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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this article, we estimated the combined effect of radiotherapy (RT) with ultrasound (US) wave and the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to improve their combined therapeutic effects. METHODS: At first, HeLa cells received the various treatment modalities: RT (6 MV; 0.5, 1, and 2 Gy), US irradiation (1 MHz; 0.5, 1, and 1.5 W/cm2, 1 minute), and RT+US. Afterwards, the enhanced effect of US on RT was evaluated. Then, the effect of the synthesized GNPs at different concentrations (0.2, 1, and 5 µg/mL, 24 hours) was evaluated to assess the effect on HeLa cells combined with RT+US. Cell survival rates in the different treatment groups at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-treatment were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue assays. RESULTS: Our results show US irradiation could enhance the effect of RT at the same radiation dose and could be utilized as a sensitizer agent for RT. Moreover, our findings indicate RT+US in combination with different nanoparticle concentrations could enhance the effect of RT+US so that they can improve the treatment results up to 9.93 times and act as sonodynamic-radiosensitivity. These results also indicate that the combination of RT with US along with GNPs has synergistic effects compared to RT or US alone. Cell survival results show that combining the low US waves (1.5 W/cm2), GNPs (5 μg/mL), and X-rays (2 Gy) increase the cytotoxicity on HeLa cell up to 95.8%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that GNPs could act as a good sensitizing agent in RT+US irradiation and could result in the synergistic effects.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , HeLa Cells , Humans , Nanoparticles , Radiotherapy , Therapeutic Uses , Trypan Blue , Ultrasonography , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148363

ABSTRACT

Among the genotoxic drug regimens, doxorubicin (DOX) is known for its high-dose side effects in several carcinomas, including cervical cancer. This study reports on testing the combined use of a DOX genotoxic drug and SCR-7 non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) inhibitor for HeLa cells. An in vitro DNA damaging assay of DOX was performed on plasmid and genomic DNA substrate. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated using trypan blue dye exclusion, DNA metabolizing, and propidium iodide-based flow cytometric assays. DOX (between 20–100 μM) displayed clear DNA binding and interaction, such as the shearing and smearing of plasmid and genomic DNA. DNA metabolizing assay data indicate that HeLa lysate with DOX and SCR-7 treatment exhibited better in vitro plasmid DNA stability compared with DOX treatment alone. SCR-7 augmented the effects of low-dose DOX by demonstrating enhanced cell death from 15% to 50%. The flow cytometric data also supported that the combination of SCR-7 with DOX lead to a 23% increase in propidium iodide-based HeLa staining, thus indicating enhanced death. In summary, the inhibition of NHEJ DNA repair pathway can potentiate low-dose DOX to produce appreciable cytotoxicity in HeLa cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , DNA , DNA Damage , DNA End-Joining Repair , DNA Repair , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Genomic Instability , HeLa Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Plasmids , Propidium , Trypan Blue , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
3.
Blood Research ; : 25-30, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance, proliferation, and apoptosis. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is considered an essential factor in the maintenance of HSCs in mammalian cells. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the mRNA expression level of DNMT1 during cord blood (CB)-HSC ex vivo expansion with MSCs. METHODS: Ex vivo cultures of CB-HSCs were performed in three culture conditions for 7 days: cytokines, cytokines with MSCs, and only MSCs. Total and viable cell numbers were counted after 5 and 7 days using trypan blue stain, and the stem cell percentage was then evaluated by flow cytometry. Moreover, in vitro colony-forming unit assay was carried out to detect clonogenic potential of HSCs at days 0 and 7 using MethoCult H4434. Finally, DNMT1 mRNA expression level was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Maximum CB-CD34⁺ cell expansion was observed on day 7 in all the three cultures. After 7 days, ex vivo expansion of CB-CD34⁺ cells indicated a significant decrease in DNMT1 expression in the cytokine cultures, whereas in the two co-culture conditions DNMT1 expression was increased. A significant difference between the number of CD34⁺ and CD34⁻ cells in the cytokine co-culture system was observed. CONCLUSION: These data indicated that an elevated expression of DNMT1 is associated with increased expansion and proliferation of HSCs co-cultured with human MSCs. Hence, DNMT1 may be a potential factor in the maintenance of expanded HSCs co-cultured with human MSCs.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Count , Coculture Techniques , Cytokines , DNA , Fetal Blood , Flow Cytometry , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Trypan Blue
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179982

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of trypan blue (TB) on the survival of cultured human trabecular meshwork cells (HTMCs). METHODS: Primarily cultured HTMCs were exposed to 0.05, 0.10 or 0.50% TB for 1, 5 or 30 min. Cellular survival was assessed using the MTT assay and degree of apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. RESULTS: Long-term exposure or high concentration of TB decreased the survival of HTMCs (p < 0.05). In flow cytometric analysis, exposure to 0.50% TB for 30 min increased the degree of apoptosis (p < 0.05). Commercial TB decreased cell survival after exposure for 5 min and increased the degree of apoptosis after exposure for 30 min (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: TB may cause cellular damage of cultured HTMCs and apoptosis could be the underlying mechanism. In TB-assisted cataract surgery, TB should be used for the shortest time possible and removed completely.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cataract , Cell Survival , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Trabecular Meshwork , Trypan Blue
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the main component of amyloid plaques, which are deposited in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Biochemical and animal studies support the central role of Aβ in AD pathogenesis. Despite several investigations focused on the pathogenic mechanisms of Aβ, it is still unclear how Aβ accumulates in the central nervous system and subsequently initiates the disease at the cellular level. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic mechanisms of Aβ using proteomics and antibody microarrays. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of Aβ on neural stem cells (NSCs), we treated primary cultured cortical NSCs with several doses of Aβ for 48 h. A 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, trypan blue staining, and bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation assay were performed. We detected several intracellular proteins that may be associated with Aβ by proteomics and Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: Various viability tests showed that Aβ decreased NSCs viability and cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Aβ treatment significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase B, high-mobility group box 1, aldolase C, Ezrin, and survival signals including phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that several factors determined by proteomics and Western blot hold the clue to Aβ pathogenesis. Further studies are required to investigate the role of these factors.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Central Nervous System , Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase , Glycogen Synthase , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Neural Stem Cells , Plaque, Amyloid , Proteomics , Trypan Blue
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurogenesis in the adult brain is important for memory and learning, and the alterations in neural stem cells (NSCs) may be an important aspect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been suggested to have an important role in neuronal cell survival and is highly involved in adult neurogenesis. Candesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hypertension and several studies have reported that it also has some neuroprotective effects. We investigated whether candesartan could restore the amyloid-β(25–35) (Aβ₂₅₋₃₅) oligomer-inhibited proliferation of NSCs by focusing on the PI3K pathway. METHODS: To evaluate the effects of candesartan on the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomer-inhibited proliferation of NSCs, the NSCs were treated with several concentrations of candesartan and/or Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomers, and MTT assay and trypan blue staining were performed. To evaluate the effect of candesartan on the Aβ-inhibited proliferation of NSCs, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay. The levels of p85α PI3K, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) (Ser473), phosphorylated glycogen sinthase kinase-3β (pGSK-3β) (Ser9), and heat shock transcription factor-1 (HSTF-1) were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: The BrdU assays demonstrated that NSC proliferation decreased with Aβ25-35 oligomer treatment; however, a combined treatment with candesartan restored it. Western blotting displayed that candesartan treatment increased the expression levels of p85α PI3K, pAkt (Ser473), pGSK-3β (Ser9), and HSTF. The NSCs were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002; the effects of candesartan on the proliferation of NSCs inhibited by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomers were almost completely blocked. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results suggest that candesartan restores the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomer-inhibited proliferation of NSCs by activating the PI3K pathway.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Blotting, Western , Brain , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Survival , Glycogen , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hypertension , Learning , Memory , Neural Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositols , Receptors, Angiotensin , Shock , Trypan Blue
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 611-616, jul. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-794760

ABSTRACT

Atualmente, a cápsula anterior e o epitélio da lente tem sido cada vez mais estudados, com o intuito de reduzir as possíveis complicações do pós-operatório da remoção da catarata, tal como a opacidade da cápsula posterior, alteração ocasionada principalmente pela diferenciação e migração das células do epitélio lenticular para a cápsula posterior da lente. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a composição molecular da cápsula anterior da lente pela técnica histoquímica de PAS (avaliação de proteoglicanos) e picrosirius red (avaliação de colágeno IV), em cães idosos com catarata diabética e não diabética do tipo hipermadura, submetidos ao uso ou não de azul de tripano a 0,1 % durante a facoemulsificação. Vinte e sete cães foram estudados, incluindo 21 fêmeas e 6 machos, de 8 a 12 anos de idade (média = 9,6 anos), de diversas raças e divididos em 2 grupos: GC (catarata hipermadura) e GCD (catarata diabética). Os resultados das análises realizadas mostraram que ambas as amostras, tanto as provenientes das cataratas hipermaduras, quanto das diabéticas, apresentam semelhante composição molecular de proteoglicanos e colágeno IV e isto independente da utilização de azul de tripano a 0,1 %. Conclui-se, portanto, que se os resultados obtidos forem decorrentes de alterações provocadas pelo rápido metabolismo da catarata diabética e pela cronicidade da catarata hipermadura sugere-se que o comprometimento da estrutura capsular seja de intensidade equivalente e, por consequência, que isto também possa prejudicar o metabolismo das células do epitélio anterior da lente, diminuindo assim a incidência da opacidade da cápsula posterior de cães com catarata diabética e hipermadura submetidos à facoemulsificação.(AU)


Nowadays, the anterior lens capsule and its epithelium have been being frequently studied aiming to reduce the incidence of posterior lens capsule opacity, a complication that frequently occurs after surgical removal of cataracts, due to epithelium cells differentiation and migration to the posterior pole. The objective of this study was to evaluate by histochemistry (PAS and picrosirius red) analysis two important molecular components of the anterior lens capsule (proteoglycans and type IV collagen) in older diabetic and non-diabetic dogs, with diabetic and hypermature cataracts, after phacoemulsification surgery utilizing 0.1% trypan blue or not. Twenty seven dogs, including 21 female and 6 male dogs, with ages varying from 8 to 12 years old (mean = 9.6 yo) of different breeds were studied. The animals were divided into 2 groups: GC (hypermature cataracts) and GCD (diabetic cataracts). Results showed that, besides their different pathophysiologies, both types of capsules studied (diabetic and hypermature ones) presented the same molecular composition of proteoglycans and type IV collagen, since no statistical significant differences were observed. In addition, 0.1% trypan blue was not capable to induce any other evident alteration for the samples. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, if the results consist in alteration induced by the aggressive metabolism of the diabetic cataract or the chronicity of the hypermature one, it is of the same intensity and independent of the use of 0.1% trypan blue. It is also possible to suggest that this alteration must be capable to compromise lens epithelium cell metabolism, which should probably favour future lens posterior capsule studies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Anterior Capsule of the Lens/pathology , Cataract/complications , Cataract/veterinary , Diabetes Mellitus/veterinary , Posterior Capsule of the Lens/surgery , Collagen Type IV/analysis , Phacoemulsification/veterinary , Proteoglycans/analysis , Trypan Blue
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57437

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii infection induces alteration of the host cell cycle and cell proliferation. These changes are not only seen in directly invaded host cells but also in neighboring cells. We tried to identify whether this alteration can be mediated by exosomes secreted by T. gondii-infected host cells. L6 cells, a rat myoblast cell line, and RH strain of T. gondii were selected for this study. L6 cells were infected with or without T. gondii to isolate exosomes. The cellular growth patterns were identified by cell counting with trypan blue under confocal microscopy, and cell cycle changes were investigated by flow cytometry. L6 cells infected with T. gondii showed decreased proliferation compared to uninfected L6 cells and revealed a tendency to stay at S or G2/M cell phase. The treatment of exosomes isolated from T. gondii-infected cells showed attenuation of cell proliferation and slight enhancement of S phase in L6 cells. The cell cycle alteration was not as obvious as reduction of the cell proliferation by the exosome treatment. These changes were transient and disappeared at 48 hr after the exosome treatment. Microarray analysis and web-based tools indicated that various exosomal miRNAs were crucial for the regulation of target genes related to cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the exosomes originating from T. gondii could change the host cell proliferation and alter the host cell cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Exosomes , Flow Cytometry , Microarray Analysis , MicroRNAs , Microscopy, Confocal , Myoblasts , Rats , S Phase , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Trypan Blue
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thiamylal sodium is a common anesthetic barbiturate prepared in alkaline solution for clinical use. There is no previously reported study on the effects of barbiturates on the inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we examined the effects of clinical-grade thiamylal sodium solution (TSS) on the inflammation and proliferation of rat VSMCs. METHODS: Expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and toll-like receptors in rat VSMCs were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and microarray analyses. The production of IL-6 by cultured VSMCs or ex vivo-cultured rat aortic segments was detected in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VSMC proliferation and viability were determined by the water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay and trypan blue staining, respectively. RESULTS: TSS increased expression of IL-1α, IL-6, and TLR4 in VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced IL-1β expression. Ex vivo TSS stimulation of rat aorta also increased IL-6. Low concentrations of TSS enhanced VSMC proliferation, while high concentrations reduced both cell proliferation and viability. Expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist, which regulates cell proliferation, was not increased by TSS stimulation. Exposure of cells to the TSS additive, sodium carbonate, resulted in significant upregulation of IL-1α and IL-6 mRNA levels, to a greater extent than TSS. CONCLUSIONS: TSS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by VSMCs is caused by sodium carbonate. However, pure thiamylal sodium has an anti-inflammatory effect in VSMCs. TSS exposure to VSMCs may promote vascular inflammation, leading to the progression of atherosclerosis or in-stent restenosis, resulting in vessel bypass graft failure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Atherosclerosis , Barbiturates , Carbon , Cell Proliferation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Sodium , Thiamylal , Toll-Like Receptors , Transplants , Trypan Blue , Up-Regulation
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment is a promising tool for dermal tissue regeneration. PRP combined with subcision can synergistically induce dermal tissue regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PRP on the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblasts, as well as on the type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-2 expression in these skin cells. The effect of PRP with subcision on the expression of TGF-beta1 was also investigated in an animal model. METHODS: Human skin fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of PRP. The proliferation and migration rate of the cells were evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion method and scratch assay, respectively. The expression levels of type I collagen, MMP-1, and MMP-2 were analyzed by western blot or RT-PCR. In addition, the activity levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 were studied by zymography. Finally, we treated the animal back with PRP, subcision, or PRP with subcision. The specimens were evaluated by H&E, Masson-trichrome, and TGF-beta1 immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Data from this study showed that PRP more effectively promoted the migration and proliferation of cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of type I collagen, MMP-1, and MMP-2 were increased in PRP-treated fibroblasts at the protein and mRNA levels. The in vivo study revealed that the expression of TGF-beta1 was prominently increased by co-treatment with PRP and subcision rather than by treatment with either PRP or subcision alone. CONCLUSION: PRP treatment promoted fibroblast migration and proliferation, and increased the expression of type I collagen, MMP-1, MMP-2, and TGF-beta1. Therefore, PRP co-application with subcision is an effective method for dermal remodeling and can be a good treatment option for depressed acne scars.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cicatrix , Collagen Type I , Fibroblasts , Humans , Models, Animal , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Trypan Blue
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment is a promising tool for dermal tissue regeneration. PRP combined with subcision can synergistically induce dermal tissue regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PRP on the proliferation and migration of skin fibroblasts, as well as on the type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-2 expression in these skin cells. The effect of PRP with subcision on the expression of TGF-beta1 was also investigated in an animal model. METHODS: Human skin fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of PRP. The proliferation and migration rate of the cells were evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion method and scratch assay, respectively. The expression levels of type I collagen, MMP-1, and MMP-2 were analyzed by western blot or RT-PCR. In addition, the activity levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 were studied by zymography. Finally, we treated the animal back with PRP, subcision, or PRP with subcision. The specimens were evaluated by H&E, Masson-trichrome, and TGF-beta1 immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Data from this study showed that PRP more effectively promoted the migration and proliferation of cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of type I collagen, MMP-1, and MMP-2 were increased in PRP-treated fibroblasts at the protein and mRNA levels. The in vivo study revealed that the expression of TGF-beta1 was prominently increased by co-treatment with PRP and subcision rather than by treatment with either PRP or subcision alone. CONCLUSION: PRP treatment promoted fibroblast migration and proliferation, and increased the expression of type I collagen, MMP-1, MMP-2, and TGF-beta1. Therefore, PRP co-application with subcision is an effective method for dermal remodeling and can be a good treatment option for depressed acne scars.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cicatrix , Collagen Type I , Fibroblasts , Humans , Models, Animal , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Trypan Blue
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue damage of cryopreserved fat after autologous fat transfer is inevitable in several processes of re-transplantation. This study aims to compare and analyze the survivability of adipocytes after thawing fat cryopreserved at -20degrees C by using thawing methods used in clinics. METHODS: The survival rates of adipocytes in the following thawing groups were measured: natural thawing at 25degrees C for 15 minutes; natural thawing at 25degrees C for 5 minutes, followed by rapid thawing at 37degrees C in a water bath for 5 minutes; and rapid thawing at 37degrees C for 10 minutes in a water bath. The survival rates of adipocytes were assessed by measuring the volume of the fat layer in the top layers separated after centrifugation, counting the number of live adipocytes after staining with trypan blue, and measuring the activity of mitochondria in the adipocytes. RESULTS: In the group with rapid thawing for 10 minutes in a water bath, it was observed that the cell count of live adipocytes and the activity of the adipocyte mitochondria were significantly higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05). The volume of the fat layer separated by centrifugation was also measured to be higher, which was, however, not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: It was shown that the survival rate of adipocytes was higher when the frozen fat tissue was thawed rapidly at 37degrees C. It can thus be concluded that if fats thawed with this method are re-transplanted, the survival rate of cryopreserved fats in transplantation will be improved, and thus, the effect of autologous fat transfer will increase.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Autografts , Baths , Cell Count , Centrifugation , Cryopreservation , Fats , Mitochondria , Survival Rate , Trypan Blue , Water
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14025

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neuronal apoptotic events induced by aging and hypoxic/ischemic conditions is an important risk factor in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemia stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The peel of Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka has long been used as a traditional medicine, based on multiple biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-obesity. In the current study, we examined the actions of fermented C. sunki peel extract against cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-mediated hypoxic death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. METHODS: Cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion. Expression of apoptosis related proteins and release of cytochrome c were detected by western blot. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic morphology were examined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. RESULTS: Exposure to CoCl2, a well-known mimetic agent of hypoxic/ischemic condition, resulted in neuronal cell death via caspase-3 dependent pathway. Extract of fermented C. sunki peel significantly rescued the CoCl2-induced neuronal toxicity with the cell viability and appearance of apoptotic morphology. Cytoprotection with fermented C. sunki peel extract was associated with a decrease in activities of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, increase in the intracellular ROS and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol were inhibited by treatment with extract of fermented C. sunki peel. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, fermented C. sunki peel extract might have a protective effect against CoCl2-induced neuronal injury partly through generation of ROS and effectors involved in mitochondrial mediated apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Aging , Alzheimer Disease , Hypoxia , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Citrus , Cobalt , Cytochromes c , Cytoprotection , Cytosol , Humans , Ischemia , Medicine, Traditional , Mitochondria , Neuroblastoma , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Risk Factors , Stroke , Trypan Blue
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(6): 388-391, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735801

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present experimental study aimed to investigate the effects of intracameral trypan blue (TB) on oxidative stress parameters and apoptosis in corneal tissue. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 rats each: the sham group (Group 1); control group (Group 2); and treatment group (Group 3). The control group was administered 0.01 cc of balanced salt solution. The treatment group was administered 0.006 mg/0.01 cc of TB. The total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) in corneal tissue and blood were measured and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Finally, corneal tissue histopathology was evaluated using staining for caspase-3 and -8, and apoptotic activity was examined. Results: The TAS, TOS and OSI levels in the blood samples were not significantly different (p>0.05 for all). Compared with the sham and control groups, the TOS and OSI levels in corneal tissue were significantly different in the treatment group (p<0.05 for all). No significant difference was observed between the sham group and the control group (p>0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and caspase-8 demonstrated higher apoptotic activity in the TB group than in the sham and control groups. Conclusion: The present study showed that intracameral TB injection is safe systematically but may be toxic to corneal tissue, as demonstrated using oxidative stress parameters and histopathological evaluation. .


Objetivo: Este estudo experimental tem como objetivo investigar os efeitos do azul de tripan intracameral (TB) sobre parâmetros de estresse oxidativo e apoptose no tecido da córnea. Métodos: Trinta ratos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 10 animais cada: grupo simulação (Grupo 1); grupo controle (Grupo 2); e grupo tratamento (Grupo 3). No grupo controle foi administrado 0,01 cc de solução salina balanceada (BSS). No grupo tratamento foi administrado 0,006 mg/0,01 cm de TB. O estado antioxidante total ( TAS) e estado oxidante total ( TOS) no tecido da córnea e sangue foram medidos e o índice de estresse oxidativo (OSI) foi calculado. Finalmente, histopatologia do tecido da córnea foi avaliada por meio da coloração para caspase-3 e -8; atividade apoptótica também foi examinada. Resultados: Os níveis de TAS, TOS e OSI das amostras de sangue não foram significativamente diferentes (p>0,05 para todos). Em comparação com os grupos simulação e controle, os níveis de TOS e OSI no tecido da córnea foram significativamente diferentes no grupo tratamento (p<0,05 para todos). Não houve diferença significativa entre o grupo simulção e o grupo controle (p>0,05). A coloração imuno-histoquímica com a caspase-3 e caspase-8 demonstrou maior atividade apoptótica no grupo tratamento do que nos grupos controle e simulação. Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a injeção intracameral TB é segura sistematicamente, mas pode ser tóxica ao tecido da córnea, como demonstrado através de parâmetros de estresse oxidativo e avaliação histopatológica. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Apoptosis/drug effects , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Cornea/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Trypan Blue/pharmacology , Antioxidants/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Feasibility Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Injections, Intraocular , Oxidants , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Trypan Blue/administration & dosage
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 73(6): 363-376, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741909

ABSTRACT

Vitrectomy is a surgery that involves complex and delicate techniques that treat diseases such as macular hole, epiretinal membrane and diabetic macular edema. Chromovitrectomy is one of these techniques and includes the use of coloring agents such as vital dyes or crystals to enhanced visibility of transparent structures during vitrectomy. The aim of this study was to present a modern approach, based on scientific evidence, about the application and indication of vital coloring agents during vitrectomy. The use of such agents has made this surgery more predictable and has increased its post-operative prognosis. Although research on chromovitrectomy is currently expanding there is still not an established gold standard dyeing agent.


A cirurgia vitreorretiniana é uma cirurgia que envolve técnicas complexas e delicadas que tratam doenças como buraco macular, membrana epirretiniana e o edema macular diabético. A cromovitrectomia é uma dessas técnicas que incluem o uso de corantes compostos de pigmentos vitais ou cristais para melhorar a visibilização de estruturas transparentes durante a cirurgia de vitrectomia. O objetivo desse artigo foi apresentar uma abordagem atual, baseada em evidências, sobre a aplicação e indicação de corantes vitais durante a cirurgia vitreorretiniana. O emprego desses corantes possibilitou uma maior previsibilidade para a cirurgia, melhorando assim seu prognóstico pós-operatório. Apesar do campo da cromovitrectomia está em plena expansão de pesquisas, um corante gold standard para cromovitrectomia ainda não está estabelecido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staining and Labeling/methods , Vitrectomy/methods , Vitrectomy/trends , Coloring Agents/administration & dosage , Retina/surgery , Retinal Perforations/surgery , Rosaniline Dyes/administration & dosage , Trypan Blue/administration & dosage , Basement Membrane/surgery , Basement Membrane/ultrastructure , Vitreous Body/surgery , Bromphenol Blue/administration & dosage , Triamcinolone Acetonide/administration & dosage , Epiretinal Membrane/surgery , Indocyanine Green/administration & dosage , Injections , Light
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(3): 173-177, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723834

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel lutein-based dye for the anterior capsulorhexis during phacoemulsification in cataract surgery in humans. Methods: Twenty-five eyes from 25 patients were operated by 25 different surgeons who performed continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) guided by a lutein-based dye (PhacodyneTM) during cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. A questionnaire assessed the surgeon's opinion regarding the efficacy of the dye. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1, 7, and 30 days post-surgery. Eyes were evaluated by full ophthalmic examination, corneal topography/pachymetry, and corneal endothelial cell count. Results: As revealed by the answers to the questionnaire, the dye facilitated the CCC procedure in all eyes. Baseline nuclear cataract classification (according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III; LOCS III) was 3.24 (± 1.12). Preoperative BCVA (logMAR) was 0.89 ± 0.59 and improved to 0.23 ± 0.22 on day 30 after surgery. The intraocular pressure (IOP) remained stable and the inflammatory reaction subsided in all cases within the first 7 days after surgery. The pre-operative values of corneal pachymetry and IOP were similar to those found on follow-up day 30. Loss in endothelial cell number was similar to earlier reports. Conclusion: PhacodyneTM was efficient when used for anterior capsulorhexis during cataract surgery by phacoemulsification and showed no signs of toxicity or side effects during the 30-day follow-up period. .


Objetivos: Avaliar a eficácia e eficiência de um novo corante à base de luteína para coloração da cápsula anterior durante cirurgia de facoemulsificação em humanos. Métodos: Vinte e cinco olhos de 25 pacientes foram operados por 25 cirurgiões diferentes que realizaram capsulorrexis circular contínua e facoemulsificação após coloração da cápsula anterior com corante à base de luteína. Um questionário avaliou a opinião dos cirurgiões sobre a eficácia do corante. Exames pós-operatórios foram realizados nos dias 1, 7 e 30 por meio de exame oftalmológico completo, topografia/ paquimetria e contagem de células endoteliais. Resultados: De acordo com o questionário aplicado, o corante facilitou a cirurgia em todos os olhos. A classificação da catarata de acordo com o LOCS III foi de 3,24 ± 1,12. A acuidade visual pré-operatória com melhor correção foi de 0,89 ± 0,59 (logMAR), passando a 0,23 ± 0,22 no pós-operatório. A pressão intraocular (PIO) permaneceu estável e houve reação de câmara leve que desapareceu em todos os casos durante os primeiros 7 dias de pós-operatório. Não houve significância estatística comparando a paquimetria e PIO pré e pós-operatórios. Conclusão: O novo corante se mostrou eficiente e sem sinais de toxicidade ou efeitos adversos, após 30 dias, quando usado para auxiliar a cirurgia de facoemulsificação. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anterior Capsule of the Lens/surgery , Capsulorhexis/methods , Coloring Agents , Lutein , Phacoemulsification/methods , Trypan Blue , Anterior Capsule of the Lens/drug effects , Cell Count , Corneal Pachymetry , Endothelial Cells , Intraocular Pressure , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(4): 287-298, 8/4/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705764

ABSTRACT

The compounds 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide promote the successful production of cloned mammals and have been used in the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study investigated the effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide in vitro, using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the trypan blue exclusion assay to assess cell viability, the comet assay to assess genotoxicity, and the micronucleus test with cytokinesis block to test mutagenicity. In addition, the comet assay and the micronucleus test were also performed on peripheral blood cells of 54 male Swiss mice, 35 g each, to assess the effects of the compounds in vivo. The results indicated that both 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide, at the concentrations and doses tested, were cytotoxic in vitro and genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, altered the nuclear division index in vitro, but did not diminish cell viability in vitro. Considering that alterations in DNA play important roles in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and morphofunctional teratogenesis and reduce embryonic viability, this study indicated that 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide utilized in the process of mammalian cloning may be responsible for the low embryo viability commonly seen in nuclear transfer after implantation in utero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Comet Assay , Cloning, Organism/methods , Cycloheximide/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity , Adenine/toxicity , Cell Culture Techniques , Coloring Agents , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokinesis/drug effects , /drug effects , Mammals , Micronucleus Tests , Mutagenicity Tests , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Tetrazolium Salts/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Trypan Blue/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(4): 307-3015, 8/4/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705765

ABSTRACT

Dye exclusion tests are used to determine the number of live and dead cells. These assays are based on the principle that intact plasma membranes in live cells exclude specific dyes, whereas dead cells do not. Although widely used, the trypan blue (TB) exclusion assay has limitations. The dye can be incorporated by live cells after a short exposure time, and personal reliability, related to the expertise of the analyst, can affect the results. We propose an alternative assay for evaluating cell viability that combines the TB exclusion test and the high sensitivity of the flow cytometry technique. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of TB to emit fluorescence when complexed with proteins. According to our results, TB/bovine serum albumin and TB/cytoplasmic protein complexes emit fluorescence at 660 nm, which is detectable by flow cytometry using a 650-nm low-pass band filter. TB at 0.002% (w/v) was defined as the optimum concentration for distinguishing unstained living cells from fluorescent dead cells, and fluorescence emission was stable for 30 min after cell treatment. Although previous studies have shown that TB promotes green fluorescence quenching, TB at 0.002% did not interfere with green fluorescence in human live T-cells stained with anti-CD3/fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) monoclonal antibody. We observed a high correlation between the percentage of propidium iodide+CD3/FITC+ and TB+CD3/FITC+ cells, as well as similar double-stained cell profiles in flow cytometry dot-plot graphs. Taken together, the results indicate that a TB exclusion assay by flow cytometry can be employed as an alternative tool for quick and reliable cell viability analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , /blood , Flow Cytometry/standards , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Trypan Blue , Cell Count , Cell Separation , Cell Survival , Cell Membrane/physiology , Fluorescence , Immunophenotyping , Indicators and Reagents/standards , Multiprotein Complexes/standards , Professional Competence , Propidium/standards , Staining and Labeling , Serum Albumin, Bovine/standards
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 219-225, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225652

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Despite various pharmacological developments, the identification of new therapies is still required for treating breast cancer. Crab is often recommended as a traditional medicine for cancer. This study aimed to determine the in vitro effect of a hydroalcoholic crab shell extract on a breast cancer cell line. METHODS: In this experimental study, MCF7 breast cancer cell line was used. Crab shell was powdered and a hydroalcoholic (70degrees ethanol) extract was prepared. Five concentrations (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,000 microg/mL) were added to the cells for three periods, 24, 48, and 72 hours. The viability of the cells were evaluated using trypan blue and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Cell apoptosis was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling method. Nitric oxide (NO) level was assessed using the Griess method. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, and p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Cell viability decreased depending on dose and time, and was significantly different in the groups that were treated with 400, 800, and 1,000 microg/mL doses compared to that in the control group (p<0.001). Increasing the dose significantly increased apoptosis (p<0.001). NO secretion from MCF7 cells significantly decreased in response to different concentrations of the extract in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p<0.050). CONCLUSION: The crab shell extract inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells by increasing apoptosis and decreasing NO production.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line , Cell Survival , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Female , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Medicine, Traditional , Nitric Oxide , Trypan Blue
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95518

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Experimental investigation in vitro. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the degeneration of intervertebral disc cells, and low back pain induced by degeneration of intervertebral disc cells and increases in use of proinflammatory mediators via nicotine stimulation. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Smoking is a leading cause of degeneration of intervertebral disc cells and low back pain. According to the existing literature, nicotine, one of the main ingredients in cigarettes, causes the degeneration of intervertebral disk cells including decrease of glycoprotein through generation of carboxy-hemoglobin, vasoconstriction, and disability of fibrinolysis and changes of metabolism of nucleus pulposus cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Annulus fibrosus of intervertebral disc and knee joint cartilage were collected from pigs; these cells were acquired by gradual enzyme decomposition. Using Trypan blue, concentration and survival rate of cells were examined; cells were inserted on alginate beads for tertiary cultivation. Nicotine was then applied at 0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 nM, respectively, and the samples were cultivated for three, six and nine days, respectively. After collecting culture fluid, it was measured for interleukin(IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 with the ELISA Test. DNA of cells used for cultivation was quantitated and the amount of the resulting proinflammatory mediator was normalized. The results were then compared with the result of same study on cartilage of porcine knee joints. RESULTS: For changes of the inflammatory mediator based on the concentration of nicotine, in nicotine stimulation with low concentration of 50 nM and the control group, there was no significant change, while transient increases of inflammatory mediator showed in nicotine stimulation with concentrations of 100, 200 nM, respectively. There was not a significant increase of IL-1beta observed in all nicotine stimulation groups; these were the same results in porcine cartilage study. The level of IL-6 in 200, 300 nM nicotine concentration showed significant increases, respectively. The level of IL-8 in high dose nicotine stimulation groups also showed significant increases of DNA on the sixth day. And in porcine cartilage study group, significant changes were observed in 200, 300 nM, but the absolute value was lower than that of annulus fibrous cells group. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and IL-8 increased as the result of tertiary cultivation of annulus fibrosus cells of porcine intervertebral disk and nicotine stimulation. It is believed that the cells of the disc annulus are more sensitive than articular chondrocytes to nicotine stimulation. This may be the focus of future long-term studies effects of nicotine other inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Cartilage , Chondrocytes , Cytokines , DNA , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fibrinolysis , Glycoproteins , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Intervertebral Disc , Knee Joint , Low Back Pain , Metabolism , Nicotine , Smoke , Smoking , Survival Rate , Swine , Tobacco Products , Trypan Blue , Vasoconstriction
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