 alleles. Two wheat cultivars had the dominant Vrn-A1c allele, whereas none of the cultivars had Vrn-A1b. Spring habit Vrn-B1 was the most frequent allele (64 percent) present either alone or with Vrn-A1a, Vrn-A1c and Vrn-D1. Spring habit Vrn-D1 was found in 61 percent cultivars. Vrn-D1 was singly found in 25 percent cultivars and along with Vrn-B1 in 29 percent cultivars. Dominant Vrn-B3 was absent in all cultivars studied. All cultivars except Era had the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a. We did not find any association between the flowering time and Vrn allelic composition of the studied cultivars. This indicated that the partial vernalization requirement of cultivars with Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 alleles is probably fulfilled during Pakistani growing season. Earliness per se and the photoperiod sensitive loci other than Ppd-D1 need to be investigated to further understand the genetic basis of flowering time in Pakistani wheat.
Subject(s)Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/genetics , Pakistan , Photoperiod , Seasons/methods
Como parte de una posible producción de basidiocarpos de Pleurotus eryngii en Chile, se seleccionó como sustrato paja de trigo. Como objetivo principal se evaluó la eficiencia de dos tratamientos térmicos, para reducir la carga microbiana del sustrato, además de determinar los cambios en la relación C:N antes y después a los tratamientos térmicos y cosechas de basidiocarpos. Al mismo tiempo, se determinó la eficiencia biológica de P. eryngii. En un primer tratamiento, partidas del sustrato fueron sometidas a ebullición directa por 1 h., y en un segundo se usó la pasteurización por 3 horas. El sustrato de ambos tratamientos se depositó en bolsas de nylon de 8 Kg y se sembraron con ®semilla¼ de P. eryngii y se incubaron hasta la obtención de basidiocarpos. Se determinó en el sustrato el C y N según Saavedra (1975), y la celulosa, hemicelulosa, lignina y extraíbles totales según métodos propuestos por las normas Tappi (2000). La mayor eficiencia biológica con P. eryngii, se logró en el sustrato sometido a pasteurización.
In an attempt to get a possible production of Pleurotus eryngii basidiocarps, wheat straw was selected as a substratum. The main purpose was to assess the efficiency of two thermal treatments in order to reduce the microbial load of the substratum as well as to detect any change in the C:N relation prior and after thermal treatments and basidiocarp harvests. Besides the biological efficiency of P.eryngii was determined. In a first treatment, some parties of the substratum were submitted to direct boiling for 1h. while in a second one, pasteurization was used for 3h. The resulting substrata of both treatments were kept in 8-kg nylon bags and then sowed with P.eryngii ®seed¼and later on incubated in order to get basidiocarps. C and N were determined in the substratum according to Saavedra (1975) while cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and removable totals were determined following the methods proposed by Tappi standards (2000). The substratrum submitted to pasteurization revealed the highest biological efficiency with P.eryngii.
Subject(s)Biodegradation, Environmental , Culture Techniques , Efficiency , Pleurotus , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/microbiology , Chile
Four commercially grown wheat varieties of Pakistan, namely Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97, Tatara and Manthar were used for this investigation. For callus induction different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4-D) along with 0.1 mg/L of Kinetin were evaluated. For regeneration initially different concentrations of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) and 6-BenzylAminoPurine (BAP) were tested. Best hormone combinations were further subjected to Kinetin and 6-ã-ã-dimethylallylaminopurine (2iP). For Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97 and Manthar, 3 mg/L of 2,4-D was found optimum, which induced 83.25 percent, 77.75 percent and 95.20 percent of embryogenic calli, respectively. Maximum callus induction (97.18 percent) was observed in Tatara when 2 mg/L of 2,4-D was used. As regard to regeneration, Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97 and Manthar showed maximum regeneration on media containing 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.4 mg/L Kinetin and 0.5 mg/L 2iP, regenerating 87.25 percent, 81.75 percent and 68.75 percent respectively. For Tatara maximum regeneration of 12.25 percent was obtained on 0.1 mg/L IAA and 2 mg/L of BAP. Presently optimized regeneration method holds promise for facilitating the deployment of agronomical important trait through genetic transformation for the improvement of this important food crop.
Subject(s)Embryonic Development , Embryonic Development/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism , Agricultural Cultivation , Pakistan
Introductions of high yielding inorganic fertilizer are not cheap and leave behind a large amount of dry matter for disposal. Thus there is a need to utilize these plant residues to save fertilizers and maintain a satisfactory level of soil fertility. Hence, with the view of in-situ manuring as well as to recycle the agricultural residue, pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of wheat husk amendments on soil microbial population and seedling vigour index (SVI) of wheat. Results of pot experiment showed the improvement in soil fungal population followed by bacterial and actinomycetal counts. Statistical significant increase in plant growth was also recorded as compared to unamended control, which indicates the practical possibility in utilizing wheat husk for improvement is soil fertility
Subject(s)Agriculture , Bacteria/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Fungi/growth & development , Germination , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/growth & development , Waste Products
A forma mais conhecida de saída de nitrogênio dos agroecossistemas é a perda por volatilização de amônia do solo; entretanto, um ponto pouco avaliado e quantificado é a perda de amônia pela parte aérea dos vegetais. Neste contexto, conduziu-se um experimento com objetivo de quantificar alterações nas quantidades de nitrogênio, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura do trigo, como indicativo de possíveis perdas de amônia pela parte aérea. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (dois níveis de N: 180 e 300mg de N vaso-1, e três épocas de colheita: pré-antese, pós-antese e maturidade), com quatro repetições, totalizando 24 parcelas. Utilizaram-se vasos contendo 4kg de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico. A fertilização nitrogenada foi realizada com sulfato de amônio marcado a 3 por cento em átomos de 15N. Foram verificadas reduções do N do fertilizante acumulado nas plantas de trigo, que podem estar relacionadas às perdas de N-NH3 pela parte aérea. Essas perdas foram de 25mg vaso-1 (aproximadamente 12kg ha-1 de N) e 36mg vaso-1 (aproximadamente 18kg ha-1 de N) no menor e no maior nível de fertilização, respectivamente. As maiores perdas ocorreram na pós-antese e na maturidade, com 8,4 e 6,8 por cento do N total aplicado para a menor e a maior dose.