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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 11-17, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the most important crops cultivated all over the world. New high-yielding cultivars that are more resistant to fungal diseases have been permanently developed. The present study aimed at the possibility of accelerating the process of breeding new cultivars, resistant to eyespot, by using doubled haploids (DH) system supported by marker-assisted selection. RESULTS: Two highly resistant breeding lines (KBP 0916 and KBH 4942/05) carrying Pch1 gene were crossed with the elite wheat genotypes. Hybrid plants of early generations were analyzed using endopeptidase EpD1 and two SSR markers linked to the Pch1 locus. Selected homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for the Pch1-linked EpD1b allele were used to produce haploid plants. Molecular analyses were performed on haploids to identify plants possessing Pch1 gene. Chromosome doubling was performed only on haploid plants with Pch1 gene. Finally, 65 DH lines carrying eyespot resistance gene Pch1 and 30 lines without this gene were chosen for the eyespot resistance phenotyping in a field experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the experiment confirmed higher resistance to eyespot of the genotypes with Pch1 in comparison to those without this gene. This indicates the efficiency of selection at the haploid level.


Subject(s)
Selection, Genetic , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism , Haploidy , Plant Diseases , Breeding/methods , Gene Expression , Microsatellite Repeats , Genotype
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984009

ABSTRACT

Abstract Three phosphate solubilizing bacteria were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp and Pseudomonas fulva . The strains were subjected to plant biochemical testing and all the PGPR attributes were checked in the presence of pesticides (chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen). The phosphate solubilizing index of strain Ros2 was highest in NBRIP medium i.e 2.23 mm. All the strains showed acidic pH (ranges from 2.5-5) on both medium i.e PVK and NBRIP. Strain Ros2 was highly positive for ammonia production as well as siderophore production while strain Rad2 was positive for HCN production. The results obtained by the strains Rad1, Rad2 and Ros2 for auxin production were 33.1, 30.67 and 15.38 µg ml-1, respectively. Strain Rad1 showed 16% increase in percentage germination in comparison to control in the presence of pesticide stress. Most promising results for chlorophyll content estimation were obtained in the presence of carotenoids upto 6 mgg-1 without stress by both strains Rad1 and Rad2. Study suggests that especially strain Ros2 can enhance plant growth parameters in the pesticide stress.


Resumo Três bactérias solubilizantes de fosfato foram isoladas e identificadas por seqüenciamento de rRNA 16S como Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp e Pseudomonas fulva. As estirpes foram submetidas a testes bioquímicos de plantas e todos os atributos PGPR foram verificados na presença de pesticidas (clorpirifos e piriproxifeno). O índice de solubilização de fosfato da estirpe Ros2 foi mais elevado no meio NBRIP, isto é, 2,23 mm. Todas as estirpes apresentaram um pH ácido (varia de 2,5-5) em ambos os meios, isto é PVK e NBRIP. A estirpe Ros2 foi altamente positiva para a produção de amoníaco, bem como a produção de sideróforos enquanto a estirpe Rad2 foi positiva para a produção de HCN. Os resultados obtidos pelas estirpes Rad1, Rad2 e Ros2 para a produção de auxina foram 33,1, 30,67 e 15,38 μg ml-1 , respectivamente. A deformação Rad1 mostrou aumento de 16% na germinação percentual em comparação com o controlo na presença de stress de pesticida. Os resultados mais promissores para a estimativa do teor de clorofila foram obtidos na presença de carotenóides até 6 mgg-1 sem estresse por ambas as cepas Rad1 e Rad2. Estudo sugere que especialmente a estirpe Ros2 pode melhorar parâmetros de crescimento de plantas no estresse de pesticidas.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/metabolism , Pseudomonas/physiology , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Triticum/growth & development , Chlorpyrifos/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Pakistan , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , RNA, Bacterial/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Pseudomonas putida/drug effects , Pseudomonas putida/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA
3.
Biol. Res ; 52: 14, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress affecting global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Exploration of drought-tolerant genes is essential for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in wheat. Previous studies have shown that some histone encoding genes are involved in plant drought tolerance. However, whether the H2B family genes are involved in drought stress response remains unclear. METHODS: Here, we identified a wheat histone H2B family gene, TaH2B-7D, which was significantly up-regulated under drought stress conditions. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to further verify the function of TaH2B-7D in wheat drought tolerance. The phenotypic and physiological changes were examined in the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants. RESULTS: In the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants, relative electrolyte leakage rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content significantly increased, while relative water content (RWC) and proline content significantly decreased compared with those in the non-knocked-down plants under drought stress conditions. TaH2B-7D knock-down plants exhibited severe sagging, wilting and dwarf phenotypes under drought stress conditions, but not in the non-knocked-down plants, suggesting that the former were more sensitive to drought stress. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that TaH2B-7D potentially plays a vital role in conferring drought tolerance in wheat.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gene Silencing , Droughts , Phenotype , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Triticum/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plant Physiological Phenomena/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 15-24, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974338

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100 NP kg ha−1) and half dose (75-50 NP kg ha−1) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/pharmacokinetics , Phosphorus/metabolism , Bacillus/metabolism , Triticum/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis , Crop Production/methods , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Climate
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 151-159, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974324

ABSTRACT

Abstract To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19 g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14 g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45 g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer.


Subject(s)
Waste Products/analysis , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Cellulose/biosynthesis , Gluconacetobacter/metabolism , Waste Products/economics , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology , Industrial Microbiology/economics , Food Industry , Culture Media/economics , Culture Media/metabolism , Gluconacetobacter/growth & development , Ethanol/metabolism
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 977-989, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769669

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h). Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA) production (49.2 mg/L) and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase) activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase). The six endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus/microbiology , China/classification , China/genetics , China/growth & development , China/isolation & purification , China/metabolism , China/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Endophytes/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/genetics , Indoleacetic Acids/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/isolation & purification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/microbiology , Lonicera/classification , Lonicera/genetics , Lonicera/growth & development , Lonicera/isolation & purification , Lonicera/metabolism , Lonicera/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data/classification , Molecular Sequence Data/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data/microbiology , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/microbiology , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Phylogeny/microbiology , Plant Roots/classification , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Siderophores/classification , Siderophores/genetics , Siderophores/growth & development , Siderophores/isolation & purification , Siderophores/metabolism , Siderophores/microbiology , Triticum/classification , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/isolation & purification , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1179-1186, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741267

ABSTRACT

Two mesophilic streptomycetes (S. violaceoruber and S. spiroverticillatus) were selected to study their Poly R-478 decolorization ability and lignocellulose solubilizing activity. Both strains were able to degrade Poly R-478 dye and ferulic acid during growth on a minimal salts medium. The Poly R-478 decolorizing activities of both strains were induced by adding different carbon sources to the culture media. S. violaceoruber could decolorize 63% of Poly R-478 after 24 h. Both strains could solubilize straw and produce acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL) with different efficiency. From the major extracellular enzymes recovery of both strains on rice and wheat straw, we can predicate that the biodegradation process was partial indicating a possible utilization in biological delignification.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Polymers/metabolism , Streptomyces/metabolism , Biotransformation , Coumaric Acids/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Streptomyces/growth & development , Triticum/metabolism
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jun; 52(6): 650-657
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153744

ABSTRACT

Manganese deficiency in wheat has become an important nutritional disorder particularly in alkaline calcareous soils where rice-wheat rotation is followed. This experiment was aimed to study the mechanism of Mn efficiency during various developmental stages in six wheat cultivars grown at two Mn levels viz. 0 and 50 mg Mn kg-1soil (Mnapplied as MnSO4.H20) in pots. The Mn vegetative efficiency calculated on the basis of shoot dry weight at anthesis indicated HD 2967 and PBW 550 (bread wheat) as Mn efficient and durums as Mn inefficient. The efficient cultivars recorded highest values for influx, uptake, shoot dry weight, leaf area/plant, SPAD index, Fv/Fmratio and root length that explained their higher efficiencies whereas inefficiency of durum cultivars was attributed to their smaller roots and lower influx. Under Mn deficiency, PDW 314 and PDW 291 retained 68% and 64%, respectively, of total Mn uptake in vegetative parts (stem and leaves) and lowest in grains 7% and 5%, respectively, whereas PBW 550, BW 9178 and HD 2967 retained 29, 37 and 34% in vegetative parts, and 21, 17 and 15 % in grains, respectively at maturity. Higher utilization efficiency of efficient genotypes also indicated that increased Mn uptake with Mn supply produced more efficiently grains in efficient genotypes but vegetative parts in inefficient genotypes. Hence Mn efficiency of a cultivar could be explained by longer roots, higher uptake, influx and efficiency index during vegetative phase and higher grain yield and utilization efficiency during generative phase.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Manganese/analysis , Manganese/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 457-465, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723100

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm) and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64%) followed by rice straw (40%) and wheat straw (34%). Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L) produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L) and wheat straw (44 g/L) using medium composition of (%) 0.25 (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.


Subject(s)
Ethanol/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Agriculture/methods , Cellulose , Fermentation , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Temperature , Triticum/metabolism , Waste Products
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Sept; 51(9): 746-757
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149379

ABSTRACT

Two wheat cultivars, C306 and PBW343 contrasting in drought tolerance were compared for their antioxidant response and Lea genes’ expression under salt stress (SS) and combined stress (CS) of salt stress plus water stress during seedlings growth. The drought susceptible cultivar (PBW343) behaved different towards SS/CS than towards WS. It accumulated more dry masses in shoots, more ascorbate, had higher ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lesser dehydroascorbate, lesser malondialdehyde (MDA), more proline and higher antioxidant enzymes under SS than under WS. CS increased dry masses, ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, antioxidant enzymes and decreased dehydroascorbate and MDA contents from levels under WS. The drought tolerant cultivar (C306) though showed higher levels of ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lower levels of dehydroascorbate, showed lesser dry biomasses in shoots, higher MDA and lesser ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities under SS than under WS and these features were improved on combining WS with SS. All lea genes were induced under all stresses in both cultivars except Wrab17 in C306 only, was not induced under any stress. Eight Lea genes out of ten were induced higher under WS than SS in C306 but induced same in PBW343. Wdhn13 gene was higher salt-responsive than other lea genes in both cultivars.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Antioxidants/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Droughts , Gene Expression , Genes, Plant , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Sodium Chloride , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/physiology
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 139-149
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147297

ABSTRACT

The effects of elevated CO2 and O3, singly and in combination were investigated on various physiological, biochemical and yield parameters of two locally grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (HUW-37 and K-9107) in open top chambers (OTCs). Elevated CO2 stimulated photosynthetic rate (Ps) and Fv/Fm ratio and reduced the stomatal conductance (gs). Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidative enzymes, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were higher, whereas Ps, gs, Fv/Fm, protein and photosynthetic pigments were reduced in elevated O3 exposure, as compared to their controls. Under elevated CO2 + O3, elevated levels of CO2 modified the plant performance against O3 in both the cultivars. Elevated CO2 caused significant increase in economic yield. Exposure to elevated O3 caused significant reduction in yield and the effect was cultivar-specific. The study concluded that elevated CO2 ameliorated the negative impact of elevated O3 and cultivar HUW-37 was more sensitive to elevated O3 than K-9107.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Environmental Monitoring , Humidity , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Models, Biological , Models, Statistical , Oxidative Stress , Ozone , Phenol/chemistry , Photosynthesis , Pigmentation , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Temperature , Triticum/metabolism
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 126-138
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147296

ABSTRACT

Abiotic stress causes abrupt increase in the expression of stress-associated proteins, which provide tolerance by modulating the defense mechanism of plants. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and anti-oxidant enzymes are important for environmental stress tolerance of the plants. In this study, two full-length cDNAs encoding small heat shock protein (sHSP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), designated as TasHSP and SODI were identified and characterized from C-306 (thermotolerant) and PBW343 (thermosusceptible) cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). An alpha crystalline domain was observed in TasHSP and manganese/iron binding domain in case of SODI. Quantitative real-time PCR showed very high transcript level of TasHSP and SOD in C-306 compared to PBW343 at different stages of growth and against differential heat stress (HS). Under differential HS at milky-dough stage, the fold change in transcript of both TasHSP and SOD was observed maximum in C-306, compared to PBW343. Protein profiling and isoenzymes analysis showed the expression of several heat-stable proteins and prominent isoenzymes of SOD in C-306, compared to PBW343. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules showed globular, well-shaped and more numbers of endospermic cells in C-306, compared to defragmented, irregular shaped and shrunken granules in case of PBW343 under HS treatment (42°C for 2 h). Diurnal change in soluble starch synthase (SSS) activity showed an increase in the activity during afternoon (35°C), compared to morning (29°C) and evening (32°C) in both the cultivars. Under heat stress (42°C for 2 h), a drastic decrease in the SSS activity was observed, due to the thermal denaturation of the enzyme. Thermotolerance capacity analyzed using cell membrane stability (CMS) showed significantly higher CMS in case of C-306, compared to PBW343 at different stages of growth. Findings suggest that abundance of TasHSP and SODI during milky-dough stage plays a very important role in starch granule biosynthesis. The mechanism may be further exploited to develop tolerant wheat cultivar with high quality seeds.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Models, Biological , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Starch/metabolism , Starch Synthase/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 14(2): 6-6, Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591936

ABSTRACT

Background: Owing to the growing interest in biofuels, the concept of a biorefinery where biomass is converted to a variety of useful products is gaining ground. We here present how distillery waste is combined with a by-product from a sugar production, molasses, to form a medium for the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum with yields and biomass densities comparable with conventional industrial media. Such approach enables a cost-effective utilization of the problematic wastewater from ethanol and a by-product from sugar production. It is the first approach that attempts to find low-cost media for the production of Lactobacillus plantarum biomass. Results: This study suggests that sieved wheat stillage enriched by adding 1.77 g/l yeast extract and 10 percent molasses (v/v), with NH4OH used for pH adjustment, may be used as a media for large-scale cultivation of L. plantarum. Such composition of the medium permits a high density of lactic acid bacteria (1.6 x 10(10) cfu/ml) to be achieved. Conclusions: The use of a fermentation medium consisting of distillery wastewater and molasses to obtain value-added products (such as LAB biomass and lactic acid) is a possible step for classical ethanol production to move towards a biorefinery model production in which all by and waste products are utilized to increase produced values and reduce waste production. This enables a cost-effective utilization of the problematic wastewater from ethanol and sugar production.


Subject(s)
Hydroxides/metabolism , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Molasses , Triticum/metabolism , Biomass , Culture Techniques , Distillation , Ethanol , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Waste , Lactic Acid , Yeasts/metabolism
14.
IJB-Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 2011; 9 (1): 50-55
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122388

ABSTRACT

The continuous production of polygalacturonases [PGases] that Exo-polygalacturonase [exo-PGase] and Endo-polygalacturonase [endo-PGase] are two members of this group by a strain of Aspergillus awamori in surface culture fermentation was investigated. Surface culture fermentation is usually done in batch mode. Wheat flour acted as a good substrate for the cultivation of the fungus and production of PGases in surface culture fermentation. Fermentation started in batch mode until mycelia completely occupied the medium following growth of the microorganism, after which it was turned to the continuous mode by the introduction of fresh feed. The process continued for 34 days, and the thickness of the microbial layer on the surface of the liquid medium became almost constant after approximately one week. The production of PGases, however, continued throughout the experiment, and maximum activities of 1.2 U/ml and 0.014 U/ml were obtained for exo-polygalacturonase [exo- PGase] and endo-polygalacturonase [endo-PGase], respectively. An increase in production was observed when a similar system was used with a line for medium recycling. Lowering the residence time to 12 h decreased the exo-PGase and endo-PGase activities. Reducing the residence time from 24 h to 12 h almost halved the concentrations of the enzymes at the outlet


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/growth & development , Fermentation , Triticum/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Culture Media/chemistry
15.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Oct; 46(5): 405-408
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135225

ABSTRACT

Mercury is known to interact with different parts of living systems causing serious biochemical and physiological disorder. In order to know the effect of mercury (Hg2+) ion on chloroplasts, the cell free organelle are incubated in an isotonic buffer medium in presence of mercury ion. The metal ion is found to induce membrane lipid peroxidation, loss of photosynthetic pigments and degradation of proteins. Such degradation brings about a drastic modification of lipid-protein organization of chloroplasts as reflected from a blue shift of absorption peaks and lowering of chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The detrimental effect of Hg2+ ion has been explained in terms of direct binding with lipid-protein complex of photosynthetic membrane. Such a binding of metal ion exposes the lipid-protein complex for an easier entry and attack of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during incubation of chloroplasts in light and dark, thereby resulting in higher disorganization, which is evident from cation- induced changes in absorption and emission characteristics of the organelle.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Chloroplasts/drug effects , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Darkness , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Mercury/pharmacology , Photosynthesis/drug effects , Pigments, Biological/metabolism , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Protein Stability/drug effects , Thylakoids/drug effects , Thylakoids/metabolism , Triticum/cytology , Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/metabolism
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(4): 5-6, Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558548

ABSTRACT

Cellulolytic properties of two white rot fungi, Bjerkandera adusta and Pycnoporus sanguineus, cultivated on wheat straw agar medium, were characterized and compared. Optimal growing parameters for maximum enzyme production for both fungi were wheat straw medium pH 5 and 28ºC. B. adusta showed, on the 6th day of culture, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)ase activity levels 1.6 times higher than maximal P. sanguineus activity, achieved on the 8th day. B. adusta supernatants also displayed higher activity levels towards xylan (3.6-fold) compared to those of P. sanguineus. However, enzymes from P. sanguineus were more robust resisting one hour incubation at high temperatures (up to 80ºC), and exhibiting activity and stability in pH range from 2 to 8. Cellulolytic activities, with molecular masses ranging from 25 to 90 kDa, from the two species were detected in zymograms.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Activation , Cellulose , Fungi/enzymology , Fungi/metabolism , Triticum , Triticum/enzymology , Triticum/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/methods , Culture Media/metabolism , Temperature
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(3): 4-5, July 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-551882

ABSTRACT

Four commercially grown wheat varieties of Pakistan, namely Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97, Tatara and Manthar were used for this investigation. For callus induction different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2,4-D) along with 0.1 mg/L of Kinetin were evaluated. For regeneration initially different concentrations of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) and 6-BenzylAminoPurine (BAP) were tested. Best hormone combinations were further subjected to Kinetin and 6-ã-ã-dimethylallylaminopurine (2iP). For Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97 and Manthar, 3 mg/L of 2,4-D was found optimum, which induced 83.25 percent, 77.75 percent and 95.20 percent of embryogenic calli, respectively. Maximum callus induction (97.18 percent) was observed in Tatara when 2 mg/L of 2,4-D was used. As regard to regeneration, Inqilab-91, Chakwal-97 and Manthar showed maximum regeneration on media containing 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.4 mg/L Kinetin and 0.5 mg/L 2iP, regenerating 87.25 percent, 81.75 percent and 68.75 percent respectively. For Tatara maximum regeneration of 12.25 percent was obtained on 0.1 mg/L IAA and 2 mg/L of BAP. Presently optimized regeneration method holds promise for facilitating the deployment of agronomical important trait through genetic transformation for the improvement of this important food crop.


Subject(s)
Embryonic Development , Embryonic Development/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism , Agricultural Cultivation , Pakistan
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2006 Aug; 43(4): 233-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26416

ABSTRACT

The relative binding of seed water and seed coat membrane stability were measured in two contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L) varieties, HDR 77 (drought-tolerant) and HD 2009 (susceptible) using seed water sorption isotherms, electrical conductivity (EC) of leachates and desorption-absorption isotherms. Analysis of sorption isotherm at 25 degrees C showed that the seeds of HDR 77 had significantly higher number of strong binding sites, with correspondingly greater amount of seed water as strongly bound water, as compared to HD 2009. Total number of binding sites was also higher in HDR 77 than HD 2009, which explained the better desiccation tolerance and higher capacity to bind water in seeds of HDR 77. EC of seed leachate in both varieties did not change with respect to change in equilibrium relative humidity (RII), indicating the general seed coat membrane stability of wheat seeds. However, absolute conductivity values were higher for HD 2009. showing its relatively porous seed coat membrane. Significantly lower area enclosed by the desorption-absorption isotherm loop in HDR 77, as compared to HD 2009 also indicated the greater membrane integrity of HDR 77. Germination and seedling vigour of HD 2009 were reduced when equilibrated over very low and very high RH. In contrast, germination and vigour in HDR 77 were maintained high, except at very high RH, indicating again its desiccation tolerance. Thus, the study demonstrated the relative drought tolerance of HDR 77, on the basis of seed water-binding characteristics and seed membrane stability. Seed membrane stability as measured by seed leachate conductivity or as area under dehydration-rehydration loop may be used as a preliminary screening test for drought tolerance in wheat.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Binding Sites , Cell Physiological Phenomena , Germination , Permeability , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Plants/chemistry , Protein Binding , Seeds/chemistry , Triticum/metabolism , Water/chemistry
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Nov; 39(11): 1191-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56395

ABSTRACT

Two wheat varieties, T. durum (HD 4502) and T. aestivum (Kalyansona) were examined for photosynthesis rate and contents of sugars and rubisco protein in the flag leaf, at forenoon and afternoon at anthesis stage. A decrease in photosynthesis rate was observed in the afternoon compared to forenoon in both the varieties and was associated with an increase in non-reducing sugars and a decrease in rubisco content in the leaves.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
20.
Rev. invest. clín ; 47(4): 283-9, jul.-ago. 1995. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-161966

ABSTRACT

Se estudiaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas de las seis fuentes de fibra dietética más comúnmente usadas en los suplementos de fibra disponible en México. Las propiedades estudiadas permiten predecir el efecto funcional de las diferentes fuentes de fibra en el aparato digestivo. El contenido de fibra de los productos estudiados varió de 43 por ciento en el salvado de trigo (ST) a 87 por ciento en el Psyllium plantago (PP). La propocición de fibra soluble fue más alta en el glucomanan (GM) (97 por ciento), en el nopal deshidratado (ND) (28 por ciento) y en el PP (12.8 por ciento), mientras que el ST y el aislado de fibra de soya (AS) contienen una proporción más elevada de fibra insoluble siendo las proporciones de 95 y 92 por ciento, respectivamente. Las fibras de PP y GM presentaron mayor capacidad de retención de agua y viscosidad, además de que presentaron menor capacidad de intercambio de cationes, por lo que son las fibras más afectadas para regular los niveles plasmáticos de glucosa y de colesterol. Las fibras de ST y de AS con su menor capacidad de absorción de agua, menor viscosidad, y mayor proporción de fibra insoluble, son las más efectivas para aumentar el peso de las heces. El ND y el aislado de fibra de nopal resultaron intermedias en esta respuesta y tienen un aspecto más amplio de aplicación


Subject(s)
Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Dietary Fiber , Digestive System/metabolism , Digestive System/physiology , Feces/chemistry , Solubility , Soybeans/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
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