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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 849-853, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041494

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and malaria cause morbidity globally. The drugs currently used for treatment have limitations. Activity of cinnamic acid analogs against Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in the interest of identifying new antiprotozoal compounds. METHODS In vitro effects of analogs against L. braziliensis, L. infantum chagasi, T. cruzi, and P. falciparum, and hemolytic and cytotoxic activities on NCTC 929 were determined. RESULTS Three analogs showed leishmanicidal and tripanocidal activity. No antiplasmodial, hemolytic, or cytotoxic activity was observed. CONCLUSIONS Antiprotozoal activity of analogs against L. infantum braziliensis, L. infantum chagasi, and T. cruzi was demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Leishmania/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Cinnamates/chemistry , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 208-218, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974208

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The hemoflagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly transmitted by triatomine insects through blood transfusion or from mother-to-child, causes Chagas' disease. This is a serious parasitic disease that occurs in Latin America, with considerable social and economic impact. Nifurtimox and benznidazole, drugs indicated for treating infected persons, are effective in the acute phase, but poorly effective during the chronic phase. Therefore, it is extremely urgent to find innovative chemotherapeutic agents and/or effective vaccines. Since piplartine has several biological activities, including trypanocidal activity, the present study aimed to evaluate it on two T. cruzi strains proteome. Considerable changes in the expression of some important enzymes involved in parasite protection against oxidative stress, such as tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) and methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) was observed in both strains. These findings suggest that blocking the expression of the two enzymes could be potential targets for therapeutic studies.


Subject(s)
Piperidones/pharmacology , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Proteins/analysis , Reference Values , Mass Spectrometry , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Reproducibility of Results , Oxidative Stress , Proteomics
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 153-160, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The current chemotherapy for Chagas disease is based on monopharmacology with low efficacy and drug tolerance. Polypharmacology is one of the strategies to overcome these limitations. OBJECTIVES Study the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of associations of benznidazole (Bnz) with three new synthetic T. cruzi-triosephosphate isomerase inhibitors, 2, 3, and 4, in order to potentiate their actions. METHODS The in vitro effect of the drug combinations were determined constructing the corresponding isobolograms. In vivo activities were assessed using an acute murine model of Chagas disease evaluating parasitaemias, mortalities and IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies. FINDINGS The effect of Bnz combined with each of these compounds, on the growth of epimastigotes, indicated an additive action or a synergic action, when combining it with 2 or 3, respectively, and an antagonic action when combining it with 4. In vivo studies, for the two chosen combinations, 2 or 3 plus one fifth equivalent of Bnz, showed that Bnz can also potentiate the in vivo therapeutic effects. For both combinations a decrease in the number of trypomastigote and lower levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG-antibodies were detected, as well clear protection against death. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results suggest the studied combinations could be used in the treatment of Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Triose-Phosphate Isomerase/chemistry , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 52-56, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-897053

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Approximately seven to eight million people worldwide have Chagas disease. In Brazil, benznidazole is the most commonly used active drug against Trypanosoma cruzi; however, its efficacy is limited, and side effects are frequent. Recent studies suggest that amiodarone may be beneficial in the treatment of this disease, by exerting anti-T. cruzi action. This study evaluated changes in T. cruzi cell count in in vitro cultures subjected to different doses of benznidazole, amiodarone, and their combination. METHODS: T. cruzi (Y strain) cultures containing approximately 100,000 cells were treated with either 100mg, 50mg, 25mg, 12.5mg, or 10mg of benznidazole, amiodarone, or their combination. On the 4th day, cell count was compared to the baseline data. RESULTS: On the 4th day, no parasites were observed in any of the treated cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Benznidazole and amiodarone were equally effective in eliminating T. cruzi in culture. The combination of the two drugs was also equally effective, but our data cannot demonstrate synergism, as similar results were obtained when the drugs were tested individually or in combination. It is suggested that this study be repeated with other T. cruzi strains to determine whether similar results can be obtained again.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Amiodarone/pharmacology , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacology , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Mice , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e180162, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040603

ABSTRACT

Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a conserved protein with an essential role in translation elongation. Using one and two-dimensional western blotting, we showed that the eIF5A protein level was 2-fold lower in benznidazole (BZ)-resistant (BZR and 17LER) Trypanosoma cruzi populations than in their respective susceptible counterparts (BZS and 17WTS). To confirm the role of eIF5A in BZ resistance, we transfected BZS and 17WTS with the wild-type eIF5A or mutant eIF5A-S2A (in which serine 2 was replaced by alanine). Upon overexpressing eIF5A, both susceptible lines became approximately 3- and 5-fold more sensitive to BZ. In contrast, the eIF5A-S2A mutant did not alter its susceptibility to BZ. These data suggest that BZ resistance might arise from either decreasing the translation of proteins that require eIF5A, or as a consequence of differential levels of precursors for the hypusination reactions (e.g., spermidine and trypanothione), both of which alter BZ's effects in the parasite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Drug Resistance/genetics , Peptide Initiation Factors/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Gene Expression , Peptide Initiation Factors/analysis , Peptide Initiation Factors/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/analysis , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3005-3013, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886853

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are globally widespread parasitic diseases which have been responsible for high mortality rates. Since drugs available for their treatment are highly hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and cardiotoxic, adherence to therapy has been affected. Thus, the search for new, more effective and safer drugs for the treatment of these diseases is necessary. Natural products have stood out as an alternative to searching for new bioactive molecules with therapeutic potential. In this study, the chemical composition and antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were evaluated. The essential oil was promising against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC50= 28.55 μg.mL-1) and L. amazonensis promastigotes (IC50 = 2.28 μg.mL-1). Eighteen chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in the essential oil, whose major constituents were spathulenol (17.6 %), caryophyllene oxide (16.4 %), β-caryophyllene (14.0 %) and myrcene (8.4 %). In addition, the essential oil from P. ovatum leaves had moderate cytotoxicity against LLCMK2 adherent epithelial cell at the concentration range under analysis (CC50 = 150.9 μg.mL-1). It should be highlighted that this is the first report of the chemical composition and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves.


Subject(s)
Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Burseraceae/chemistry , Trypanocidal Agents/isolation & purification , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(2): 125-132, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resistance to benznidazole in certain strains of Trypanosoma cruzi may be caused by the increased production of enzymes that act on the oxidative metabolism, such as mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase which catalyses the reduction of peroxides. This work presents cytotoxicity assays performed with ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides in six different strains of T. cruzi epimastigote forms (Y, Bolivia, SI1, SI8, QMII, and SIGR3). The last four strains have been recently isolated from triatominae and mammalian host (domestic cat). The expression of mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase was analyzed by the Western blotting technique using polyclonal antibody anti mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase obtained from a rabbit immunized with the mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase recombinant protein. All the tested ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides were more cytotoxic than benznidazole. The expression of the 25.5 kDa polypeptide of mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase did not increase in strains that were more resistant to the ferrocenyl compounds (SI8 and SIGR3). In addition, a 58 kDa polypeptide was also recognized in all strains. Ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides showed trypanocidal activity and the expression of 25.5 kDa mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase is not necessarily increased in some T. cruzi strains. Most likely, other mechanisms, in addition to the over expression of this antioxidative enzyme, should be involved in the escape of parasites from cytotoxic oxidant agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Rabbits , Peroxidases/metabolism , Ferrous Compounds/pharmacology , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Oxidants/pharmacology , Diamines/pharmacology , Mitochondria/enzymology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Blotting, Western , Mitochondria/drug effects
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 224-235, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841775

ABSTRACT

Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most frequent and most severe manifestation of chronic Chagas disease, and is one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in Latin America. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood, it may involve several mechanisms, including parasite-dependent myocardial damage, immune-mediated myocardial injury (induced by the parasite itself and by self-antigens), and microvascular and neurogenic disturbances. In the past three decades, a consensus has emerged that parasite persistence is crucial to the development and progression of Chagas cardiomyopathy. In this context, antiparasitic treatment in the chronic phase of Chagas disease could prevent complications related to the disease. However, according to the results of the BENEFIT trial, benznidazole seems to have no benefit for arresting disease progression in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. In this review, we give an update on the main pathogenic mechanisms of Chagas disease, and re-examine and discuss the results of the BENEFIT trial, together with its limitations and implications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Disease Progression
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 131-139, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp.) have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. OBJECTIVES In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. METHODS PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. FINDINGS PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL) and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL) trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL). At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs) storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL) than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC) and RBCs (4ºC) showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL) at 4ºC. MAIN CONCLUSION The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Biological Assay , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Piper/chemistry , Vero Cells , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cold Temperature , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 218-221, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777373

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole (BNZ) is effective in children in all stages, but it is controversial in chronically infected adults. We report the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in six adult patients with Chagas disease treated with the new BNZ formulation (ABARAX®) in doses between 2.5-5.5 mg/Kg/day. All but one patient had plasmatic BNZ concentrations within the expected range. All patients finalised treatment with nondetectable Trypanosoma cruziquantitative polymerase chain reaction, which remained nondetectable at the six month follow-up. Our data suggests parasitological responses with the new BNZ and supports the hypothesis that treatment protocols with lower BNZ doses may be effective.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Chagas Disease/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Nitroimidazoles/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Trypanocidal Agents/blood , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 375 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846629

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas afeta cerca de 6 a 7 millhões de pessoas no mundo, principalmente América Latina. A busca de alternativas terapêuticas para esta enfermidade tem grande relevância para a sociedade, já que as opções atuais são limitadas, sendo disponível apenas o benznidazol (BZD) e nifurtimox. Os derivados nitroheterocíclicos são considerados compostos bioativos com número crescente de estudos na comunidade científica contra seu agente etiológico, o Trypanosoma cruzi. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo a identificação de derivados do 5-nitrofurano com atividade frente a diferentes cepas do T. cruzi, assim como estudar possíveis modo de ação desta classe de compostos. Esta investigação envolve estudos computacionais com o propósito de construir modelos quantitativos de relações estrutura-atividade (QSAR multivariado) que possam auxiliar na previsão de novas estruturas com perfil farmacológico otimizado. No presente trabalho foram realizadas as etapas de planejamento, síntese e identificação de 36 compostos com resultados satisfatórios quanto à identificação estrutural, pureza e rendimento, que foi da ordem de 70%. A determinação da atividade anti-T. cruzi in vitro dos compostos obtidos foi realizada frente às cepas Silvio X10 cl1, Y, Bug 2149 cl10 e Colombiana na forma epimastigota do parasito. A maioria dos compostos analisados apresentou maior capacidade de inibição de crescimento do parasito, comparado ao BZD: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC50 = 29,16 ±2,90 µM, Y - IC50 = 40,40 ±3,37µM, Bug 2149 cl10 - IC50 = 30,63 ±3,21 µM, Colombiana - IC50 = 47,91 ±4,96 µM. O composto mais ativo (BSF-35) apresentou os seguintes valores: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC50 = 3,17 ±0,32 µM, Y - IC50 = 1,17 ±0,12 µM, Bug 2149 cl10 - IC50 = 1,81 ±0,18 µM e Colombiana - IC50 = 3,06 ±0,23 µM. Foram realizados cálculos de propriedades moleculares das estruturas tridimensionais dos compostos, seguido pela análise exploratória de dados por análise de agrupamentos hierárquicos (HCA) e análise de componentes principais (PCA), possibilitando o reconhecimento de padrões do conjunto. Considerando esta análise prévia, foram obtidos modelos QSAR com abordagem multivariada, aplicando algorítmo OPS e método de regressão por quadrados mínimos parciais, PLS. Os melhores modelos gerados foram obtidos considerando os compostos benzenos substituídos para as quatro cepas estudadas. Os descritores que mais influenciaram na análise foram o ClogP (coeficiente de partição) e cargas CHELPG. Considerando as informações obtidas, foram planejados e sintetizados quatro novos compostos com objetivo de obter compostos mais ativos e validar os modelos QSAR. Estes compostos apresentaram alta atividade frente a forma epimastigota das quatro cepas estudadas. Os compostos mais ativos foram avaliados quanto a citotoxicidade frente células LLC-MK2 e apresentaram seletividade até 25 vezes superior ao BZD. Estudos in vitro frente a forma amastigota da cepa Y em células U2OS foram realizados com metodologia fenotípica de análise de alto conteúdo (HCA') e os compostos apresentaram atividade até 64 vezes superior ao BZD e com seletividade de até 50 vezes superior a este fármaco. Quanto à determinação da atividade dos compostos frente às enzimas tripanotiona redutase (TcTR) e glutationa redutase (GR), os compostos analisados não apresentaram atividade relevante, indicando não ser este o mecanismo desta classe de compostos. Com finalidade de explorar outro possível mecanismo de ação dos compostos 5-nitrofurânicos, foi realizada a análise de potencial de redução da membrana mitocondrial, porém a morte parasitária não foi atribuída à despolarização da membrana em estudos simultâneos com iodeto de propídio


Chagas disease affects approximately 6-7 millions people worldwide, especially Latin America. The search for therapeutic alternatives for this disease is of great relevance to society, as current options are limited and there are only two available drugs: benznidazole (BZD) and nifurtimox. The nitroheterocyclic derivatives are considered bioactive compounds with increasing number of studies in the scientific community against its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi. In this sense, this work aims to identify derivatives of 5-nitrofuran with activity against different strains of T. cruzi, and to study possible mode of action of this compounds. This research involves computational studies to obtain models of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR multivariate) that can help predict new structures with optimized pharmacological profile. In this work were carried out the design, synthesis and identification of 36 compounds with satisfactory results regarding the structural identification, purity and yield (approximately 70%). The determination of anti-T. cruzi activity in vitro of the compounds obtained was carried out with Silvio X10 cl1, Y, Bug 2149 CL10 and Colombiana strains of epimastigote form of the parasite. Most of the compounds examined showed greater capacity of growth inhibition of the parasite compared to the BZD (Silvio X10 CL1 - IC 50 = 29.16 ± 2.90 µM, Y - IC50 = 40.40 ± 3,37µM, 2149 CL10 Bug - IC 50 = 30.63 ± 3.21 µM, Colombiana - IC 50 = 47.91 ± 4.96 µM). The most active compound (BSF-35) showed the following values: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC 50 = 3.17 ± 0.32 uM, Y - IC 50 = 1.17 ± 0.12 µM, Bug 2149 CL10 - IC50 = 1, 81 ± 0.18 µM and Colombiana - IC 50 = 3.06 ± 0.23 µM. Calculations were performed for the molecular properties of three-dimensional structures of the compounds, followed by exploratory data analysis by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), allowing the recognition of the set. Considering this preliminary analysis were obtained QSAR models with multivariate approach, using OPS algorithm and regression method of partial least squares, PLS. The best generated models were obtained considering the benzyl substituted compounds for the four strains. The descriptors that most influenced the analysis were ClogP (partition coefficient) and CHELPG charges. Considering the information obtained, four new compounds were designed and synthesized to obtain more active compounds and validate QSAR models. These compounds showed high activity against epimastigote form of the four strains studied. The most active compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against LLC-MK2 cells and the compounds selectivity values were up to 25 times higher than BZD. In vitro studies against amastigote form of the Y strain in U2OS cells were performed with phenotypic method of high content analysis (HCA') and the compounds showed activity to 64 times higher than BZD and selectivity of up to 50 times. The activity of the compounds against trypanothione reductase enzymes (TcTR) and glutathione reductase (GR) showed no significant activity, indicating that this is not the mechanism of this class of compounds. In order to exploit another possible mechanism of action of 5-nitrofuran derivatives, analysis reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was held, however the cell death was not attributed to membrane depolarization in simultaneous studies with propidium iodide


Subject(s)
Biological Phenomena/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Nitrofurans/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Structure-Activity Relationship , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Nifurtimox/administration & dosage , Oxidoreductases , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 693-699, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755897

ABSTRACT

Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trichomonas/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(4): 492-499, 09/06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748858

ABSTRACT

Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO 2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , DNA Damage/drug effects , Nitroimidazoles/chemistry , Nitroimidazoles/toxicity , Salmonella/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Comet Assay , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagenicity Tests , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 189-194, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748257

ABSTRACT

This study had analyzed the antibacterial, antifungal and trypanocidal activity of the essential oils from Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke (Canellaceae) and Siparuna guianensis Aublet (Siparunaceae). The essential oils were obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis by gas-liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that these essential oils are rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Activity against the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated with the agar cavity diffusion method, while activity on the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium commune was evaluated by the disk diffusion technique. Trypanocidal activity was tested against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, using the Tetrazolium salt (MTT) colorimetric assay. Both essential oils exhibited low inhibitory effect towards bacteria, showing high MIC values (125–500 μg mL−1), with Gram positive bacteria being more susceptible. Better inhibitory effect was obtained for the evaluated fungi, with lower MIC values (7.81–250 μg mL−1), being A. flavus the most susceptible species. Both essential oils presented low trypanocidal activity, with IC50/24 h values of 209.30 μg mL−1 for S. guianensis and 282.93 μg mL−1 for C. dinisii. Thus, the high values observed for the MIC of evaluated bacteria and for IC50/24 h of T. cruzi, suggest that the essential oils have a low inhibitory activity against these microorganisms. In addition, the low MIC values observed for the tested fungi species indicate good inhibitory activity on these microorganisms’s growth.


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 433-444, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745976

ABSTRACT

Benznidazole (BZ) is one of the two drugs used for Chagas disease treatment. Nevertheless therapeutic failures of BZ have been reported, which were mostly attributed to variable drug susceptibility among Trypanosoma cruzi strains. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in a variety of translocation processes and some members have been implicated in drug resistance. Here we report the characterisation of the first T. cruzi ABCG transporter gene, named TcABCG1, which is over-expressed in parasite strains naturally resistant to BZ. Comparison of TcABCG1 gene sequence of two TcI BZ-resistant strains with CL Brener BZ-susceptible strain showed several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which determined 11 amino acid changes. CL Brener transfected with TcI transporter genes showed 40-47% increased resistance to BZ, whereas no statistical significant increment in drug resistance was observed when CL Brener was transfected with the homologous gene. Only in the parasites transfected with TcI genes there was 2-2.6-fold increased abundance of TcABCG1 transporter protein. The analysis in wild type strains also suggests that the level of TcABCG1 transporter is related to BZ natural resistance. The characteristics of untranslated regions of TcABCG1 genes of BZ-susceptible and resistant strains were investigated by computational tools.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics , Drug Resistance/genetics , Nitroimidazoles/pharmacology , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Genotype , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 414-421, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745978

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to describe the contributions of the knowledge of T-cell responses to the understanding of the physiopathology and the responsiveness to etiological treatment during the chronic phase of Chagas disease. T-helper (Th)1 and interleukin (IL)-10 Trypanosoma cruzi-specific T-cells have been linked to the asymptomatic phase or to severe clinical forms of the disease, respectively or vice versa, depending on the T. cruzi antigen source, the patient’s location and the performed immunological assays. Parasite-specific T-cell responses are modulated after benznidazole (BZ) treatment in chronically T. cruzi-infected subjects in association with a significant decrease in T. cruzi-specific antibodies. Accumulating evidence has indicated that treatment efficacy during experimental infection with T. cruzi results from the combined action of BZ and the activation of appropriate immune responses in the host. However, strong support of this interaction in T. cruzi-infected humans remains lacking. Overall, the quality of T-cell responses might be a key factor in not only disease evolution, but also chemotherapy responsiveness. Immunological parameters are potential indicators of treatment response regardless of achievement of cure. Providing tools to monitor and provide early predictions of treatment success will allow the development of new therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/immunology , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 1081-1085, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732602

ABSTRACT

We present here three expression plasmids for Trypanosoma cruzi adapted to the Gateway® recombination cloning system. Two of these plasmids were designed to express trypanosomal proteins fused to a double tag for tandem affinity purification (TAPtag). The TAPtag and Gateway® cassette were introduced into an episomal (pTEX) and an integrative (pTREX) plasmid. Both plasmids were assayed by introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) by recombination and the integrity of the double-tagged protein was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The third Gateway adapted vector assayed was the inducible pTcINDEX. When tested with GFP, pTcINDEX-GW showed a good response to tetracycline, being less leaky than its precursor (pTcINDEX).


Subject(s)
Gene Expression/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Plasmids , Restriction Mapping/methods , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Blotting, Western , Expressed Sequence Tags/metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 828-833, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723996

ABSTRACT

This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Biodiversity , Clinical Trials as Topic , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Neglected Diseases/drug therapy , Neglected Diseases/parasitology , Species Specificity , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 757-760, 09/09/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-724000

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi has a particular cytoskeleton that consists of a subpellicular network of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Therefore, it is an excellent target for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Benzimidazole 2-carbamates, a class of well-known broad-spectrum anthelmintics, have been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of many protozoa. Therefore, to find efficient anti-trypanosomal (trypanocidal) drugs, our group has designed and synthesised several benzimidazole derivatives. One, named JVG9 (5-chloro-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol), has been found to be effective against T. cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here, we present the in vitro effects observed by laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Changes in the surface and the distribution of the cytoskeletal proteins are consistent with the hypothesis that the trypanocidal activity of JVG9 involves the cytoskeleton as a target.


Subject(s)
Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Actins/isolation & purification , Flagella/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultrastructure , Tubulin/isolation & purification
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(3): 315-323, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711722

ABSTRACT

Megazol (7) is a 5-nitroimidazole that is highly active against Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, as well as drug-resistant forms of trypanosomiasis. Compound 7 is not used clinically due to its mutagenic and genotoxic properties, but has been largely used as a lead compound. Here, we compared the activity of 7 with its 4H-1,2,4-triazole bioisostere (8) in bloodstream forms of T. brucei and T. cruzi and evaluated their activation by T. brucei type I nitroreductase (TbNTR) enzyme. We also analysed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of these compounds in whole human blood using Comet and fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide assays. Although the only difference between 7 and 8 is the substitution of sulphur (in the thiadiazole in 7) for nitrogen (in the triazole in 8), the results indicated that 8 had poorer antiparasitic activity than 7 and was not genotoxic, whereas 7 presented this effect. The determination of Vmax indicated that although 8 was metabolised more rapidly than 7, it bounds to the TbNTR with better affinity, resulting in equivalent kcat/KM values. Docking assays of 7 and 8 performed within the active site of a homology model of the TbNTR indicating that 8 had greater affinity than 7.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Nitroreductases/drug effects , Thiadiazoles , Triazoles , Trypanocidal Agents , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/drug effects , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/enzymology , Comet Assay , DNA Damage/drug effects , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Nitroreductases/metabolism , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiadiazoles/chemistry , Thiadiazoles/metabolism , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/toxicity , Triazoles/chemistry , Triazoles/metabolism , Triazoles/pharmacology , Triazoles/toxicity , Trypanocidal Agents/chemistry , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Trypanocidal Agents/toxicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects
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