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Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 343-351, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223773


La vacunación es el medio más efectivo para controlar la morbilidad y mortalidad relacionadas con enfermedades infecciosas. Para lograr esto, necesitamos vacunas inmunogénicas y seguras que faciliten y mejoren sus condiciones de transporte, almacenamiento y administración. Gracias a los avances en inmunología y bioinformática, es posible impulsar el descubrimiento de nuevas vacunas para enfrentar la tuberculosis, el virus respiratorio sincicial, el Streptococcus agalactiae, la enfermedad meningocócica invasora, entre otros. Así también, nuevas tecnologías, como la producción de vacunas utilizando plantas transgénicas y parches de microagujas, los cuales podrían facilitar la producción, disminuir los costos y efectos adversos. Sin embargo, no solo necesitamos las vacunas, sino que debemos conocer la epidemiología de las enfermedades prevenibles con vacuna para tomar decisiones fundadas, con el objetivo de planificar estrategias sanitarias, medir su impacto y evaluar la seguridad de su utilización, para alcanzar las metas de salud pública y la confianza de la población.

Vaccination is the most effective strategy to avoid morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases. To achieve this, we need immunogenic and safe vaccines that facilitate and improve its transport, storage and administration conditions. Thanks to current advances in immunology and bioinformatics, it is possible to boost the discovery of new vaccines to deal with tuberculosis, the respiratory syncytial virus, Streptococcus agalactiae, meningococcal invasive disease, among others. In addition to new technologies such as the production of plant-based vaccines, and microneedles patches, which can facilitate its production, reducing costs and adverse effects. However, vaccines is not the only thing that we need, because we must know the epidemiology and burden of disease to take informed decisions to design optimal strategies, measuring their impact and assessing the safety of their use in order to achieve the goals health and population confidence.

Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Vaccination/trends , Health Priorities , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immunization/trends , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Decision , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1183-1194, Dec. 2012. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659642


In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

Animals , Male , Mice , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/adverse effects , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , /adverse effects , /immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger/adverse effects , Spleen/immunology , Transfection , Tuberculosis Vaccines/adverse effects , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
Rev. cienc. salud ; 11(1): 22-34, dic. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-567034


The tuberculosis is a re-emergent infectious disease at world-wide level because of factors like the poverty, immigration from countries with elevated endemia tuberculosa, the addiction to drugs, the presence of the VIH, the resistance to drugs of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the lack of management in the control programs of tuberculosis. Control Program of the Tuberculosis in the Antofagasta Region (Chile) is evaluated, in the period between 2002 and 2006, as form to visualize if the made work will allow to reach the rate of incidence of 10 cases new percents thousand inhabitants in 2010 (elimination stage outpost). In the evaluated period a reduction of the incidence of the tuberculosis is observed but the data demonstrate that the Program follows without reaching the objectives of the WHO, specially the rate of treatment that would have to be 85% or more and in this Region it is of 55% measurement in cohort of virgin to the treatment and searched patients through bacilloscopy.

La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa re-emergente a nivel mundial a causa de factores como pobreza, inmigración desde países con elevada endemia tuberculosa, adicción a las drogas, presencia del VIH, resistencia a fármacos anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis y falta de gestión en los programas de control de tuberculosis. En este trabajo se evalúa el estado de gestión del Programa de Control y Eliminación de la Tuberculosis en la II Región Antofagasta (Chile), en el período comprendido entre 2002 y 2006, como una forma de visualizar si el trabajo realizado permitirá alcanzar la etapa de eliminación avanzada en el año 2010 (tasa de incidencia de 10 casos nuevos por 100 mil habitantes). En el período evaluado se observa un descenso de la incidencia de la tuberculosis pero los datos demuestran que el Programa sigue sin alcanzar los objetivos de la OMS, especia1mente la tasa de curación que debería ser 85% o más y en esta Región es de 55% medida en la cohorte de pacientes vírgenes al tratamiento y pesquisados a través de baciloscopías.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Program Evaluation , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Diagnosis of Health Situation , Tuberculosis/mortality , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(11): 1495-1504, Nov. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-464311


We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65) gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65) was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group) were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 mug DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization), the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2) characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

Animals , Female , Mice , Atherosclerosis/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Chaperonins/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/administration & dosage , Chaperonins/administration & dosage , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Diet, Atherogenic , Injections, Intradermal , Injections, Intramuscular , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Oct; 42(10): 949-54
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61556


Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that invade and reside inside the macrophages. Recent advances in controlled delivery systems for vaccines such as liposomes have sparked a renewed interest in their potential application for the prevention of mycobacterial infections. The versatility of liposomes in the incorporation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components, their non-toxic nature, biodegradability, biocompatibility, adjuvanticity, induction of cellular immunity, property of sustained release and prompt uptake by macrophages, makes them attractive candidates for the delivery of antigens. This review focuses on liposome research in the area of mycobacterial diseases and highlights how the various mycobacterial components may be exploited as powerful antigens with liposomes as adjuvants.

Animals , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Liposomes , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Aug; 42(8): 758-65
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59247


L-Lysine HCI is being proposed to be a possible biocompatible adjuvant to enhance immune response by virtue of its probable non-specific bridging action and cellular proliferation properties. This proposal has been tried to be substantiated by designing an in vitro culture protocol, varying the concentration of L-lysine HCI and its further in vivo application. Splenic lymphocyte population has been extracted from mice and co-cultured with extracted mice macrophage population in presence of either Bacille Calmette Guerrin (BCG) or Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) and added L-lysine hydrochloride in culture media. Post incubation of these cultures, "taught" cell population has been adoptively transferred in naïve mice. These mice were then challenged by respective antigen dose, Change in Immune response with this challenge was noted. Antibody titre was followed in all the experiments as a measure of immune response. In adoptive immune transfer experiment of with HbsAg (AIT-HbsAg), similar to that with BCG (AIT-BCG), after the incubation period, antibody titre was higher in added lysine containing cultures in comparison with the control ones. Post transfer followed by antigen challenge, in AIT-BCG the expected augmentation in immune response was hardly visible. But in AIT-HbsAg, with the help of lysine booster, the animals responded better as far as the antibody titre is concerned.

Animals , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Lysine/administration & dosage , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage