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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 218-221, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777373


Pharmacological treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole (BNZ) is effective in children in all stages, but it is controversial in chronically infected adults. We report the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in six adult patients with Chagas disease treated with the new BNZ formulation (ABARAX®) in doses between 2.5-5.5 mg/Kg/day. All but one patient had plasmatic BNZ concentrations within the expected range. All patients finalised treatment with nondetectable Trypanosoma cruziquantitative polymerase chain reaction, which remained nondetectable at the six month follow-up. Our data suggests parasitological responses with the new BNZ and supports the hypothesis that treatment protocols with lower BNZ doses may be effective.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Chagas Disease/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Nitroimidazoles/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Trypanocidal Agents/blood , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(1): 101-109, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751355


Ursolic acid is a promising candidate for treatment of Chagas disease; however it has low aqueous solubility and intestinal absorption, which are both limiting factors for bioavailability. Among the strategies to enhance the solubility and dissolution of lipophilic drugs, solid dispersions are growing in popularity. In this study, we employed a mixture of the surfactants poloxamer 407 with sodium caprate to produce a solid dispersion containing ursolic acid aimed at enhancing both drug dissolution and in vivo trypanocidal activity. Compared to the physical mixture, the solid dispersion presented higher bulk density and smaller particle size. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy results showed hydrogen bonding intermolecular interactions between drug and poloxamer 407. X-ray diffractometry experiments revealed the conversion of the drug from its crystalline form to a more soluble amorphous structure. Consequently, the solubility of ursolic acid in the solid dispersion was increased and the drug dissolved in a fast and complete manner. Taken together with the oral absorption-enhancing property of sodium caprate, these results explained the increase of the in vivo trypanocidal activity of ursolic acid in solid dispersion, which also proved to be safe by cytotoxicity evaluation using the LLC-MK2 cell line.

O ácido ursólico é um candidato promissor para o tratamento da doença de Chagas, contudo este fármaco possui baixa solubilidade aquosa e limitada absorção intestinal, ambos os fatores limitantes da biodisponibilidade. Entre as estratégias para potencializar a solubilidade e a dissolução de fármacos lipofílicos, as dispersões sólidas estão crescendo em popularidade. Neste estudo, empregamos mistura dos tensoativos, poloxamer 407 e caprato de sódio, para produzir dispersão sólida contendo ácido ursólico, com o objetivo de aumentar tanto a dissolução do fármaco quanto a atividade tripanocida in vivo. Comparada à mistura física, a dispersão sólida apresentou maior densidade e menor tamanho de partícula. Os resultados da análise de espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier mostraram interações intermoleculares do tipo ligações de hidrogênio entre o fármaco e o poloxamer 407. Os experimentos de difratometria de raio-X revelaram a conversão do fármaco de sua forma cristalina para a forma amorfa, mais solúvel. Consequentemente, a solubilidade do ácido ursólico em dispersão sólida foi aumentada e o fármaco dissolveu-se de maneira mais rápida e completa. Em conjunto com as propriedades promotoras de absorção oral do caprato de sódio, estes resultados explicaram o aumento da atividade tripanocida in vivo do ácido ursólico em dispersão sólida, que também se provou segura após avaliação de citotoxicidade empregando a linhagem celular LLC-MK2.

Poloxamer/analysis , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Chagas Disease/classification , Citrates/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17407


In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%.

Animals , Babesiosis/drug therapy , Diminazene/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Male , Micelles , Polysorbates , Rats , Sheep/blood , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacokinetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(6): 549-553, Sept. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495743


Benznidazole (Bz) and Nifurtimox (Nfx) have been used to treat Chagas disease. As recent studies have de-monstrated cardiotoxic effects of Nfx, we attempted to determine whether Bz behaves similarly. Bz reached the heart tissue of male rats after intragastric administration. No cytosolic Bz nitroreductases were detected, although microsomal NADPH-dependent Bz nitroreductase activity was observed, and appeared to be mediated by P450 reductase. No ultrastructurally observable deleterious effects of Bz were detected, in contrast to the overt cardiac effects previously reported for Nfx. In conclusion, when these drugs are used in chagasic patients, Bz may pose a lesser risk to heart function than Nfx when any cardiopathy is present.

Animals , Male , Rats , Heart/drug effects , Myocardium/metabolism , Nifurtimox/pharmacokinetics , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biotransformation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Microsomes/enzymology , Nifurtimox/adverse effects , Nitroimidazoles/adverse effects , Nitroreductases/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Time Factors , Trypanocidal Agents/adverse effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(2): 213-219, Apr. 2005. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-410862


In spite of its widespread use, benznidazole's (BNZ) toxicity and low efficacy remains as major drawbacks that impair successful treatments against Chagas disease. Previously, attempting to increase the selectivity and reduce its toxicity on infected tissues, multilamellar liposomes (MLV) composed of hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC): distearoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG): cholesterol (CHOL) 2:1:2 mol:mol loaded with BNZ (MLV-BNZ) were designed. In this work we compared different properties of MLV-BNZ with those of BNZ. Opposite to other hydrophobic drugs, the results indicated that slight changes of BNZÎs association degree to proteins and lipoproteins should not modify the percentage of unbound drug available to exert pharmacological action. On the other hand, when loaded in MLV, BNZ reduced its association to plasma proteins in 45 percent and became refractory to the sinking effect of blood, dropping 4.5 folds. Additionally, when loaded in MLV, BNZ had higher volume distribution (160 ± 20 vs 102 ± 15 ml/kg) and total clearance (35.23 ± 2.3 vs 21.9 ± 1.4 ml/, and lower concentration-time curve (7.23 ± 0.2 vs 9.16 ± 0.5 æg.h/ml) than BNZ. Hence, these studies showed that for MLV-BNZ, the amount of BNZ can be substantially increased, from 25 to 70 percent, being this formulation more rapidly cleared from circulation than free drug; also due to the lower interaction with blood components, lower side effects can be expected.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Blood Proteins/drug effects , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Drug Interactions , Liposomes , Lipoproteins/drug effects , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Nitroimidazoles/toxicity , Permeability , Rats, Wistar , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Trypanocidal Agents/toxicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects