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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e003121, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251393

ABSTRACT

Abstract The chigger species Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Floch & Fauran) has been collected mainly from birds with a few records from reptiles and mammals. In Brazil, this species has been found on birds in the Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states. Here, we report the first record of B. sinnamaryi parasitizing the striped owl, Pseudoscops clamator (Vieillot), in the Paraíba state, Brazil (northeastern region).


Resumo A espécie de trombiculídeo, Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Floch & Fauran) tem sido coletada principalmente parasitando aves, com alguns registros em répteis e mamíferos. No Brasil, essa espécie foi encontrada em aves nos estados de Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro. No presente estudo, relatamos o primeiro registro de B. sinnamaryi parasitando a coruja-listrada, Pseudoscops clamator (Vieillot), no estado da Paraíba, Brasil (região Nordeste).


Subject(s)
Animals , Trombiculidae , Strigiformes , Brazil
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 563-568, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057978

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chiggers are ectoparasites of vertebrates and may cause trombiculiasis or transmit pathogens to their hosts. Specimens collected from rodents and marsupials were morphologically identified as Herpetacarus hertigi, Eutrombicula tinami, Kymocta sp., Quadraseta brasiliensis, Quadraseta falconensis, Quadraseta flochi, Quadraseta mackenziei, Quadraseta pazca, Quadraseta trapezoides, Quadraseta sp., Serratacarus sp., and Trombewingia bakeri. These mites were submitted individually to molecular analyses for the detection of bacteria of the genus Coxiella, Hepatozoon and Rickettsia. Samples were positive to Rickettsia only. Obtained sequences for the gltA (350 pb) and ompA (488 pb) genes were identical to "Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi", a species previously detected in ticks. In addition, molecular identification of mites based on 18S rDNA sequences are provided for H. hertigi, Kymocta sp., Q. brasiliensis, Q. pazca, Q. trapezoides, Quadraseta sp., and T. bakeri for the first time. This is the first report of the detection of a Rickettsia sp. in chigger mites collected on rodents in Brazil.


Resumo Os trombiculídeos são ectoparasitas de vertebrados e podem causar trombiculíase ou transmitir patógenos ao hospedeiro. Exemplares coletados em roedores e marsupiais foram identificados morfologicamente como Herpetacarus hertigi, Eutrombicula tinami, Kymocta sp., Quadraseta brasiliensis, Quadraseta falconensis, Quadraseta flochi, Quadraseta mackenziei, Quadraseta pazca, Quadraseta trapezoides, Quadraseta sp., Serratacarus sp. e Trombewingia bakeri. Estes ácaros foram submetidos individualmente à análise molecular para detecção de bactérias dos gêneros Coxiella, Hepatozoon e Rickettsia. Amostras foram positivas somente para Rickettsia. Sequências obtidas para os genes gltA (350 pb) e ompA (488 pb) foram idênticas à "Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi", uma espécie anteriormente detectada em carrapatos. Além disso, foram fornecidas sequências de DNA 18S para identificação molecular de H. hertigi, Kymocta sp., Q. brasiliensis, Q. pazca, Q. trapezoides, Quadraseta sp. e T. bakeri. Este é o primeiro registro da detecção de Rickettsia em ácaros trombiculídeos coletados em roedores do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rickettsia/genetics , Rodentia/parasitology , Trombiculidae/microbiology , Marsupialia/parasitology , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chigger mites are vectors for scrub typhus. This study evaluated the annual fluctuations in chigger mite populations and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections in South Korea.METHODS: During 2006 and 2007, chigger mites were collected monthly from wild rodents in 4 scrub typhus endemic regions of South Korea. The chigger mites were classified based on morphological characteristics, and analyzed using nested PCR for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi.RESULTS: During the surveillance period, the overall trapping rate for wild rodents was 10.8%. In total, 17,457 chigger mites (representing 5 genera and 15 species) were collected, and the average chigger index (representing the number of chigger mites per rodent), was 31.7. The monthly chigger index was consistently high (> 30) in Spring (March to April) and Autumn (October to November). The mite species included Leptotrombidium pallidum (43.5%), L. orientale (18.9%), L. scutellare (18.1%), L. palpale (10.6%), and L. zetum (3.6%). L. scutellare and L. palpale populations, were relatively higher in Autumn. Monthly O. tsutsugamushi infection rates in wild rodents (average: 4.8%) and chigger mites (average: 0.7%) peaked in Spring and Autumn.CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrated a bimodal pattern of the incidence of O. tsutsugamushi infections. Higher infection rates were observed in both wild rodents and chigger mites, in Spring and Autumn. However, this did not reflect the unimodal incidence of scrub typhus in Autumn. Further studies are needed to identify factors, such as human behavior and harvesting in Autumn that may explain this discordance.


Subject(s)
Globus Pallidus , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mites , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rodentia , Scrub Typhus , Trombiculidae
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761724

ABSTRACT

Rickettsial infections (Rickettsioses) are the causes of acute fever found in Thailand. It is classified as acute febrile illnesses transmitted by bloodsucking arthropod vectors (tick, flea, and chigger). This research investigated pathogens of scrub typhus in vectors from Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province. A total of 303 pools of vector samples were ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. microplus, and Haemaphysalis sp.), fleas (Ctenocephalides felis orientis, C. f. felis, and C. canis), and chiggers (Leptotrombidium deliense, Aschoschoengastia indica, Blankaartia acuscutellaris and Walchia disparunguis pingue) collected from reservoir hosts (dogs and rodents). The 17 and 56 kDa gene of Rickettsia causing scrub typhus were found in 29% of ticks and 98% of flea. DNA sequence analysis reveeled the detected strains were R. asembonensis and Rickettsia sp. cf1 and 5.The chiggers, 1%, were infected with Rickettsia strain TA763, a pathogen of scrub typhus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropod Vectors , Cats , Felis , Fever , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Rickettsia , Scrub Typhus , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Siphonaptera , Thailand , Ticks , Trombiculidae
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 354-362, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959191

ABSTRACT

Abstract The larvae of the family Trombiculidae are ectoparasites of vertebrates, including birds. The bite of some species can cause deep lesions and severe skin reactions in the host, these can lead to dermatitis, popularly known as trombiculiasis. A morphological study of chiggers collected on birds from the state of Minas Gerais in Southeastern Brazil discovered Blankaartia sinnamaryi-infestation on Passeriformes birds. Molecular studies of the disclosed the 18S rDNA sequences of the mite, and the detection of a Rickettsia sp. in this chigger mite species.


Resumo As larvas da família Trombiculidae são ectoparasitas de vertebrados, incluindo aves. A picada de algumas espécies pode causam lesões profundas e reações cutâneas graves no hospedeiro, estas podem levar a dermatites, popularmente conhecidas como trombiculíases. Por meio de um estudo morfológico dos espécimes coletados parasitando aves do estado de Minas Gerais, Sudeste do Brasil relatou a infestação por Blankaartia sinnamaryi em aves Passeriformes. Além disso, nós fornecemos sequências de rDNA 18S desses ácaros e a detecção de uma espécie de Rickettsia sp. nesta espécie de trombiculídeo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Trombiculidae/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Passeriformes/parasitology , Larva/microbiology , Seasons , Trombiculidae/classification , Trombiculidae/genetics , Brazil
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742268

ABSTRACT

This article reviews Leptotrombidium deliense, including its discovery and nomenclature, morphological features and identification, life cycle, ecology, relationship with diseases, chromosomes and artificial cultivation. The first record of L. deliense was early in 1922 by Walch. Under the genus Leptotrombidium, there are many sibling species similar to L. deliense, which makes it difficult to differentiate L. deliense from another sibling chigger mites, for example, L. rubellum. The life cycle of the mite (L. deliense) includes 7 stages: egg, deutovum (or prelarva), larva, nymphochrysalis, nymph, imagochrysalis and adult. The mite has a wide geographical distribution with low host specificity, and it often appears in different regions and habitats and on many species of hosts. As a vector species of chigger mite, L. deliense is of great importance in transmitting scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi disease) in many parts of the world, especially in tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The seasonal fluctuation of the mite population varies in different geographical regions. The mite has been successfully cultured in the laboratory, facilitating research on its chromosomes, biochemistry and molecular biology.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asia, Southeastern , Biochemistry , Ecology , Ecosystem , Host Specificity , Humans , Larva , Life Cycle Stages , Mites , Molecular Biology , Nymph , Ovum , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Siblings , Trombiculidae
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 104-109, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844137

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larval mites (chiggers) of the family Trombiculidae. Here, we provide the first report on parasitism by the chigger species Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans) and Eutrombicula batatas (Linnaeus) in goats and humans on farms in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. Severe itching and dermatitis caused by the chiggers' bites were seen. From a total of 779 examined goats, 214 of them showed clinical signs of infestation, as well as family members of three farms of the region. Most of the cases occurred during the rainy season, from March to September.


Resumo Trombiculíase é uma infestação causada por larvas de ácaros da família Trombiculidae. Nós reportamos pela primeira vez parasitismo por ácaros das espécies Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans) and Eutrombicula batatas (Linnaeus) em cabras e humanos em fazendas no estado do Maranhão, nordeste do Brasil. Foram observadas dermatite e coceiras severas causadas pelas picadas de trombiculídeos. De um total de 779 cabras examinadas, 214 delas apresentaram sinais clínicos de infestações, assim como membros de três famílias de fazendeiros da região. A maioria dos casos ocorreu durante a estação chuvosa, de março a setembro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Trombiculiasis/diagnosis , Trombiculiasis/veterinary , Goat Diseases/diagnosis , Trombiculidae/classification , Brazil , Goats , Goat Diseases/parasitology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180606

ABSTRACT

Chigger mites are parasites of rodents and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and other arthropods, and are the only vectors of scrub typhus, in addition to other zoonoses. Therefore, investigating their distribution, diversity, and seasonal abundance is important for public health. Rodent surveillance was conducted at 6 districts in Shandong Province, northern China (114–112°E, 34–38°N), from January to December 2011. Overall, 225/286 (78.7%) rodents captured were infested with chigger mites. A total of 451 chigger mites were identified as belonging to 5 most commonly collected species and 3 genera in 1 family. Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium intermedia were the most commonly collected chigger mites. L. scutellare (66.2%, 36.7%, and 49.0%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Apodemus agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, and Microtus fortis, respectively, whereas L. intermedia (61.5% and 63.2%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Cricetulus triton and Mus musculus, respectively. This study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of chigger mites that varied seasonally in Shandong Province, China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropods , Arvicolinae , China , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Invertebrates , Mice , Mites , Murinae , Neptune , Parasites , Prevalence , Public Health , Rats , Rodentia , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Trombiculidae , Vertebrates , Zoonoses
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9120

ABSTRACT

In light of global climate change, the seasonal and geographical distribution of vector species, especially mosquitoes, chigger mites, and ticks, are of great importance for human beings residing in rural and urban environments. A total of 12 species belonging to 4 genera have been identified as vector mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea. The most common of the 56 mosquito species in this country from 2013 through 2015 was found to be a malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis s.l. (species ratio [SR] 52%); followed by a potential vector of West Nile virus, Aedes vexans nipponii (SR 38%); a Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (SR 6%); a West Nile virus vector, Culex pipiens (SR 3%); and a dengue and Zika virus vector, Ae. albopictus (SR 0.3%). Of the scrub typhus vectors, Leptotrombidium scutellare is the predominant chigger mite in Gyongnam province and Jeju island, whereas L. pallidum is the predominant species in other areas of Korea. Ticks were found to be prevalent in most environmental conditions, and high levels of their activity were consistently observed from May to September. Haemaphysalis species of ticks were mostly collected in grasslands, whereas Ixodes species were frequently found in coniferous forests. Haemaphysalis longicornis, known as the main vector of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, was the predominant species and was widely distributed throughout the country.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Anopheles , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases , Tracheophyta , Culex , Culicidae , Dengue , Disease Vectors , Encephalitis, Japanese , Fever , Forests , Globus Pallidus , Grassland , Humans , Ixodes , Korea , Malaria , Mites , Republic of Korea , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks , Trombiculidae , West Nile virus , Zika Virus
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228224

ABSTRACT

Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi), which is endemic to an Asia-Pacific region, has increased its incidence and caused annually around 10 thousand patients infected with scrub typhus in Korea in the past several years. In the present study, we isolated 44 O. tsutsugamushi from the patients with febrile illness accompanied with or without an eschar in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. These isolates were characterized by genetic analysis of the major outer membrane protein, the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (tsa56), which is unique to O. tsutsugamushi. Two types of sequences of tsa56, designated by JJ1 and JJ2, were determined from 37 and 7 isolates of the 44 isolates, respectively. JJ1 and JJ2 showed 74.7~90.8% identity in nucleotide sequence and 66.1~90.5% identity in amino acid sequence with 33 reference strains except for Boryong and Kuroki. JJ1 and JJ2 had 100 and 99.9% nucleotide identity to Boryong strain, and 99.9 and 99.8% to Kuroki, which has been known to be similar to Boryong, respectively. In addition, they showed 77.9~ 81.4% nucleotide identity with the cluster of Gilliam-related genotypes, whereas they showed higher nucleotide identity (89.6~90.8%) with the cluster of Karp-related genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report to isolate O. tsutsugamushi and characterize their genotype as the Boryong in Jinju and West Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea, even though it has been reported that the Boryong was the predominant genotype in isolates from chiggers, domestic rodents, and patients in the southern part of Korea. Furthermore, our isolates could be useful source to study on the pathophysiology and epidemiology of scrub typhus in Korea.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Epidemiology , Genotype , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Membrane Proteins , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Rodentia , Scrub Typhus , Trombiculidae
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166326

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance for zoonotic diseases in small mammals and detection of chiggers, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, were conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in Gwangju Metropolitan Area. Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected small mammals (158; 91.8%), followed by Myodes regulus (8; 4.6%), and Crocidura lasiura (6; 3.5%). The highest seroprevalence of small mammals for O. tsutsugamushi (41; 26.3%) was followed by hantaviruses (24; 15.4%), Rickettsia spp. (22; 14.1%), and Leptospira (2; 1.3%). A total of 3,194 chiggers were collected from small mammals, and 1,236 of 3,194 chiggers were identified with 7 species of 3 genera: Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most commonly collected species (585; 47.3%), followed by L. orientale (422; 34.1%), Euchoengastia koreaensis (99; 8.0%), L. palpale (58; 4.7%), L. pallidum (36; 2.9%), Neotrombicula gardellai (28; 2.3%), and L. zetum (8; 0.6%). L. scutellare was the predominant species. Three of 1,236 chigger mites were positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR. As a result of phylogenetic analysis, the O. tsutsugamushi strain of chigger mites had sequence homology of 90.1-98.2% with Boryong. This study provides baseline data on the distribution of zoonotic diseases and potential vectors for the development of prevention strategies of vector borne diseases in Gwangju metropolitan area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arvicolinae , Globus Pallidus , Hantavirus , Korea , Leptospira , Mammals , Mites , Murinae , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rickettsia , Rodentia , Sequence Homology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Trombiculidae , Zoonoses
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99314

ABSTRACT

Parasites are recorded from the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, from Cheongju, the Republic of Korea. A total of 5 road-killed squirrels were thoroughly examined for internal and external parasites from November 2011 to May 2014. Total 4 parasite species, including 1 tapeworm and 3 ectoparasite species were recovered. They were morphologically identified as Catenotaenia dendritica (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae), Hirstionyssus sciurinus, Leptotrombidium pallidum, and Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) indages. Among them, C. dendritica and H. sciurinus are recorded for the first time in the Korean parasite fauna. In addition, the possibility that the red squirrel could act as a reservoir host for a zoonotic disease like tsutsugamushi disease with L. pallidum as its vector has been raised.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Globus Pallidus , Korea , Parasites , Republic of Korea , Sciuridae , Scrub Typhus , Trombiculidae , Zoonoses
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210964

ABSTRACT

This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 microm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities.


Subject(s)
Animal Structures/anatomy & histology , Animals , Arvicolinae/parasitology , China , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Microscopy , Murinae/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Trombiculidae/anatomy & histology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121881

ABSTRACT

A total of 9,281 larval chigger mites were collected from small mammals captured at Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do (Province) (2,754 mites from 30 small mammals), Asan city, Chungcheongnam-do (3,358 mites from 48 mammals), and Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do (3,169 for 62 mammals) from April-November 2009 in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) and were identified to species. Leptotrombidium pallidum was the predominant species in Hwaseong (95.8%) and Asan (61.2%), while Leptotrombidium scutellare was the predominant species collected from Jangseong (80.1%). Overall, larval chigger mite indices decreased from April (27.3) to June (4.9), then increased in September (95.2) and to a high level in November (169.3). These data suggest that L. pallidum and L. scutellare are the primary vectors of scrub typhus throughout their range in Korea. While other species of larval chigger mites were also collected with some implications in the transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi, they only accounted for 11.2% of all larval chigger mites collected from small mammals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arachnid Vectors , Larva/microbiology , Orientia tsutsugamushi/isolation & purification , Republic of Korea , Rodentia , Scrub Typhus/microbiology , Trombiculidae/classification
15.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 21(2): 243-251, abr.-jun. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-644105

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever o conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde sobre a tungíase em área endêmica. Métodos: estudo transversal, mediante aplicação de questionário estruturado a profissionais de Saúde Pública de seis bairros no município de Uberlândia, estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2010. Resultados: participaram do estudo 78 profissionais de saúde, dos quais 38 observaram alta prevalência de tungíase em humanos; para 61 deles, a ocorrência da tungíase tem variação sazonal, de julho a setembro; casos graves foram corretamente associados a infecções secundárias (20/78) ou superinfestação (11/78); a maioria das questões teve considerável proporção de respostas ‘Não sabe’ (Mín-Máx: 8/78-52/78), especialmente aquelas relacionadas à epidemiologia da doença. Conclusão: a tungíase é negligenciada na atenção primária e o conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde sobre a doença, mesmo lotados em área endêmica, é insuficiente.


Objective: to describe tungiasis-related knowledge of health professionals in an endemic area. Methods: a cross-sectional study, using structured questionnaire applied to 78 public health professionals of six districts in the municipality of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2010. Results: the study included 78 health professionals, from which 38 reported their observation of high prevalence of tungiasis in humans; for 61 of them, tungiasis occurrence has seasonal variation, from July to September; severe cases were correctly associated with secondary infections (20/78) or superinfestation (11/78); most of the questions had considerable proportion of answers 'Do not know' (Min-Max: 8/78-52/78), especially those related to the epidemiology of the disease. Conclusion: tungiasis is neglected by primary health care and the knowledge of health professionals about the disease, even in endemic areas were they work, is insufficient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Public Health Professional , Health Personnel , Trombiculidae
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139427

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Rickettsial infections remain under-diagnosed due to lack of diagnostic facilities in developing world. Here we present our experience at National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi, about a serosurvey done in Delhi for rickettsial disease with easy to perform low cost, low expertise Weil Felix test. Methods: On the basis of cut-off titre obtained in healthy population, Weil Felix test results were interpreted along with clinical data. Entomological investigation was also carried out in select areas of Delhi. Rodents were trapped from houses and gardens and vector mites were collected. Results: When serum samples were collected during initial 5 yr period from patients with fever of unknown origin, seropositivity was 8.2 per cent whereas when rickettsial infection was kept as one of the differential diagnosis by clinicians seropositivity increased to 33.3 per cent. Rickettsial infections detected were scrub typhus (48.2%) followed by spotted fever group (27.5%) and typhus group (6.8%) during 2005-2009. In preliminary entomological survey vector mite Leptotombidium deliense was found on rodents. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that results of Weil Felix test should not be disregarded, rather clinically compatible cases should be treated to save lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , India , Proteus vulgaris , Rats , Rickets/diagnosis , Rickets/epidemiology , Rickettsia Infections/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Trombiculidae
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45624

ABSTRACT

Monthly surveys were conducted to investigate the occurrence of chigger mites and seroprevalence of scrub typhus among small mammals in Jeollanam-do, the southwestern part of Korea, from November 2006 through October 2007. Fifty-eight small mammals, including 57 Apodemus agrarius (98.3%) and 1 Crocidura lasiura (1.7%), were captured, and a total of 4,675 chigger mites representing 4 genera and 8 species were collected from them. The chigger infestation rate among small mammals was 69.0%. The most predominant species in A. agrarius was Leptotrombidium scutellare (54.0%), followed by Leptotrombidium pallidum (39.4%), Leptotrombidium orientale (4.4%), Leptotrombidium palpale (1.1%), Neotrombicula tamiyai (0.6%), Eushoengastia koreaensis (0.3%), Neotrombicula gardellai (0.3%), and Cheladonta ikaoensis (<0.1%). The chigger index of A. agrarius was the highest in October (740.0), followed by November (242.0), September (134.6), March (98.3), February (38.2), January (35.3), December (34.5), April (30.8), and May (1.7). The average antibody positive rate of scrub typhus in wild rodents was 50.0%. The seropositive rates were high in October (100.0%) and November (83.3%), whereas those in other months were relatively low (28.6-57.1%). The chigger index of L. scutellare rapidly increased in September to form an acuminate peak in October, followed by a gradual decline. These results suggest that the outbreak of scrub typhus in the southwestern part of Korean peninsula is mostly due to L. scutellare.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antibody Specificity , Arachnid Vectors/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Murinae/parasitology , Orientia tsutsugamushi/immunology , Population Dynamics , Public Health Surveillance , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Shrews/parasitology , Species Specificity , Trombiculiasis/parasitology , Trombiculidae/microbiology
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(2): 549-555, maio 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592594

ABSTRACT

Parasitism of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus by Geckobiella sp. and by larvae of Eutrombicula alfreddugesi was examined in a mountainous area in Chapada do Araripe (07° 16' S and 39° 26' W), southern Ceará State, Brazil. Of the 56 lizards collected (26 females, 27 males, and 3 juveniles), 40 (total prevalence of 71.42 percent) were infested by mites. Mite-pockets were the sites most heavily infested by E. alfreddugesi larvae, while Geckobiella sp. was found uniformly distributed under scales over the host's entire body. The female specimens of T. hispidus parasitised by E. alfreddugesi had an average infestation rate of 8.57 ± 3.62, 1-27, while the males had an average infestation rate of 11.90 ± 2.63, 1-25. The female specimens parasitised by Geckobiella sp. had an average infestation rate of 5.91 ± 2.28, 1-25, while the males had an average infestation rate of 5.43 ± 1.52, 1-23. Seven specimens were also infested by eggs and immature forms of unidentified mites (average 2.28 ± 0.89, 1-7). There were no significant differences between the total prevalence of mites on adult male (70.4 percent) and adult female (65.4 percent) lizards. The body sizes of the hosts did not influence their infestation rates. The average infestation intensity by E. alfreddugesi (10.2 ± 8.7) was significantly greater than the average infestation intensity by Geckobiella sp. (5.9 ± 6.8). T. hispidus is the new host record to Geckobiella mites.


No presente estudo foi analisado o parasitismo do lagarto Tropidurus hispidus pelos ácaros Geckobiella sp. e larvas de Eutrombicula alfreddugesi em uma área na Chapada do Araripe (07° 16' S e 39° 26' W), região sul do Estado do Ceará, Brasil. Dos 56 lagartos coletados (26 fêmeas, 27 machos, e 3 juvenis), 40 (prevalência total de 71,42 por cento) estavam infestados por ácaros. Entre os sites de infestação, as bolsas de ácaros foram os mais infestados pelas larvas de E. alfreddugesi, enquanto Geckobiella sp. foi encontrado distribuído uniformemente sob as escamas por todo o corpo dos hospedeiros. Os espécimes fêmeas de T. hispidus parasitados por E. alfreddugesi tinham uma infestação média de 8,57 ± 3,63, 1-27, enquanto os machos tinham uma média de infestação de 11,90 ± 2,63, 1-25. Os espécimes fêmeas parasitados por Geckobiella sp. tinham uma infestação média de 5,91 ± 2,28, 1-25, enquanto que os machos tinham uma infestação média de 5,43 ± 1,52, 1-23. Sete espécimes estavam também infestados por ovos e formas imaturas de ácaros não identificados (infestação média de 2,28 ± 0,89, 1-7). Não houve diferenças significativas entre a prevalência total de ácaros em machos (70,4 por cento) e fêmeas (65,4 por cento) adultas. As médias dos tamanhos corporais não influenciaram as taxas de infestação. A intensidade de infestação média por E. alfreddugesi (10,2 ± 8,7) foi significativamente maior do que a encontrada para Geckobiella sp. (5,9 ± 6,8). T. hispidus constitui um novo registro de hospedeiro para ácaros do gênero Geckobiella.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Host-Parasite Interactions , Lizards/parasitology , Mite Infestations/veterinary , Mites/physiology , Brazil , Larva , Mite Infestations/parasitology , Mites/classification , Trombiculidae/physiology
19.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 19(4): 379-388, out-dez. 2010. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-580212

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de tungíase e identificar os fatores associados em uma área de aglomerado subnormal de Natal-RN. Metodologia: estudo populacional, transversal conduzido de novembro de 2008 a maio de 2009. Dados foram coletados através de questionários socioambiental, clínico-epidemiológico e clínico-veterinário. Todos os 310 indivíduos residentes foram examinados. Resultados: a prevalência foi 23,2 por cento (IC95 por cento: 18,6-28,3). Fatores independentemente associados foram: sexo masculino (OR=2,9; IC95 por cento: 1,2-7,0), analfabetismo/baixa escolaridade (OR=4,1; IC95 por cento: 1,7-9,6)) e uso de calçados variando de OR=13,7; IC95 por cento: 4,3-43,9 a OR=48,8; IC95 poe cento: 10,5-227,9. Conclusão: na população estudada, a tungíase estava fortemente associada à baixa escolaridade e inadequado uso de calçados.


Objective. to estimate the prevalence and to identify the associated factors of tungiasis in a shanty town in the capital city of Natal, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Methodology: the population study was conducted from November 2008 to May 2009, when data were collected using socioenvironmental, epidemiological and veterinary questionnaires. A total of 310 residents were examined. Results: the prevalence was 23.2 per cent (95 per cent CI 18.6 - 28.3). Factors independently associated were: male (OR 95 per cent CI 2.9, 1.2 - 7.0), illiteracy/poor education (OR 95 per cent CI 4.1, 1.7 - 9.6) and footwear – OR 95 per cent ranged from 13.7 (4.3 - 43.9) to 48.8 (10.5 - 227.9). Conclusion: in that population, tungiasis was strongly associated with low education and inadequate use of footwear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Prevalence , Trombiculidae
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291534

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether Leptotrombidium scutellare could be naturally infected by both Hantaan virus (HV) and Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) and transmission status by stinging.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>3459 Leptotrombidium scutellares from mice bodies and 3265 which were free were collected in the epidemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and tsutsugamushi disease.15 days later, the suspensions of lung and spleen of mice with 6 in a group stung by 1, 5 or 10 infected mites were injected intra-cerebrally into other mice for the detection of HV and OT in the next 6 generations of the mice, with immunofluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and Giemsa staining technique. The passages of Vero-E6 cells inoculated on the aseptic filtrations from different number of infected mites were used to detect HV and OT pathogens. HV-RNA and OT-DNA were detected by PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After passage, HV positive mouse body mite group out of both 5 and 10 mites in the sixth generation, OT positive mouse body mite group out of the 10 mites in the sixth generation, both HV and OT positive mouse body mite group out of 1 mite in the fifth and sixth generation, both HV and OT positive mouse body mite group out of 5 and 10 mites in the sixth generation, and free mites group out of 1, 5 and 10 mites in the sixth generation, were found one mouse infected by both HV and OT, respectively. Out of the fourth generation of Vero-E6 cells, one sample was found both HV and OT positive out of 5 and 10 HV and OT mouse body mite group, respectively. In the sixth generation, both HV and OT positive cells were detected in one mouse mite group and the 1, 5, 10 free mite groups, respectively. HV-RNA and OT-DNA were all detected by PCR.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both HV and OT could be coexisted in wild Leptotrombidium scutellare and transmitted by stinging.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Hantaan virus , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , Insect Bites and Stings , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Mites , Parasitology , Virology , Murinae , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Scrub Typhus , Trombiculidae
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