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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 294-303, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989442

ABSTRACT

Abstract Triatoma vitticeps is a triatomine with geographic distribution restrict to Brazil, which exhibits high prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi natural infection. Of special epidemiologic concern, this species often invades households in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. The objective of this study was to evaluate morphological and ultrastructural parameters on three T. cruzi isolates obtained from wild T. vitticeps specimens. The growth and cell differentiation of the parasite was evaluated through epimastigote and trypomastigote forms obtained in the growth curves for three distinct isolates. The maximum growth showed differences at the 20th day of the curve. Our in vitro results show a heterogeneity, regarding these features for samples cultivated under the same conditions. Morphometric analyzes based on the shape of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes corroborated such differentiation. These results highlight the need of better understanding the meaning of this diversity under an eco-epidemiological perspective.


Resumo Triatoma vitticeps é um triatomíneo com distribuição geográfica restrita ao território brasileiro, apresentando alta prevalência de infecção natural pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Esta espécie é relevante sob o ponto de vista epidemiológico por invadir domicílios com frequência nos estados do Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais e Espírito Santo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar parâmetros morfológicos e ultraestruturais, em três isolados de T. cruzi obtidos a partir de triatomíneos silvestres. O crescimento e a diferenciação celular do parasita foi avaliado através das formas epimastigotas e tripomastigotas obtidas nas curvas de crescimento para os três isolados. O crescimento máximo mostrou diferenças no 20º dia da curva. Nossos resultados in vitro mostram uma heterogeneidade, em relação a essas características para amostras cultivadas nas mesmas condições. As análises morfométricas baseadas na conformação de epimastigotas e trypomastigotes corroboraram essa diferenciação. Estes resultados ressaltam a necessidade de uma melhor compreensão do significado desta diversidade sob uma perspectiva eco-epidemiológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultrastructure , Brazil , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/veterinary
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180593, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Cardiac physiology depends on coupling and electrical and mechanical coordination through the intercalated disc. Focal adhesions offer mechanical support and signal transduction events during heart contraction-relaxation processes. Talin links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of other proteins, such as paxillin in focal adhesion formation and regulation. Chagasic cardiomyopathy is caused by infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and is a debilitating condition comprising extensive fibrosis, inflammation, cardiac hypertrophy and electrical alterations that culminate in heart failure. OBJECTIVES Since mechanotransduction coordinates heart function, we evaluated the underlying mechanism implicated in the mechanical changes, focusing especially in mechanosensitive proteins and related signalling pathways during infection of cardiac cells by T. cruzi. METHODS We investigated the effect of T. cruzi infection on the expression and distribution of talin/paxillin and associated proteins in mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro by western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). FINDINGS Talin and paxillin spatial distribution in T. cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes in vitro were altered associated with a downregulation of these proteins and mRNAs levels at 72 h post-infection (hpi). Additionally, we observed an increase in the activation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) concomitant with increase in β-1-integrin at 24 hpi. Finally, we detected a decrease in the activation of FAK at 72 hpi in T. cruzi-infected cultures. MAIN CONCLUSION The results suggest that these changes may contribute to the mechanotransduction disturbance evidenced in chagasic cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/parasitology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/genetics , Blotting, Western , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Paxillin/metabolism
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 77-85, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903841

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the current knowledge of pathogen-insect interactions amenable for the design of molecular-based control strategies of vector-borne diseases. Materials and methods: We examined malaria, dengue, and Chagas disease pathogens and insect molecules that participate in interactions during their vectors infection. Results: Pathogen molecules that participate in the insect intestine invasion and induced vector immune molecules are presented, and their inclusion in transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) and in genetically modify insect (GMI) vectors or symbiotic bacteria are discussed. Conclusion: Disruption of processes by blocking vector-pathogen interactions provides several candidates for molecular control strategies, but TBV and GMI efficacies are still limited and other secondary effects of GMI (improving transmission of other pathogens, affectation of other organisms) should be discarded.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar el conocimiento actual de las interacciones patógeno-insecto susceptibles a incluirse en el diseño de estrategias moleculares para el control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. Material y métodos: Se examinaron los agentes causales de la malaria, el dengue y la enfermedad de Chagas, y las moléculas de insectos que participan en interacciones durante la infección de sus vectores. Resultados: Se presentan moléculas de patógenos que participan en la invasión del intestino del insecto y moléculas inmunes inducidas en los vectores. Se discute su inclusión en vacunas bloqueadoras de transmisión (VBT) y en la modificación genética de vectores (MGI) o de sus bacterias simbióticas. Conclusión: La interrupción de procesos mediante el bloqueo de las interacciones patógeno-vector proporciona varios candidatos para las estrategias de control molecular, pero la eficacia de VBT y MGI es aún limitada y los efectos secundarios de MGI (aumento de la transmisión de otros patógenos y afectación de otros organismos) deben descartase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Control/methods , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Virus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Malaria/prevention & control , Plasmodium/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Aedes/genetics , Reduviidae/genetics , Reduviidae/virology , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Anopheles/genetics
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 629-637, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897012

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity. Both the vector species and the genetic lineages of T. cruzi present a varied geographical distribution. This study aimed to verify the influence of sympatry in the interaction of T. cruzi with triatomines. Methods: The behavior of the strains PR2256 (T. cruzi II) and AM14 (T. cruzi IV) was studied in Triatoma sordida (TS) and Rhodnius robustus (RR). Eleven fifth-stage nymphs were fed by artificial xenodiagnosis with 5.6 × 103 blood trypomastigotes/0.1mL of each T. cruzi strain. Every 20 days, their excreta were examined for up to 100 days, and every 30 days, the intestinal content was examined for up to 120 days, by parasitological (fresh examination and differential count with Giemsa-stained smears) and molecular (PCR) methods. Rates of infectivity, metacyclogenesis and mortality, and mean number of parasites per insect and of excreted parasites were determined. RESULTS: Sympatric groups RR+AM14 and TS+PR2256 showed higher values of the four parameters, except for mortality rate, which was higher (27.3%) in the TS+AM14 group. General infectivity was 72.7%, which was mainly proven by PCR, showing the following decreasing order: RR+AM14 (100%), TS+PR2256 (81.8%), RR+PR2256 (72.7%) and TS+AM14 (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our working hypothesis was confirmed once higher infectivity and vector capacity (flagellate production and elimination of infective metacyclic forms) were recorded in the groups that contained sympatric T. cruzi lineages and triatomine species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arthropod Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Sympatry , Arthropod Vectors/genetics , Arthropod Vectors/pathogenicity , Rhodnius/genetics , Rhodnius/pathogenicity , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Triatoma/genetics , Triatoma/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Blood/parasitology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Xenodiagnosis/methods , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Intestines/parasitology , Mice
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(8): 551-560, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Chagas disease is a public health problem caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. There is currently no effective therapy for Chagas disease. Although there is some evidence for the beneficial effect of bone marrow-derived cells in chagasic disease, the mechanisms underlying their effects in the heart are unknown. Reports have suggested that bone marrow cells are recruited to the chagasic heart; however, studies using chimeric mouse models of chagasic cardiomyopathy are rare. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the migration of bone marrow cells to the heart after T. cruzi infection in a model of chagasic disease in chimeric mice. METHODS To obtain chimerical mice, wild-type (WT) C57BL6 mice were exposed to full body irradiation (7 Gy), causing bone marrow ablation. Then, bone marrow cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice were infused into the mice. Graft effectiveness was confirmed by flow cytometry. Experimental mice were divided into four groups: (i) infected chimeric (iChim) mice; (ii) infected WT (iWT) mice, both of which received 3 × 104 trypomastigotes of the Brazil strain; (iii) non-infected chimeric (Chim) mice; and (iv) non-infected WT mice. FINDINGS At one-month post-infection, iChim and iWT mice showed first degree atrioventricular block with decreased heart rate and treadmill exercise parameters compared to those in the non-infected groups. MAIN CONCLUSIONS iChim mice showed an increase in parasitaemia, myocarditis, and the presence of amastigote nests in the heart tissue compared to iWT mice. Flow cytometry analysis did not detect haematopoietic progenitor cells in the hearts of infected mice. Furthermore, GFP+ cardiomyocytes were not detected in the tissues of chimeric mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Bone Marrow Cells/physiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Bone Marrow Transplantation/methods , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Cell Movement , Animal Diseases
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 425-432, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792793

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Behavioral fever is a response to infections with microorganisms observed in some poikilothermic animals. Rhodnius prolixus is involved in the transmission of two parasites: Trypanosoma cruzi (pathogenic for humans and transmitted in feces) and Trypanosoma rangeli (non-pathogenic for humans, pathogenic for Rhodnius and transmitted by the bite of an infected individual). Only T. rangeli is found in the hemolymph of Rhodnius as it travels to the salivary glands. METHODS: To study vector-parasite interactions, we evaluated possible behavioral fever responses of R. prolixus to intracoelomic inoculation with T. cruzi or T. rangeli. Temperature preferences of fifth-instar nymphs of R. prolixus were evaluated after inoculation with T. rangeli KP1(+), KP1(-), T. cruzi I, or the Trypanosome culture medium. Four different fixed temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40°C) in two simultaneous experiments (enclosed and free-moving insects) were evaluated. Free-moving insects were marked daily according to their temperature preferences on each of the 15 days after inoculation. Numbers of insects in each temperature shelter and daily mortality were compared with those enclosed shelters of different temperatures. RESULTS: Rhodnius prolixus inoculated with both strains of T. rangeli and with the trypanosome culture medium showed preferences for the lowest temperatures (25°C). However, R. prolixus inoculated with T. cruzi I showed significant preferences for temperatures around 35°C. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known investigation to demonstrate a behavioral fever response in R. prolixus injected intracoelomically with T. cruzi I.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Fever/veterinary , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Time Factors , Trypanosoma rangeli , Fever/parasitology
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 631-641, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730947

ABSTRACT

Durante la última década se han reportado numerosos casos de infección por Trypanosoma cruzi por vía oral, debidos a la contaminación de alimentos con heces de triatominos silvestres o con secreciones de reservorios en áreas donde los vectores domiciliados han sido controlados o no hay antecedentes de domiciliación. Con base en criterios epidemiológicos, clínicos y socioeconómicos, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) establecieron una clasificación de los parásitos transmitidos por contaminación de alimentos en diferentes regiones del mundo, en la cual T. cruzi ocupó el décimo lugar de importancia en un grupo de 24 parásitos. Los cambios ambientales, como la deforestación y el calentamiento global, han afectado los ecotopos y el comportamiento de los vectores y de los reservorios de T. cruzi , de manera que estos se han desplazado a nuevas zonas, generando una nueva forma de transmisión por contaminación de alimentos que requiere su evaluación en el país. La presente revisión aborda la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas con énfasis en los estudios orientados a identificar los factores de riesgo, las especies de triatominos involucrados, la fisiopatología de la infección oral y los genotipos del parásito que están implicados en esta forma de transmisión en Colombia y en otras regiones de América Latina, así como la necesidad de adoptar políticas para su control y vigilancia epidemiológica.


Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas´ disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite´s genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chagas Disease/transmission , Food Parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Meat/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Vegetables/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Armadillos/parasitology , Blood Donors , Beverages/parasitology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Colombia , Chagas Disease/congenital , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Genotype , Gastric Mucosa/parasitology , Housing , Mouth Mucosa/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Parasitemia/transmission , Peptide Hydrolases/physiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/parasitology , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/physiology , Risk Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/chemistry , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/physiology
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 887-898, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728796

ABSTRACT

The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Mice , Chagas Disease/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Chagas Disease/blood , Chickens/parasitology , Didelphis/parasitology , Ecosystem , Family Characteristics , Goats/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Lizards/parasitology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mephitidae/parasitology , Monodelphis/parasitology , Rural Population , Rodentia/parasitology , Swine/parasitology , Triatoma/classification
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. 152 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756641

ABSTRACT

O Trypanosoma cruzi, agente etiológico da doença de Chagas, possui um ciclo de vida complexo, deve lidar com diversas condições do ambiente e depende dos hospedeiros para suprir suas necessidades nutricionais. Uma delas é a necessidade de captar a molécula de heme (Fe-protoporfirina IX) que será utilizada como fator de crescimento. Os mecanismos envolvendo o metabolismo de heme são cruciais para a sobrevivência do T. cruzi pois o parasito não possui várias enzimas de biossíntese dessa porfirina e o heme livre pode apresentar citotoxicidade para célula. Na tentativa de perseguir o destino final do heme no parasito, nós estudamos essa via inexplorada no T. cruzi. Nessa tese, nós demonstramos que epimastigotas cultivados com heme, produziram os compostos, α-meso hidroxiheme, verdoheme e biliverdina (identificados por HPLC acoplado á espectrofotômetria). Além disso, nós observamos através de análise dos extratos de epimastigotas no espectrômetro de massas (LQT Orbitrap), espécies iônicas de m/z 583,4 e m/z 619,3. A fragmentação subsequente desses íons originaram espécies filhas típicas das moléculas de biliverdina e verdoheme, respectivamente. Nós observamos também, espécies iônicas de m/z 1397,4 e m/z 1135,4. A fragmentação dessas espécies produziram íons, sendo um deles com a mesma massa molecular de heme (m/z 616,3). Essa espécie iônica por sua vez, gerou fragmentos iônicos idênticos a uma molécula de heme, confirmando que esses intermediários são produtos da modificação da porfirina. Baseado nesses resultados, nós propomos um modelo onde o catabolismo de heme em T. cruzi, envolveria a conjugação da bis(glutationil)spermina, um derivado da tripanotiona presente em tripanossomatídeos, à porfirina (m/z 1137,4), seguido da remoção de dois resíduos de ácidos glutâmicos (m/z 1135,4)...


Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle and they must cope with diverse environmental conditions and depends on hosts for its nutritional needs. One of the nutritional characteristic is that they need a heme compound (Fe-protoporphyrin IX) as a growth factor. The mechanisms involved in these processes are crucial for their survival mainly because of trypanosomatids lack of the complete heme biosynthetic pathway and the cytotoxic activity of free heme. Following the fate of this porphyrin in the parasite we studied this missing pathway in T. cruzi. Here, we show that epimastigotes cultivated with heme yielded the compounds, α-meso hydroxyheme, verdoheme and biliverdin (as determined by HPLC with diode array detector). Furthermore, we observed ion species of m/z 583.4 and m/z 619.3 from epimastigotes extracts detected by direct infusion on LQT Orbitrap platform. A tipical biliverdin and verdoheme doughter-ion species were generated by m/z 583.4 and m/z 619.3 fragmentations, respectively. We also observed an ion species at m/z 1397.4 and m/z 1135. The subsequent fragmentation of this species produced a daughter-ions whose one with the same molecular mass as heme (m/z 616.4). This species, in turn, generated daughter species identical to an authentic heme, confirming that these intermediates were modified heme products. Based on these findings, we propose that heme catabolism in T. cruzi involves a additions of Bis(glutathionyl)spermine, a low molecular mass thiols occurring in trypanosomatids, to heme (m/z 1397.4), followed by removal of the glutamic residues (m/z 1135)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliverdine , Heme/metabolism , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Homeostasis , Heme/physiology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 212-219, abr. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670398

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes play a vital role in neuronal protection, homeostasis, vascular interchange and the local immune response. Some viruses and parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier and infect glia. Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, can seriously compromise the central nervous system, mainly in immune-suppressed individuals, but also during the acute phase of the infection. In this report, the infective capacity of T. cruzi in a human astrocyte tumour-derived cell line was studied. Astrocytes exposed to trypomastigotes (1:10 ratio) produced intracellular amastigotes and new trypomastigotes emerged by day 4 post-infection (p.i.). At day 6 p.i., 93% of the cells were infected. Using flow cytometry, changes were observed in both the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules and the chemokine secretion pattern of astrocytes exposed to the parasite. Blocking the low-density lipoprotein receptor on astrocytes did not reduce parasite intracellular infection. Thus, T. cruzi can infect astrocytes and modulate the immune response during central nervous system infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytes/parasitology , Astrocytoma/parasitology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Astrocytoma/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology , Time Factors
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 34-47, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697825

ABSTRACT

Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Circadian Clocks , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Hot Temperature , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Odorants , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(5): 567-571, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656210

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi-infected specimens of Triatoma costalimai have been detected in domiciliary units of Central Brazil, thereby maintaining the potential risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and natural infection of T. costalimai in different environments (gallery forest, dry forest and peridomicile) and climatic seasons (wet and dry), in the municipality of Mambaí, State of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were captured in October 2010 and in June 2011, employing two different methods (manual capture and mouse-baited adhesive traps). The insects were later separated by sex and nymphal stage, counted and examined parasitologically by abdominal compression and microscopic analysis of feces. RESULTS: Triatoma costalimai was found in three environments and in the two seasons studied. Overall, capture success of 900 traps and 60 blocks of rocks inspected was 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The occurrence of T. costalimai was higher among rocks in the peridomicile, where 97% of the 131 specimens were captured. The proportion of nymphs (98%) was much higher than that of adults, which were only detected in peridomicile. Most (95%) insects were captured during the wet season, with predominance of early-stage nymphs. None of the 43 specimens examined were infected by trypanosomatids. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a greater occurrence of T. costalimai in peridomiciliary environments and during the wet season in Mambaí, Goiás, highlighting the synanthropic behavior of this triatomine species in one area of the Brazilian savanna and the importance of entomological surveillance.


INTRODUÇÃO: Espécimes de Triatoma costalimai infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi têm sido detectados em unidades domiciliares no Brasil Central, mantendo o risco potencial de transmissão vetorial da doença de Chagas. Objetivou-se determinar a ocorrência e infecção natural de T. costalimai em habitats rochosos em diferentes ambientes (mata de galeria, mata seca e peridomicílio) e estações climáticas (chuvosa e seca), no município de Mambaí, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os triatomíneos foram capturados em outubro de 2010 e junho de 2011 usando dois métodos (coleta manual e armadilhas adesivas com isca animal) e posteriormente foram separados por estádio e sexo, contabilizados e examinados parasitologicamente por compressão abdominal e análise microscópica das fezes. RESULTADOS: Triatoma costalimai foi detectado nos três ambientes e nas duas estações amostradas. O sucesso total de captura das 900 armadilhas e 60 blocos de rochas inspecionados foi de 5,8% e 11,7%, respectivamente. A ocorrência de T. costalimai foi maior em rochas do peridomicílio, onde 97% dos 131 espécimes foram capturados. A proporção de ninfas (98%) foi muito superior à de adultos, os quais só foram detectados no peridomicílio. A maioria (95%) dos insetos foi capturada na estação chuvosa, com predominância de ninfas I. Nenhum dos 43 espécimes examinados estava infectado por tripanosomatídeos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam maior ocorrência de T. costalimai em ambiente peridomiciliar e na estação chuvosa em Mambaí, Goiás, salientando o comportamento sinantrópico dessa espécie de triatomíneo em uma área do cerrado Brasileiro e a importância da vigilância entomológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Housing , Neglected Diseases/parasitology , Population Density , Seasons , Triatoma/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(8): 1014-1016, Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610979

ABSTRACT

It has been recently shown that Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes subvert a constitutive membrane repair mechanism to invade HeLa cells. Using a membrane extraction protocol and high-resolution microscopy, the HeLa cytoskeleton and T. cruzi parasites were imaged during the invasion process after 15 min and 45 min. Parasites were initially found under cells and were later observed in the cytoplasm. At later stages, parasite-driven protrusions with parallel filaments were observed, with trypomastigotes at their tips. We conclude that T. cruzi trypomastigotes induce deformations of the cortical actin cytoskeleton shortly after invasion, leading to the formation of pseudopod-like structures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Membrane/parasitology , Cytoskeleton/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Cytoskeleton/ultrastructure , HeLa Cells/parasitology , HeLa Cells/ultrastructure , Time Factors
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(5): 247-253, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602359

ABSTRACT

Twelve strains of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from wild reservoirs, triatomines, and chronic chagasic patients in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, and classified as T. cruzi I and II, were used to test the correlation between genetic and biological diversity. The Phagocytic Index (PI) and nitric-oxide (NO) production in vitro were used as biological parameters. The PI of the T. cruzi I and II strains did not differ significantly, nor did the PI of the T. cruzi strains isolated from humans, triatomines, or wild reservoirs. There was a statistical difference in the inhibition of NO production between T. cruzi I and II and between parasites isolated from humans and the strains isolated from triatomines and wild reservoirs, but there was no correlation between genetics and biology when the strains were analyzed independently of the lineages or hosts from which the strains were isolated. There were significant correlations for Randomly Amplified Polymorphic Deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD) and biological parameters for T. cruzi I and II, and for humans or wild reservoirs when the lineages or hosts were considered individually.


Doze cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de reservatórios silvestres, triatomíneos e de pacientes chagásicos crônicos do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, classificadas como Tc I e II foram usadas para avaliar a correlação entre genética e diversidade biológica. Índice fagocítico (IF) e produção de óxido nítrico (ON) in vitro foram os parâmetros biológicos utilizados. O IF de cepas T. cruzi I e II não diferiram significativamente assim como o IF de cepas isoladas de humanos, triatomíneos ou de reservatórios silvestres. Há diferença estatística na inibição da produção de ON entre T. cruzi I e II e entre parasitos isolados de humanos e de cepas isoladas de triatomíneos e reservatórios silvestres, mas não foi observada correlação entre genética e biologia quando as cepas foram analisadas independentemente da linhagem ou hospedeiros das quais elas foram isoladas. Observou-se correlação significativa para amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico e parâmetros biológicos de Tc I ou II e para os seres humanos ou reservatório silvestre quando linhagens ou hospedeiros são consideradas separadamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Genetic Variation/genetics , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Phagocytosis/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(8): 1057-1060, Dec. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-570680

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to study the interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi-1 and Triatoma brasiliensis. A group of 1st instar nymphs was initially fed on T. cruzi-infected mice and a control group was fed on uninfected mice. From the second feeding onwards, both groups were otherwise fed on non-infected mice. The resulting adults were grouped in pairs: infected male/uninfected female, uninfected male/infected female, infected male and female and uninfected male/uninfected female. The infection affected only the 1st instar nymphs, which took significantly more time to reach the 2nd instar than uninfected nymphs. The differences in the molting time between the infected and uninfected nymphs from the 2nd to the 5th instars were not statistically significant. Both groups presented similar rates of nymphal mortality and reproductive performance was not significantly affected by infection in any of the treatments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Molting/physiology , Triatoma/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Nymph/growth & development , Reproduction/physiology , Triatoma , Triatoma/physiology
17.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 50(1): 39-51, jul. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-630425

ABSTRACT

Las relaciones que se establecen entre géneros de la familia trypanosomatidae en condiciones de coexistencia en el mismo medioambiente pueden estar vinculadas a respuestas compensatorias inter-poblacionales que incluyen cambios morfológicos (diferentes estadios) y morfométricos (diferencias mensurables). El análisis cuantitativo de tales respuestas en cultivos axénicos puros de Leishmania chagasi y trypanosoma cruzi, así como en isomezclas axénicas de L. chagasi-T. cruzi mantenidas in vitro, no ha sido abordado, desconociéndose por lo tanto, particularidades biológicas. Muestras interdiarias de cultivo se fijaron, colorearon, observaron, digitalizaron y procesaron cuantitativamente. Además de cuantificar las densidades poblacionales, se registraron las magnitudes numéricas de variables morfométricas que, posteriormente, se analizaron con herramientas estadísticas. Los resultados indicaron cambios específicos en las variables investigadas, así como heterogeneidad morfométrica entre los mismos morfotipos de los mismos géneros al ser mantenidos en cultivos puros o mixtos. Los modelos de cambio morfométrico de L. chagasi y T. cruzi en cultivos puros difieren de los modelos de cambio morfométrico en los cultivos mixtos (L. chagasi-T. cruzi). Las metodologías biométricas discriminan, en términos morfométricos, poblaciones del mismo estadio (morfotipo) en ambientes diferentes.


The relations established among genera of the Trypanosomatidae family in coexisting conditions in the same environment may be linked to inter-population compensatory answers that include morphological (differences among stages) and morphometrical (measurable difference) changes. The quantitative analysis of these answers in Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi pure axenic cultures, as well as in L. chagasi - T. cruzi axenic iso-mixtures in vitro maintained has not been approached, and consequently, potentially useful biological particularities in the control of these important human parasites are unknown. Every other day culture samples were fixed, stained, observed, digitalized and quantitatively processed. In addition to quantify, the population densities and the appearance-disappearance stage (morphotypes) dynamics, the numeric magnitudes of the morphometric variables were recorded and later analyzed with multivariate statistical techniques. The results indicate specific changes in the investigated variables, as well as morphometric heterogeneity between the same morphotypes of the same genera when maintained in pure or mixed cultivation. The morphometric change models for L. chagasi and T. cruzi in pure culture differ from the models of morphometric change in mixed cultivation (L. chagasi-T. cruzi). The biometric methodologies discriminate in morphometric terms populations of the same stage (morfotype) in different environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Animals , Female , Leishmania infantum/growth & development , Leishmania infantum/physiology , Leishmania infantum/microbiology , Leishmania infantum/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/microbiology , Parasite Load/statistics & numerical data , In Vitro Techniques , Parasites/cytology , Parasites/physiology , Parasites/microbiology , Parasites/parasitology
18.
Biol. Res ; 43(3): 307-316, 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571992

ABSTRACT

Chagas' disease is produced by the haemophlagelated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by haematophages insects such as Triatoma infestans (vinchuca). Due to vector control, congenital transmission gains importance and is responsible for the presence and expansion of this disease in non-endemic areas. The mechanisms of congenital infection are uncertain. It has been suggested that the parasite reaches the fetus through the bloodstream by crossing the placental barrier, and that congenital Chagas' disease is the result of complex interactions between the immune response, placental factors, and the parasite's characteristics. We review the cellular and molecular mechanisms of infection and invasion of the parasite and how immune and placental factors may modulate this process. Finally, we propose a possible model for the vertical transmission of Chagas' disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Chagas Disease/congenital , Chagas Disease/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Placenta/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(8): 1055-1062, Dec. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538164

ABSTRACT

Proline racemase is an important enzyme of Trypanosoma cruzi and has been shown to be an effective mitogen for B cells, thus contributing to the parasite's immune evasion and persistence in the human host. Recombinant epimastigote parasites overexpressing TcPRAC genes coding for proline racemase present an augmented ability to differentiate into metacyclic infective forms and subsequently penetrate host-cells in vitro. Here we demonstrate that both anti T. cruzi proline racemase antibodies and the specific proline racemase inhibitor pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid significantly affect parasite infection of Vero cells in vitro. This inhibitor also hampers T. cruzi intracellular differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acid Isomerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Proline/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultrastructure , Vero Cells
20.
Cad. saúde pública ; 25(8): 1701-1710, ago. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-520743

ABSTRACT

Apesar do sucesso no Programa de Controle da Doença de Chagas (PCDCh) no Brasil, alguns locais encontram dificuldades na manutenção do programa, sobretudo após a descentralização do setor saúde. Sabe-se que a sustentabilidade das ações de controle dos vetores da doença de Chagas depende da informação e participação comunitária. O presente trabalho avaliou os conhecimentos e práticas que a população de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, apresenta sobre os triatomíneos e a doença de Chagas. O conhecimento foi testado por meio da aplicação de questionário acompanhado de seis figuras de hemípteros para identificação. Participaram da pesquisa tanto adultos, como crianças dos ensinos fundamental e médio das escolas rurais presentes no município. Os dados apontaram que a população de Bambuí tem bons conhecimentos gerais sobre os triatomíneos e a doença de Chagas em ambos os grupos (adultos e crianças), entretanto os conceitos se mostraram limitados quanto ao que fazer para evitar esses vetores invadindo domicílios. Os resultados ressaltam a necessidade de campanhas educativas no contexto do PCDCh como elemento fundamental da participação comunitária no combate aos triatomíneos.


Despite the success of the Chagas Disease Control Program (PCCD) in Brazil, some endemic areas have experienced difficulty in maintaining the program's activities, especially after the health system's decentralization, since the sustainability of control measures for Chagas disease and vectors is known to depend on information and community participation. This study aimed to analyze knowledge and practices related to vectors and Chagas disease in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brasil. The population's knowledge was tested with a questionnaire, accompanied by six illustrations of triatomine bugs for identification. Both adults and primary and secondary schoolchildren in rural areas of the county participated in the research. The Bambuí population showed good overall knowledge on triatomines and Chagas disease in both groups (adults and children), although the concepts were limited to preventing the insect vector from invading houses. The results emphasize the importance of educational campaigns in the context of the program as a fundamental component of community participation in Chagas disease vector control.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Child , Humans , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Endemic Diseases , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Community Participation , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Disease Reservoirs , Insect Control , Population Surveillance , Triatominae/classification
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