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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 579-583, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri is a flagellated protozoan that infects ruminants and it displays high genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated the prevalence rates of this protozoan based on hemoculture and molecular diagnosis. The isolates of T. theileri thus obtained were characterized by molecular markers SSU rDNA and gGAPDH and molecular diagnosis based on Cathepsin L-like gene (PCR-TthCATL). The PCR-TthCATL and hemoculture indicated an overall prevalence rate of 8.13%, and the CATL derived sequence named IB was identified for the first time in cattle in the western Amazon region, as well as IF in Brazil. We also describe a possible new PCR-TthCATL derived sequence in cattle, designated IL.


Resumo Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri é um protozoário flagelado que infecta ruminantes e apresenta alta diversidade genética. Neste estudo, investigamos as taxas de prevalência deste protozoário com base na hemocultura e no diagnóstico molecular. Os isolados de T . theileri obtidos foram caracterizados pelos marcadores moleculares SSU rDNA e gGAPDH e o diagnóstico molecular foi baseado no gene do tipo Catepsina L (PCR-TthCATL). O PCR-TthCATL e a hemocultura indicaram uma taxa de prevalência total de 8,13% e a sequência derivada do gene Catepsina L denominada IB de T. theileri foi identificada pela primeira vez em bovinos da Amazônia Ocidental, bem como a IF no Brasil. Também descrevemos uma possível nova sequência derivada da PCR-TthCATL em bovinos, designada IL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Trypanosoma/classification , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/parasitology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Phylogeny , Trypanosoma/genetics , Trypanosoma/immunology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Cathepsin L/genetics , Genotype
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(5): 896-901, May 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955418

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de tripanossomose em uma propriedade leiteira no município de Timon no estado do Maranhão, Brasil. O proprietário relatava histórico de abortos, nascimentos de crias fracas e mortalidade de animais adultos com perda progressiva de peso. Foram realizadas visitas à propriedade para obtenção do histórico, exame dos animais e coleta de sangue para realização do teste de Woo, hemogramas, testes sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos contra tripanossomose, leptospirose, e neosporose e PCR para diagnóstico molecular de Trypanosoma vivax. A identificação de animais com baixos valores no hematócrito foi a principal alteração hematológica identificada no rebanho. Dois animais foram positivos no teste de Woo, sendo visualizados tripanossomas em esfregaços sanguíneos, confirmados por meio de diagnóstico molecular como sendo T. vivax. Identificou-se que 95,23% (40/42) dos animais com hematócrito baixo foram sorologicamente positivos para T. vivax. As condições identificadas na propriedade, como ambiente propício aos vetores mecânicos, a presença de animais silvestres e a introdução de animais de estados onde já haviam sido registrados surtos de tripanossomose provavelmente estiveram associadas à introdução e disseminação do agente no rebanho. O elevado número de animais sorologicamente positivos para tripanossomose 82,51% (151/183) demonstra que praticamente todo o rebanho teve contato com o agente. O rápido estabelecimento das medidas de controle, entre elas a utilização das drogas tripanocidas, contribuiu para o controle do surto. O estudo permitiu comprovar a ocorrência de mais um surto de tripanossomíase tripanossomose no Brasil. O diagnóstico clínico da enfermidade foi dificultado pela semelhança dos sinais clínicos com outras enfermidades e pela possibilidade da associação de duas ou mais doenças no mesmo paciente, o que ressalta a importância do estabelecimento de medidas diagnósticas adequadas como forma de evitar a disseminação da enfermidade e minimizar as perdas econômicas dos produtores.(AU)


The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of trypanosomiasis in a dairy farm in municipality of Timon, State of Maranhão, Brazil. The owner reported abortus, births of weak calves, and mortality of adult animals with progressive weight loss. Visits to the property were carried out to obtain the history, realize animal examination and blood collection for the Woo test, hemograms, serological tests for trypanosomiasis, leptospirosis, and neosporosis and PCR for molecular diagnosis of Trypanosoma vivax. The identification of animals with low values in the hematocrit was the main hematological alteration identified in the herd. Two animals were positive in the Woo test and trypanosomes were visualized in blood smears, confirmed by molecular diagnosis as T. vivax. It was identified that 95.23% (40/42) of the animals with low hematocrit were serologically positive for T. vivax. The conditions identified in the property as an environment propitious to mechanical vectors, the presence of wild animals and the introduction of animals from states where trypanosomiasis outbreaks had already been reported were probably associated with the introduction and dissemination of the agent in the herd. The high number of serologically positive animals for trypanosomiasis 82.51% (151/183) shows that almost all the herd had contact with the agent. The rapid establishment of control measures, including the use of trypanocidal drugs, contributed to the control of the outbreak. The study allowed confirming the occurrence of another outbreak of trypanosomiasis in Brazil. The clinical diagnosis of the disease was difficult by the similarity of the clinical signs of trypanosomiasis with other diseases and the possibility of association of two or more diseases in the same patient, which emphasizes the importance of establishing adequate diagnostic measures as a way to avoid the dissemination of the disease and to minimize the economic losses of the producers.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Cattle/parasitology , Trypanosoma vivax/pathogenicity
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0232016, 2018. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-980401

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti Trypanosoma vivax antibodies and the possible risk factors associated with the infection in cattle in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, through a cross-sectional epidemiological study, with non-probabilistic convenience sampling. A total of 467 cattle's serum samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence. Forty-two samples tested positive for Trypanosoma vivax IgG antibodies, corresponding to the prevalence of 9%. Risk factors influencing the occurrence of trypanosomiasis were milk exploration, raising of European breeds, productivity category: lactation cow, purchase of new cattle, foraging habits near ponds and rivers, and the presence of mechanical vectors. So, high prevalence in beef animals (59.5%), females (95.2%), European breed (88.1%), lactating cows (85.7%), pasture at banks of dams and rivers (95.2%), in addition to the presence of mechanical vectors (81%) and acquisition of animals (88.1%), indicates the expansion of trypanosomiasis in Northeastern semi-arid region, and the information obtained may explain the epidemiological factors that determine the occurrence of trypanosomiasis by T. vivax in this region.(AU)


Objetivando determinar a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma vivax e os possíveis fatores de risco associados à infecção em bovinos no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, nordeste do Brasil, o trabalho consistiu em um estudo epidemiológico transversal, com amostragem não probabilística por conveniência, no qual foram analisadas, por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta, 467 amostras de soro sanguíneo de bovinos. Das amostras testadas, 42 foram reagentes para anticorpos IgG anti-Trypanosoma vivax, o que correspondeu à prevalência de 9,0%. Os fatores de risco que influenciaram a ocorrência da tripanossomose foram: exploração com finalidade do tipo leite, criação de bovinos de raça europeia, categoria animal vaca em lactação, aquisição de animais, forrageamento das margens de açudes e rios, além da presença de vetores mecânicos. A alta prevalência encontrada em animais de corte (59,5%), fêmeas (95,2%), raça europeia (88,1%), vacas em lactação (85,7%), pastagem a margens de açudes e rios (95,2%), além da presença de vetores mecânicos (81%) e aquisição de animais (88,1%), indica a expansão da tripanossomose no semiárido do Nordeste, e as informações obtidas poderão esclarecer os fatores epidemiológicos que determinam a ocorrência da tripanossomose por T. vivax na região.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Trypanosoma vivax , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 516-520, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax is an important cause of economic losses among feedlot cattle. These losses are related to the morbidity, mortality, reproductive issues and decreased production. It is known that the clinical signs observed in infections by this protozoon are similar to other hemoparasitosis, which difficult the diagnosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize an outbreak of trypanosomiasis caused by T. (D.) vivax in dairy cattle in the municipality of São Miguel Aleixo, state of Sergipe, Brazil. Blood samples from cattle (n = 15) presenting clinical signs compatible with trypanosomiasis were collected and parasitological and molecular evaluated. Among the samples analyzed, 34% (5/15) were positive from blood smears, 60% (9/15) from the buffy coat method and 80% (12/15) from the molecular method. The DNA sequence obtained (659 bp) showed 99% similarity to T. (D.) vivax sequences that are available in the GenBank database. The presence of this protozoon in cattle herds is a problem for producers. Diagnosing trypanosomiasis is problematic because its evolution is similar to that of other parasitic blood diseases. In addition, this is the first report of infection by T. (D.) vivax in cattle in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil.


Resumo Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax é responsável por consideráveis perdas econômicas na bovinocultura. Estas perdas estão relacionados à morbidade, mortalidade, problemas reprodutivos e declínio na produção. Sabe-se que os sinais clínicos apresentados em infecções por este protozoário se assemelha a outras hemoparasitoses, dificultando muitas vezes o diagnóstico. Portanto, objetivou-se com este estudo detectar a ocorrência de T. (D.) vivax em bovinos leiteiros no município de São Miguel Aleixo, Estado de Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto, amostras de sangue (n = 15) foram coletadas e avaliadas através de métodos parasitológicos e moleculares. Do total das amostras analisadas, 34% (5/15) foram positivas no esfregaço sanguíneo, 60% (9/15) pelo método do Buffy Coat, enquanto na biologia molecular 80% (12/15) amplificaram um fragmento de DNA (659 pb) compatível com T. (D.) vivax (GenBank). Em conclusão a presença de T. (D.) vivax nos rebanhos bovinos caracteriza-se como um problema para os pecuaristas, como também para o diagnóstico, uma vez que essa tripanossomíase apresenta evolução semelhante a outras hemoparasitoses. Ademais, este é o primeiro relato de infecção por T. (D.) vivax em bovinos do estado de Sergipe, nordeste do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Cattle/parasitology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Trypanosoma vivax/isolation & purification , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Trypanosoma vivax/genetics , Dairying
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 366-371, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042446

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma vivax has increased the reports in Brazil in the last decade. An outbreak is herein first reported in the state of Goiás, from May 2016 to January 2017. The outbreak start occurred in the city of Ipameri (Goiás) after the introduction of 18 auctioned cows from the state of Minas Gerais. Direct parasitological test (blood smears) and polymerase chain reactions targeting the catL genes diagnosed T. vivax infection. Fifty six cows from a herd of 161 were infected; 12 died during the outbreak and 44 animals persistently positive (by blood smears) even after chemical treatment were discarded. After this first case, five other cases were detected in state of Goiás. The spread of this disease can be linked to the commercialization of animals carrying T. vivax, allied to the iatrogenic transmission practice, using a single needle and syringe for all cows, during oxytocin administration before each milking.


Resumo Tripanossomíase causada por Trypanosoma vivax tem sido reportada em várias regiões do Brasil na última década. Um surto é aqui reportado no Estado de Goiás, de maio de 2016 a janeiro de 2017. O início do referido surto ocorreu na cidade de Ipameri (Goiás) depois da introdução de 18 vacas Girolando, provenientes do Estado de Minas Gerais. Pelo exame parasitológico direto (esfregaço sanguíneo) e pela reação em cadeia pela polimerase, identificou-se a infecção por T. vivax nos animais. Cinquenta e uma vacas de um rebanho de 161 foram infectadas; 12 morreram durante o surto e 44 animais permaneceram positivos (pelo esfregaço sanguíneo) mesmo recebendo tratamento químico (diminazene), e foram descartadas. Após esse primeiro caso, foram detectados outros cinco casos no Estado de Goiás. A disseminação dessa doença pode estar ligada à comercialização de animais portadores de T. vivax, aliada à prática de transmissão iatrogênica, utilizando-se uma única agulha e seringa para, todas as vacas, durante a administração da oxitocina antes de cada ordenha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Trypanosoma vivax , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Dairying
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(2): 207-213, Apr.-June 2013. mapa, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-679409

ABSTRACT

The seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Trypanosoma vivax and the risk factors for these infections were investigated in 509 cows on 37 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Cow serum samples were tested by means of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against each specific antigen. The mean seroprevalence values per farm were 15.0% (range: 0-75%) for A. marginale, 9.5% (range: 0-40%) for B. bigemina and 26.9% (range: 0-73.7%) for B. bovis. All cows tested negative for T. vivax. Higher prevalence for A. marginale was significantly associated with less frequent acaricide spraying per year and with higher use of injectable antihelminthics. Presence of cows positive for B. bigemina was significantly associated with acaricide use and with presence of horse flies on the farm. Both occurrence and higher prevalence of B. bovis were significantly associated with recent observations of ticks on cattle. Overall, the present results indicate that the region investigated is an enzootically unstable area for A. marginale, B. bigemina and B. bovis, since most animals were seronegative to at least one agent.


A soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis e Trypanosoma vivax, assim como os fatores de risco para estas infecções, foram investigadas em 37 fazendas (total de 509 vacas) da região semiárida da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. A presença de anticorpos nos soros dos animais foi detectada pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta, utilizando antígenos específicos. Os valores médios de soroprevalência por fazenda foram 15,0% (0-75%) para A. marginale, 9,5% (0-40%) para B. bigemina, e 26,9% (0-73,7%) para B. bovis. Todas as vacas foram soronegativas para T. vivax. As maiores prevalências de A. marginale foram significativamente associadas com menor uso de carrapaticidas por ano e com uso mais frequente de antihelmínticos injetáveis. A soroprevalência de B. bigemina foi significativamente associada com o uso de carrapaticidas, e com a presença de mutucas na fazenda. Tanto a ocorrência como a maior soroprevalência para B. bovis nas fazendas foram significativamente associadas com a presença recente de carrapatos nos bovinos. No geral, os resultados indicam que as fazendas amostradas estão situadas em área de instabilidade enzoótica para A. marginale, B. bigemina, e B. bovis, uma vez que a maioria dos animais foi soronegativa para pelo menos um dos agentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Anaplasmosis/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Babesiosis/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/blood
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(1): 1-13, Feb. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-478878

ABSTRACT

The biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic techniques, and history of the introduction of Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax in the New World are reviewed. The two main immunological responses of trypanosome-infected animals - antibody production and immunodepression - are discussed in the context of how these responses play a role in disease tolerance or susceptibility. Isolation and purification of T. vivax are briefly discussed. The recent reports of bovine trypanosomiasis diagnosed in cattle on farms located in the Pantanal region of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso, Brazil, are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Trypanosoma vivax , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine , Africa/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Trypanosoma vivax/classification , Trypanosoma vivax/genetics , Trypanosoma vivax/immunology , Trypanosoma vivax/pathogenicity , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/parasitology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/transmission
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(7): 801-807, Nov. 2006. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439467

ABSTRACT

There are data indicating that the distribution of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian territory is expanding with potential to reach other areas, where the vectors are present. The detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in serum provides important information of the trypanosomal status in cattle herds. For this reason, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Tv-ELISA-Ab) with crude antigen from one Brazilian isolate of T. vivax was developed and evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity were respectively 97.6 and 96.9 percent. In the evaluation of cross-reactions, three calves inoculated with T. evansi trypimastigotes blood forms showed optical densities (OD) under the cut-off during the whole experimental period, except one at 45 days post-inoculation. With relation to Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Anaplasma marginale, which are endemic hemoparasites in the studied area, the cross-reactions were shown to be 5.7, 5.3, and 1.1 percent, respectively. The first serological survey of Pantanal and state of Pará showed that T. vivax is widespread, although regions within both areas had significantly different prevalences. Therefore, this Tv-ELISA-Ab may be a more appropriate test for epidemiological studies in developing countries because the diagnostic laboratories in most countries may be able to perform an ELISA, which is not true for polymerase chain reaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cattle , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan , Trypanosoma vivax/immunology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Trypanosoma vivax/isolation & purification , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 94(2): 269-72, Mar.-Apr. 1999. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-239019

ABSTRACT

The financial impact of the first outbreak of Trypanosoma vivax in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland is estimated. Results are extended to include oubreaks in the Bolivian Lowlands providing a notion of the potential influence of the disease and an anlytical basis. More than 11 million head of cattle, valued at more than US$ 3 billion are found in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. The total estimated cost of the 1995 outbreak of T. vivax is the sum of the present values of mortality, abortion, and productivity losses and treatment costs, or about 4 (por cento) of total brood cow value on affected ranches. Had the outbrak gone untreated, the estimated losses would have exceeded 17 (por cento) of total brood cow value.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle/parasitology , Socioeconomic Factors , Trypanosoma , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/therapy
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