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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243910, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nucleotide excision repair (NER) acts repairing damages in DNA, such as lesions caused by cisplatin. Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein is involved in recognition of global genome DNA damages during NER (GG-NER) and it has been studied in different organisms due to its importance in other cellular processes. In this work, we studied NER proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites of humans and animals respectively. We performed three-dimensional models of XPC proteins from T. cruzi and T. evansi and observed few structural differences between these proteins. In our tests, insertion of XPC gene from T. evansi (TevXPC) in T. cruzi resulted in slower cell growth under normal conditions. After cisplatin treatment, T. cruzi overexpressing its own XPC gene (TcXPC) was able to recover cell division rates faster than T. cruzi expressing TevXPC gene. Based on these tests, it is suggested that TevXPC (being an exogenous protein in T. cruzi) interferes negatively in cellular processes where TcXPC (the endogenous protein) is involved. This probably occurred due interaction of TevXPC with some endogenous molecules or proteins from T.cruzi but incapacity of interaction with others. This reinforces the importance of correctly XPC functioning within the cell.


Resumo O reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos (NER) atua reparando danos no DNA, como lesões causadas por cisplatina. A proteína Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) está envolvida no reconhecimento de danos pela via de reparação global do genoma pelo NER (GG-NER) e tem sido estudada em diferentes organismos devido à sua importância em outros processos celulares. Neste trabalho, estudamos proteínas do NER em Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma evansi, parasitos de humanos e animais, respectivamente. Modelos tridimensionais das proteínas XPC de T. cruzi e T. evansi foram feitos e observou-se poucas diferenças estruturais entre estas proteínas. Durante testes, a inserção do gene XPC de T. evansi (TevXPC) em T. cruzi resultou em crescimento celular mais lento em condições normais. Após o tratamento com cisplatina, T. cruzi superexpressando seu próprio gene XPC (TcXPC) foi capaz de recuperar as taxas de divisão celular mais rapidamente do que T. cruzi expressando o gene TevXPC. Com base nesses testes, sugere-se que TevXPC (sendo uma proteína exógena em T. cruzi) interfere negativamente nos processos celulares em que TcXPC (a proteína endógena) está envolvida. Isso provavelmente ocorreu pois TevXPC é capaz de interagir com algumas moléculas ou proteínas endógenas de T.cruzi, mas é incapaz de interagir com outras. Isso reforça a importância do correto funcionamento de XPC dentro da célula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Xeroderma Pigmentosum , DNA Damage/genetics , Computational Biology , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , DNA Repair/genetics
2.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 410-416, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350825

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The screening of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected blood donors using two serological techniques frequently leads to conflicting results. This fact prompted us to evaluate the diagnostic performance of four "in-house" immunodiagnostic tests and two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Material and Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine blood donors, whose screening for Chagas disease was doubtful, underwent three in-house ELISAs, one in-house immunoblotting test (TESA-blot), and two commercial ELISAs (bioMérieux and Wiener) in an attempt to define the presence or absence of infection. Simultaneously, 29 donors with previous positive results from three conventional serological tests and 30 donors with constant negative results were evaluated. Results: The ELISA-Wiener showed the highest rate in sensitivity (98.92%) and the ELISA-bioMérieux, the highest specificity (99.45%), followed by the TESA-blot, which showed superior performance, with lower false-negative (2.18%) and false-positive (1.12%) rates. In series, the combination composed of the TESA-blot and ELISA-bioMérieux showed slightly superior performance, with trifunctional protein deficiency (TFP) = 0.01%. Conclusion: Our study confirms the high sensitivity and specificity of commercial kits. To confirm the presence or absence of T. cruzi infection, the combination of TESA-blot and ELISA-bioMérieux may be suggested as the best alternative. Individually, the TESA-blot performed the closest to the gold standard; however, it is not commercially available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Immunologic Tests , Chagas Disease , Blood Donors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 867-871, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153428

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease (CD) is considered a typical low-income population sickness of the developing countries in Latin America. Given the historical relevance of CD in individuals in southern Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil, the aim of this study was to identify the knowledge of the CD and its vectors by cardiac patients, and the prevalence of anti-T cruzi antibodies in these individuals in Pelotas, city located in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, Brazil. The subjects with cardiac disease were submitted to a semi-structured questionnaire as well as two serological tests in order to detect anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies. Of the individuals that born in municipalities showing the highest triatomine infestation rates in recent decades, 81.8% were able to recognize the vector insect (p = 0.0042; OR = 5.9), and 83.3% reported either themselves or someone in their families to have CD (p = 0.043, OR = 5.2). Of the 54 patients submitted to serological analysis, only 01 patient (1.9%) was positive for anti-T. cruzi antibodies, a 55 year old man from the rural area of Canguçu county. This study provides support for the evaluation to be extended to other cardiology centers, given the importance of Chagas disease in Brazil.


Resumo A doença de Chagas (DC) é considerada uma doença típica da população de baixa renda dos países em desenvolvimento da América Latina. Dada a relevância histórica da DC em indivíduos do sul do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o conhecimento da doença de Chagas (DC) e seus vetores em pacientes cardíacos, e a prevalência de anticorpos anti-T cruzi nesses indivíduos, em Pelotas, cidade localizada no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. Os pacientes cardiopatas foram submetidos a um questionário semiestruturado, e também a dois testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-T. cruzi IgG. Dos indivíduos que nasceram em municípios com as maiores taxas de infestação por triatomíneos nas últimas décadas, 81,8% foram capazes de reconhecer o inseto vetor (p = 0,0042; OR = 5,9), e 83,3% relataram que eles próprios ou alguém em suas famílias tem DC (p = 0,043, OR = 5,2). Dos 54 pacientes submetidos à análise sorológica, apenas 01 paciente (1,9%) foi positivo para anticorpos anti-T.cruzi, um homem de 55 anos da área rural do município de Canguçu. Este estudo fornece subsídios para que a avaliação seja estendida a outros centros de cardiologia, devido à importância da doença de Chagas no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Middle Aged , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Insect Vectors
4.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-6, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352457

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad de Chagas es una afección parasitaria, transmitida por vectores con características eco epidemiológicas causada por el protozoario Trypanosoma cruzi, del 2013 al 2019 el Ecuador reportó 108 casos agudos de los cuales 7 estuvieron en la provincia de Pichincha. Presentamos el caso por sus características eco-epidemiológicas. Caso clínico: un caso agudo de paciente masculino de 14 años, residente en zona no endémica que inició con signo de Romaña, fiebre de tres semanas de evolución con esplenomegalia leve e hipertrofia concéntrica del ventrículo izquierdo. Evolución: el paciente fue tratado con benznidazol 7mg/kg/día vía oral cada 8 horas por dos meses, medidas de soporte y seguimiento multidisciplinario. Conclusión: La zona de detección fue el noreste del distrito metropolitano de Quito, la cual es parte del distrito de salud 17D01, sin reportes previos hasta el año 2016, cuya aparición se podría relacionar con cambios en el ecosistema local y el impacto en la transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales.


Introduction: Chagas disease is a parasitic disease transmitted by vectors with echo-epidemiological characteristics caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. From 2013 to 2019, Ecuador reported 108 acute cases, of which 7 were in the province of Pichincha. We present the case due to its ecoepidemiological characteristics. Clinical case: An acute case of a 14-year-old male resident in a nonendemic area that began with Romaña's sign, fever of three weeks of evolution with mild splenomegaly and concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Evolution: The patient was treated with benznidazole 7 mg/kg/day orally every 8 hours for two months, support measures and multidisciplinary follow-up. Conclusion: The detection zone was the northeast of the metropolitan district of Quito, which is part of health district 17D01, without previous reports until 2016, whose appearance could be related to changes in the local ecosystem and the impact on the transmission of vector diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Case Reports , Chagas Disease , Trypanosoma cruzi , Climate Change , Chagas Cardiomyopathy
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 132-141, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285223

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de Chagas (DC) é causada pelo Trypanosoma Cruzi. Esse parasita pode infectar vários órgãos do corpo humano, especialmente o coração, causando inflamação, fibrose, arritmias e remodelação cardíaca, e promovendo a cardiomiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC) no longo prazo. Entretanto, poucas evidências científicas elucidaram os mecanismos moleculares que regulam os processos fisiopatológicos nessa doença. Os microRNAs (miRNAs) são reguladores de expressão gênica pós-transcricional que modulam a sinalização celular, participando de mecanismos fisiopatológicos da DC, mas o entendimento dos miRNAs nessa doença é limitado. Por outro lado, há muitas evidências científicas demonstrando que o treinamento com exercício físico (TEF) modula a expressão de miRNAs, modificando a sinalização celular em indivíduos saudáveis. Alguns estudos também demonstram que o TEF traz benefícios para indivíduos com DC, porém esses não avaliaram as expressões de miRNA. Dessa forma, não há evidências demonstrando o papel do TEF na expressão dos miRNAs na DC. Portanto, essa revisão teve o objetivo de identificar os miRNAs expressos na DC que poderiam ser modificados pelo TEF.


Abstract Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma Cruzi. This parasite can infect several organs of the human body, mainly the heart, causing inflammation, fibrosis, arrhythmias, and cardiac remodeling, promoting long-term Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy (CCC). However, little scientific evidence has elucidated the molecular mechanisms that govern the pathophysiological processes in this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression that modulate signaling pathways, participating in pathophysiological mechanisms in CD, but the understanding of miRNAs in this disease is limited. On the other hand, a wide range of scientific evidence shows that physical exercise training (PET) modulates the expression of miRNAs by modifying different signaling pathways in healthy individuals. Some studies also show that PET is beneficial for individuals with CD; however, these did not evaluate the miRNA expressions. Thus, there is no evidence showing the role of PET in the expression of miRNAs in CD. Therefore, this review aimed to identify miRNAs expressed in CD that could potentially be modified by PET.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/genetics , Chagas Disease , MicroRNAs/genetics , Exercise
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1,supl.1): 1-7, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1285251
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 154-158, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287265

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad de Chagas es endémica en América Latina y sigue siendo un problema regional a pesar de que su frecuencia ha disminuido gracias a importantes avances en salud ambiental. Para determinar su frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades miocárdicas de El Salvador, se llevó a cabo una in vestigación observacional retrospectiva en nuestro hospital que es un centro de referencia de nivel nacional. Se revisó el registro del Laboratorio de Chagas en el período 2013-2015 para conocer cuántos individuos internados en la Unidad Cardiológica eran positivos por serología para infección chagásica y cuáles fueron sus diagnósticos. Se realizó un total de 1472 pruebas a pacientes individuales durante los 36 meses del período de estudio. De los 557 pacientes con serología positiva para Chagas, 97 (17.4%) fueron eventualmente hospitalizados en la Unidad Cardiológica. A su vez, estos 97 pacientes representaron el 33.7% de los 288 pacientes con cardiopatías. Entre los 97 con cardiopatía chagásica, 40 (41.2%) cumplieron criterios para colocación de marcapaso permanente, mientras que solo 13 de 191 (6.8%) enfermos con cardiopatías no chagásicas cumplieron esos criterios. La frecuencia de bloqueos auriculoventriculares asociados a infección por Trypanosoma cruzi resultó mucho mayor que las publicadas en estudios previos realizados en Sudamérica.


Abstract Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and remains a regional problem despite improvements in en vironmental health conditions that have helped to control its transmission. To know more about its prevalence in heart disease patients, we carried out a survey in our national (El Salvador) reference hospital. We reviewed the Chagas Lab´s records 2013-2015 to find out how many of the patients admitted to the Hospital´s Heart Unit were serologically positives for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and which the associated diagnoses were. A total of 1472 patients were tested along the 36-month study period. Out of 557 (37.8%) patients with positive serology for Chagas infection, 97 (17.4%) were eventually admitted to the Heart Unit. Among these 97 Chagas infected patients with heart disease, 40 (41.2%) met the criteria for permanent pacemaker placement, while only 13 of 191 (6.8%) patients with non-chagasic heart disease met these criteria. The frequency of heart atrioventricular block associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection was higher than frequencies reported in South American studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , El Salvador , Latin America
9.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 28-34, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280490

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Enfermedad de Chagas también conocida como Tripanosomiasis americana es un problema de salud pública. Se calcula que en el mundo hay entre 6 y 7 millones de personas infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi, la mayoría de ellas en América Latina. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en donantes de un banco de sangre del departamento de Boyacá 2016-2018. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado en 25.920 donantes de sangre del departamento de Boyacá. La fuente de información fue secundaria. Se determinó la prevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi y se compararon según sexo, grupo etario y tipo de donante a través de análisis de frecuencias. Resultados: Se evaluaron 9187 donantes durante el año 2016; 8517 en el 2017 y 8216 en el 2018, de los cuales 56,1% eran de sexo femenino y 43,9% masculino. La prevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi fue 0,17 % en la tamización y 0,08 % con las pruebas confirmatorias de las cuales el 70,0% eran mujeres, el 85,0% donantes voluntarios por primera vez, el rango de edad en el que se presentó mayor prevalencia de este marcador serológico fue de 41 a 50 y de 51 a 65 años con un 35,0% cada uno . La prevalencia de la infección de Chagas presentó asociación estadísticamente significativa con la edad (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Los bancos de sangre resultan ser una de las fuentes de información disponibles para monitorear el comportamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas y evaluar la toma de decisiones en salud pública, teniendo en cuenta que la enfermedad se caracteriza de manera asintomática y sin compromiso clínico en la mayoría de los casos.


Abstract Introduction: Chagas Disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is a public health problem. It is estimated that in the world there are between 6 and 7 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, most of them in Latin America. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in donors from a blood bank in the department of Boyacá 2016-2018. Materials and methods: Retrospective-descriptive study carried out in 25,920 blood donors from the department of Boyacá (Colombia). The source of information was secondary. The prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection was determined and compared according to sex, age group and type of donor through frequency analysis. Results: 9187 donors were evaluated during 2016; 8,517 in 2017 and 8,216 in 2018, of which 56.1% were female and 43.9% male. The prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection was 0.17% in screening and 0.08% with confirmatory tests of which 70.0% were women, 85.0% first-time volunteer donors, the range of The age at which the highest prevalence of this serological marker was found was 41 to 50 and 51 to 65 years with 35.0% each. The prevalence of Chagas infection showed a statistically significant association with age (p <0.05). Conclusions: Blood banks turn out to be one of the sources of information available to monitor the behavior of Chagas disease and evaluate decision-making in public health, taking into account the characteristics of the disease in which the majority of cases they are asymptomatic and without clinical compromise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Trypanosoma cruzi , Blood Banks , Blood Donors , Chagas Disease , Tissue Donors , Volunteers , Blood , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Infections
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 47-59, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285449

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Chagas' disease is the leading cause of infectious myocarditis worldwide. This infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is usually life-long and asymptomatic; however, the third part of infected people can develop severe or even fatal cardiomyopathy. As the parasitemia in the chronic phase is both low-grade and intermittent, T. cruzi infection is principally detected by serology, although this method has sensitivity and specificity limitations. Objective: To determine the level of agreement between serologicand molecular tests in 658 voluntary blood donors from six provinces in the Colombian department of Santander. Materials and methods: We evaluated an array of diagnostic technologies by cross-section sampling performing a serological double diagnostic test for T. cruzi antibody detection (Chagas III ELISA™, BiosChile Group, and ARCHITECT Chagas CMIA™, Abbott) , and DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We collected the demographic, clinical, and epidemiological information of participants. The sample size was calculated using Epidat™ and the statistical analysis was done with Stata 12.1™. Results: PCR was six times more sensitive in detecting T. cruzi infection than ELISA/CMIA with prevalence values of 1.8% (12/658) and 0.3% (2/658), respectively, and kappa=0.28 (95%CI: -0.03 - 0.59). In contrast, serology showed a sensitivity of 16.7% (95%CI: 2.09 - 48.4) and a specificity of 100% (95%CI: 99.4 - 100). All seropositive samples were found to be positive by PCR. Conclusions: The implementation of PCR as a complementary method for screening donors could reduce the probability of false negative and the consequent risk of transfusional-transmission of Chagas' disease, especially in endemic regions.


Resumen | Introducción. La enfermedad de Chagas constituye la principal causa de miocarditis infecciosa en el mundo. Causada por Trypanosoma cruzi,la infección puede persistir toda la vida de manera asintomática y silenciosa, pero un tercio de los infectados desarrolla cardiomiopatía grave. Debido a que la parasitemia en la fase crónica es baja e intermitente, el diagnóstico se hace principalmente mediante la detección de anticuerpos (serología), método que tiene limitaciones de sensibilidad y especificidad. Objetivo. Determinar la concordancia entre el diagnóstico serológico y molecular de T. cruzien 658 donantes voluntarios de sangre del departamento de Santander, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de evaluación de tecnologías diagnósticas con muestreo transversal, utilizando un doble diagnóstico serológico para la detección de anticuerpos anti-T. cruzi (Chagas III ELISA™, BiosChile Group, y ARCHITECT ChagasCMIA™, Abbott) y la de ADN por PCR. Se recolectó la información demográfica, clínica y epidemiológica de los participantes. El tamaño de la muestra se estimó utilizando Epidat™ y el análisis estadístico se hizo mediante Stata 12.1™. Resultados. La sensibilidad de la PCR fue seis veces mayor que la de las pruebas de ELISA/CMIA, con prevalencias de 1,8 % (12/658) y 0,3 % (2/658), respectivamente, y kappa de 0,28 (IC95% -0,03 - 0,59). La sensibilidad serológica fue de 16,7 % (IC95% 2,09 - 48,4) y la especificidad de 100 % (IC95% 99,4 - 100). Todas las muestras seropositivas fueron positivas también en la PCR. Conclusiones. El uso de la PCR como método complementario para la tamización de donantes podría reducir el riesgo de falsos negativos y disminuir los casos de transmisión transfusional de la enfermedad de Chagas, especialmente en regiones endémicas.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Blood Donors , Serology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 113-120, mayo 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285453

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La mayoría de las personas con enfermedad de Chagas desarrolla anticuerpos específicos contra Trypanosoma cruzi. En la infección temprana se producen anticuerpos IgM contra T. cruzi que son reemplazados por IgG durante el curso de la enfermedad. Los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad suelen ser muy leves y atípicos, por lo que a menudo no se detecta en la fase aguda. Objetivos. Evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad clínica y analítica, la precisión y la eficacia del UMELISA CHAGAS® con la incorporación de nuevos péptidos sintéticos en la fase sólida representativos de la proteína SAPA (Shed Acute Phase Antigen) y del antígeno TSA (Trypomastigote Surface Antigen). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó un panel de desempeño de título mixto anti-I cruzi y uno de seroconversión de Chagas, así como muestras de suero positivas y negativas provenientes de zonas endémicas de la enfermedad y muestras positivas de otras enfermedades que podían interferir con la prueba. Las pruebas Bioelisa CHAGAS, Chagatest ELISA recombinante v. 4.0, Chagatest HAI y SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid, se emplearon como referencia. Resultados. Los porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad clínica fueron de 97,73 % (IC95% 96,23-99,24) y 99,33 % (IC95% 98,88-99,78), respectivamente. Se obtuvo un 98,96 % de eficacia y una buena precisión. Conclusiones. Los resultados demuestran que la nueva fase sólida del UMELISA CHAGAS® puede utilizarse para el inmunodiagnóstico, la certificación de sangre y la vigilancia epidemiológica en países endémicos y no endémicos con población de alto riesgo.


Abstract | Introduction: Most people with Chagas disease develop specific antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. In early infection, IgM antibodies against T. cruzi are produced and later replaced for IgG antibodies during the course of the disease. The first symptoms of the infection may be very mild and atypical, which is why the disease is often not detected in the acute phase. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and analytical sensitivity, and specificity, accuracy, and efficacy of UMELISA CHAGAS™ with the addition of new synthetic peptides in the solid phase representative of the shed acute phase antigen protein (SAPA) and the trypomastigote surface antigen (TSA). Materials and methods: We evaluated a mixed anti-T. cruzi titer performance panel and a Chagas seroconversion one, as well as positive and negative serum samples from endemic areas of the disease and positive samples for other diseases that may interfere with the assay. The Bioelisa CHAGAS assay, Chaga test recombinant ELISA v.4.0, Chagatest HAI, and SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid were used as reference tests. Results: The sensitivity of the assay was 97.73% (95% CI: 96,23-99,24) and the clinical specificity, 99.33% (95% CI: 98,88-99,78) while the efficacy and the accuracy were 98.96%. Conclusions: Our results show that the new solid phase of UMELISA CHAGAS® can be used for immunodiagnostic, blood certification, and epidemiological surveillance in endemic and non-endemic countries with high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Peptides , Trypanosoma cruzi , Antibodies
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 131-140, mayo 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285455

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Bats have been reported as hosts of the Trypanosoma cruzi protozoan, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis, an endemic zoonotic disease in México. Objective: To describe T. cruzi infection in bats from the states of Campeche and Yucatán, México. Materials and methods: Captures were made from March to November, 2017 at three sites in Yucatán and one in Campeche. Up to four mist nets on two consecutive nights were used for the capture. The bats' species were identified and euthanasia was performed to collect kidney and heart samples for total DNA extraction. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected by conventional PCR with the amplification of a fragment belonging to the T. cruzi DNA nuclear. Results: Eighty-six bats belonging to five families (Vespertilionidae, Noctilionidae, Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, and Molossidae) and 13 species (Rhogeessa aeneus, Noctilio leporinus, Pteronotus davyi, P. parnellii, Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Glossophaga soricina, Carollia sowelli, Chiroderma villosum, Uroderma bilobatum, Sturnira parvidens, and Molossus rufus) were captured. Infection frequency by PCR was 30,2% (26/86) detected only in the renal tissue. The infected species were P. parnellii, G. soricina, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, S. parvidens, C. villosum, and R. aeneus. Conclusions: Our results confirmed the participation of several bat species as hosts in the T. cruzi transmission cycle in the region. Further studies are necessary to establish the importance of these animals in the zoonotic transmission of T. cruzi.


Resumen | Introducción. Los murciélagos se han reportado como huéspedes del protozoario Trypanosoma cruzi, agente etiológico de la tripanosomiasis americana, enfermedad zoonótica endémica en México. Objetivo. Describir la infección con T. cruzi en murciélagos capturados en los estados de Campeche y Yucatán, México. Materiales y métodos. Se realizaron capturas de marzo a noviembre de 2017 en tres sitios de Yucatán y uno de Campeche. Para la captura se emplearon hasta cuatro redes de niebla por dos noches consecutivas. Se identificó la especie de los murciélagos capturados y se les practicó la eutanasia para recolectar muestras de riñón y corazón, utilizadas posteriormente en la extracción de ADN total. La infección con T. cruzi se detectó por la amplificación con PCR convencional de un fragmento perteneciente al ADN nuclear de T. cruzi. Resultados. Se capturaron 86 murciélagos pertenecientes a cinco familias (Vespertilionidae, Noctilionidae, Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Molossidae) y 13 especies (Rhogeessa aeneus, Noctilio leporinus, Pteronotus davyi, P. parnellii, Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Glossophaga soricina, Carollia sowelli, Chiroderma villosum, Uroderma bilobatum, Sturnira parvidens y Molossus rufus). La PCR mostró una frecuencia de infección de 30,2 % (26/86), detectada únicamente en tejido renal. Las especies infectadas fueron P. parnellii, G. soricina, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, S. parvidens, C. villosum y R. aeneus. Conclusiones. Los resultados confirmaron la participación de varias especies de murciélagos como huéspedes en el ciclo de transmisión de T. cruzi en la región. Es necesario realizar más estudios para determinar la importancia de estos animales en la transmisión zoonótica de T. cruzi.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Chiroptera , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Infections , Mexico
13.
Univ. salud ; 23(2): 144-150, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1252318

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Colombia la enfermedad de Chagas ocasionada por el protozoo Trypanosoma cruzi, es considerada un problema de salud pública, que requiere una línea base para que las comunidades puedan enfrentar esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los habitantes del municipio de Aguazul-Casanare frente a la enfermedad de Chagas. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se encuestaron a 389 familias del municipio; se indagó sobre factores sociodemográficos, epidemiológicos, conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas. Resultados: Participaron 221 mujeres (56,8%) y 168 hombres (43,2%). El 31,4% de los participantes tienen conocimientos óptimos, 31,6% buenos. Se observó actitudes óptimas en el 85,9%; el 56,3% tiene malas prácticas y el 43,3% entre prácticas buenas y regulares. Conclusiones: Se determinó que a pesar de que la comunidad tiene buenas actitudes frente a la prevención de la infección, existe un bajo porcentaje en conocimiento óptimo, que se refleja en malas prácticas. Por ello, resulta importante establecer acciones de educación encaminadas al fortalecimiento de conocimientos relacionados con la patología que impacte en la reducción de la endemia.


Introduction: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is considered a public health problem in Colombia that requires a baseline to face this pathology. Objective: To identify knowledge, attitudes and practices of the inhabitants of the municipality of Aguazul-Casanare to handle Chagas disease. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 389 families of the municipality. Sociodemographic and epidemiologic factors as well as knowledge, attitudes and practices were investigated. Results: 221 women (56.8%) and 168 men (43.2) participated in the study. 31.4% and 31.6% of participants have optimal and appropriate knowledge, respectively. Optimal attitudes were observed in 85.9% of people, whereas 56.3% show improper practices, and 43.3% have good and regular practices. Conclusions: Even though, the community has positive attitudes towards prevention of the infection, there is a reduced percentage of people showing optimal knowledge, which is reflected in unhealthy practices. Thus, it is important to establish educational actions aimed at strengthening knowledge related to the Chagas that have an impact on the reduction of this endemic disease.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Chagas Disease , Disease Transmission, Infectious
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 179-186, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249070

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Belminus ferroae es un triatomino de comportamiento entomófago, sin embargo, puede alimentarse de vertebrados ocasionalmente. No se ha demostrado infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi en esta especie, como tampoco la metaciclogénesis del parásito. Objetivo. Examinar la metaciclogénesis de T. cruzi en B. ferroae y la capacidad infectiva de las heces o sus contenidos intestinales en roedores. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron las heces y la orina expulsadas espontáneamente por los insectos o mediante compresión abdominal o extracción del contenido intestinal a los 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 y 60 días. Se cuantificó la carga parasitaria de T. cruzi y sus formas evolutivas se identificaron con tinción de Giemsa. Asimismo, se evaluó en ratones albinos la capacidad infectiva de los tripomastigotes metacíclicos de T. cruzi obtenidos de las heces o contenidos intestinales de los especímenes infectados. Resultados. El análisis parasitológico reveló tres (15 %) insectos infectados con T.cruzi a los 30 (n=1), 40 (n=1) y 50 (n=1) días después de la infección con cargas parasitarias de hasta 1,62 x 105 tripanosomas/mm3 y porcentajes de metaciclogénesis entre el 3,5 y el 6,78 %. Conclusiones. Se demuestra por primera vez, en una especie del género Belminus, la metaciclogenésis de T. cruzi en condiciones de laboratorio y la capacidad infectiva de las heces para un huésped vertebrado.


Abstract | Introduction: Belminus ferroae is a triatominae with entomophagous behavior. However, it may occasionally feed on vertebrates. Currently, there is no evidence of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi or the occurrence of metacyclogenesis in this species. Objective: To test T. cruzi metacyclogenesis in B. ferroae and the infectivity of their feces or intestinal contents in rodents under laboratory conditions. Materials and methods: Twenty nymphs of B. ferroae were infected with an autochthonous strain of T. cruzi (M/HOM/VE/09/P6). Fecal and urine samples were collected from spontaneous droppings or by compressing the bugs' abdomens and, eventually, by removing their gut contents, and then examined at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days. We quantified T. cruzi parasitic load, as well as the evolutionary forms in feces, urine, and intestinal contents by Giemsa staining. Similarly, we evaluated the infectivity of T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes in albino mice. Results: The parasitological analysis showed three insects (15%) infected with T. cruzi at 30 (n=1), 40 (n=1), and 50 (n=1) days post-infection. We observed parasitic loads of up to 1.62 x 105 trypanosomes/mm3 and metacyclogenesis percentages between 3.5% and 6.78%. Conclusions: This is the first time that T. cruzi metacyclogenesis is reported in a species of the genus Belminus under laboratory conditions and the infectivity of Belminus' feces is demonstrated on a vertebrate host.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosomiasis , Triatominae , Chagas Disease
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(6): e00175920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278621

ABSTRACT

Para o reconhecimento da magnitude da doença de Chagas crônica no Brasil, é necessário rearticular as ações de vigilância em saúde, buscando o desenvolvimento de uma ampla rede hierarquizada de serviços distribuída geograficamente, para prover atendimento aos milhares de cidadãos acometidos pela infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi. O objetivo do trabalho foi elaborar um modelo de priorização de municípios para a vigilância da doença de Chagas crônica, a fim de ofertar cuidado integral às pessoas afetadas pela enfermidade. Para isso, foi realizada uma análise multicritério utilizando o algoritmo PROMETHEÉ II implementado no software Pradin. Os critérios de avaliação do modelo foram compostos de três índices construídos a partir de indicadores (a) epidemiológicos diretamente relacionados à doença de Chagas crônica, (b) decorrentes da evolução da doença de Chagas crônica, e (c) relacionados ao acesso aos serviços de saúde. A Escala Fundamental de Saaty foi utilizada para definição dos pesos dos indicadores, com maior importância aos diretamente relacionados à doença de Chagas crônica e àqueles com maior confiabilidade e respectiva qualidade de informação. A avaliação da consistência dos modelos se deu em comparação com dados disponíveis das áreas historicamente endêmicas, com a distribuição de casos agudos, e outras análises de sensibilidade. O modelo mais adequado foi definido por 1.345 municípios de média prioridade, 1.003 de alta e 601 como muito alta prioridade para doença de Chagas crônica, com maiores proporções nas regiões Sudeste e Nordeste. A priorização permite à gestão racionalizar e direcionar recursos, sendo essencial para identificar os territórios onde as pessoas infectadas estão vivendo, a fim de promover a assistência integral e melhorar a qualidade de vida.


The identification of the magnitude of chronic Chagas disease in Brazil requires linking activities in health surveillance, seeking to develop a wide, hierarchically organized and geographically distributed network of services to provide care to thousands of individuals with Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The study aimed to elaborate a model for prioritization of municipalities for chronic Chagas disease, to offer comprehensive care for persons with the disease. A multicriteria analysis was thus performed using the PROMETHEÉ II algorithm, implemented in the Pradin software. The criteria for assessing the model consisted of three indices built from the following indicators: (a) epidemiological, directly related to chronic Chagas disease, (b) related to the evolution in chronic Chagas disease, and (c) related to access to health services. Saaty's Fundamental Scale was used to define the indicators' weights, with greater importance assigned to those directly related to chronic Chagas disease and to those with greater reliability and respective quality of information. Assessment of the models' consistency was based on comparison of the available data in historically endemic areas with the distribution of acute cases, besides other sensitivity analyses. The best model was defined by 1,345 municipalities with medium priority, 1,003 high priority, and 601 with very high priority for chronic Chagas disease, with the highest proportions in the Southeast and Northeast regions. Prioritization allows the administration to rationalize and channel resources, and it is essential to identify the territories where persons with chronic Chagas disease are living, to promote comprehensive care and improve quality of life.


Para el reconocimiento de la magnitud de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica en Brasil, es necesario rearticular las acciones de vigilancia en salud, buscando el desarrollo de una amplia red jerarquizada de servicios distribuida geográficamente, para proveer atención a los millares de ciudadanos afectados por la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi. El objetivo del trabajo fue elaborar un modelo de priorización de municipios para la vigilancia de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica, con el fin de ofertar cuidado integral a las personas afectadas por la enfermedad. Para eso, se realizó un análisis multicriterio, utilizando el algoritmo PROMETHEÉ II, implementado en el software Pradin. Los criterios de evaluación del modelo estuvieron compuestos por tres índices construidos a partir de indicadores (a) epidemiológicos directamente relacionados con la enfermedad de Chagas crónica, (b) derivados de la evolución de la enfermedad de Chagas crónica y, (c) relacionados con el acceso a los servicios de salud. La Escala Fundamental de Saaty se utilizó para la definición de los pesos de los indicadores, con mayor importancia a los directamente relacionados con la enfermedad de Chagas crónica y aquellos con mayor confiabilidad, así como su respectiva calidad de información. La evaluación de la consistencia de los modelos se consiguió en comparación con los datos disponibles de las áreas históricamente endémicas, con la distribución de casos agudos, y otros análisis de sensibilidad. El modelo más adecuado se definió por 1.345 municipios de media prioridad, 1.003 de alta y 601 como mucho alta prioridad para enfermedad de Chagas crónica, con mayores proporciones en las regiones Sudeste y Nordeste. La priorización permite a las áreas de gestión racionalizar y dirigir recursos, y es esencial para identificar los territorios donde estas personas están viviendo, con el fin de promover la asistencia integral y mejorar la calidad de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Brazil/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 118-125, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353017

ABSTRACT

En Guatemala en el 2015, el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social (MSPAS) reportó nuevos casos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región suroriental del país, siendo Santa Rosa uno de los departamentos endémicos en donde Triatoma dimidiata es el principal transmisor. Se estimó la infestación de T. dimidiata en la aldea Chuchuapa, municipio de Santa María Ixhuatán, de abril a junio de 2019, se calcularon los índices en-tomológicos y se caracterizaron intra y peridomiciliar 149 viviendas (79.67% de las viviendas habitadas). Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario mixto, en entrevista cara a cara y evaluación de las viviendas, por un equipo profesional experimentado, mediante el método y protocolo estándar hombre-hora. Se capturaron 20 triatominos en 10 viviendas, con un índice de infestación de 6.71% (10/149), un índice de densidad de 13.42% (20/149), 19 triatominos intradomiciliares y uno peridomiciliar, con un índice de infección natural por Tr y pano-soma cruzi intradomiciliar de 26.3% (5/19), índice de infección natural por T. cr u z i peridomiciliar de 100.0% (1/1) e índice de infección natural por T. c r u z i en los triatominos capturados de 30.0 % (6/20). Las viviendas infestadas presentaron techo de lámina, pared de bajareque con grietas y sin repello, piso de tierra y afiches en la pared, acumulación de leña u otros materiales tanto intra como peridomiciliar, convivencia con animales domésticos y tenencia de animales de corral. Los resultados representan un alto riesgo para la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas entre los habitantes de la aldea.


In Guatemala in 2015, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance reported new cases of Chagas disease in the southeastern region of the country, with Santa Rosa being one of the endemic departments where Tr ia-toma dimidiata is the main transmitter. The infestation of T. dimidiata was estimated in the Chuchuapa village, municipality of Santa María Ixhuatán, from April to June 2019, the entomological indices were calculated and 149 dwellings were characterized intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary (79.67% of the inhabited dwellings). The data were obtained through a mixed questionnaire, in a face-to-face interview and evaluation of the dwellings, by an experienced professional team, using the standard man-hour method and protocol. 20 triatomines were captured in 10 homes, with an infestation index of 6.71% (10/149), a density index of 13.42% (20/149), 19 intradomiciliary triatomines and one peridomiciliary, with a natural infection index by intradomiciliary Trypanosomacruzi of 26.3% (5/19), natural infection index by peridomiciliary T. c r u z i of 100.0% (1/1) and natural infection index by T. c r u z i in captured triatomines of 30.0% (6/20). The infested dwellings have a sheet roof, awattle and daub wall with cracks and no wall plaster, dirt and posters on the wall, accumulation of firewood and other materials in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary, living with domestic animals and keeping poultry animals. The results represent a high risk for the transmission of Chagas disease among the villager.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Vector Control , Entomology , Housing , Poultry , Rural Population , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology , Lamins , Guatemala/epidemiology , Animals, Domestic
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210015, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250359

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease persists as one of the most important, and yet most neglected, diseases in the world, and several changes in its epidemiological aspects have been recorded since its discovery. Currently, some of the most relevant changes are related to: (i) the reduction in the incidence of the endemic due to the control of the most important vectors, Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus, in many countries; (ii) the migration of human populations spreading cases of the disease throughout the world, from endemic to non-endemic areas, transforming Chagas disease into a global threat; and (iii) new acute cases and deaths caused by oral transmission, especially in the north of Brazil. Despite the reduction in the number of cases, new challenges need to be responded to, including monitoring and control activities aiming to prevent house infestation by the secondary vectors from occurring. In 1979, Lent & Wygodzinsky(1) published the most complete review of the subfamily Triatominae, encompassing 111 recognised species in the taxon. Forty-two years later, 46 new species and one subspecies have been described or revalidated. Here we summarise the new species and contextualise them regarding their ecology, epidemiologic importance, and the obstacles they pose to the control of Chagas disease around the world.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triatominae , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Insect Vectors
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0873-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Seven lineages have been identified based on different molecular markers, namely TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcIV, TcV, TcVI, and TcBat. Dogs play the role of epidemiological sentinels being domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi. The aim of the current study was to report the first case of CD in a domestic dog in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, infected with T. cruzi DTU TcIV. We hope our report encourages veterinarians and surveillance professionals to a take a deeper look at T. cruzi infection in domestic animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Brazil , Genotype
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0269-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155566

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reactivation of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) has been reported. The patient presented with a 2-week history of two painful erythematous, infiltrated plaques with central ulceration and necrotic crust on the left thigh. She had a history of chronic indeterminate Chagas disease (CD) and had received a kidney transplant before 2 months. Skin biopsies revealed lobular panniculitis with intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi. The patient was diagnosed with CD reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole significantly improved her condition. CD reactivation should be suspected in SOTRs living in endemic areas with clinical polymorphism of skin lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi , Panniculitis , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Thigh
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0590-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155528

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. METHODS: Triatomines were collected from households and by dissecting palm trees in the peri-urban areas of Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre); they were identified using a specific key and via genital analyses. Trypanosomatid infection was determined through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In total, 116 triatomines of the species Eratyrus mucronatus, Rhodnius pictipes, R. stali, and R. montenegrensis were collected, of which 13.8% were positive for T. cruzi. CONCLUSIONS: Four species of triatomines presented an infection rate above 13% in the Boca do Moa community.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rhodnius , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triatominae , Chagas Disease , Brazil
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