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1.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3470, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289656

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En los últimos 10 años en Cuba y, especialmente, en provincia Guantánamo se ha observado incremento del número de pacientes tuberculosos farmacorresistentes; esta es la provincia de mayor incidencia en el país. Objetivo: Identificar las características epidemiológicas y el patrón de resistencia de la tuberculosis farmacorresistente en provincia Guantánamo. Método: Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo y transversal que incluyó la totalidad de casos (n=6) con tuberculosis farmacorresistentes diagnosticados entre diciembre de 2010 y diciembre de 2019. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, sexo, régimen terapéutico, situación económica, categorías de casos, clasificación epidemiológica de la resistencia y resistencia de la cepa aislada según el grado y perfil. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (66, 6 %) y el grupo de edades de menores de 45 años (83,3 %), la mayor cantidad de resistencia estuvo propiciada por violaciones en los tratamientos anteriores (66,6 %), categorizados mayormente como crónicos y reingresos por abandono. Predominó el nivel educacional de secundaria básica terminada (66,7 %), con situación económica regular (50,0 %) y alto nivel de alcoholismo (66,7 %). La multidrogorresistencia prevaleció en cepas de pacientes con tratamiento previo (66,6 %). Conclusiones: Existe coincidencia del patrón epidemiológico y el patrón de resistencia mostrado en la investigación actual con los resultados de estudios previos nacionales e internacionales, estos resultados sugieren fallas en la aplicación local del Programa Nacional de Control y Tratamiento de la tuberculosis. Se recomienda investigar y resolver estas fallas lo que produciría un impacto inmediato en la disminución de la incidencia de tuberculosis farmacorresistentes.


ABSTRACT Introduction: An increase in the number of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients has been observed in the last 10 years in Cuba and, especially, in Guantánamo province. This is the province with the highest incidence in the country. Objective: To identify the epidemiological characteristics and the resistance pattern of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Guantánamo province. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was designed that included all cases (n=6) with drug-resistant tuberculosis, diagnosed between December 2010 and December 2019. The variables studied were: age, gender, therapeutic regimen, economic situation, categories of cases, epidemiological classification of resistance, and resistance of the isolated strain according to the grade and profile. Results: Males predominated (66.6%), and also the age group under 45 years (83.3%), the greatest resistance was caused by not abiding the previous treatments (66.6%), categorized mostly as chronic, and readmitted due to treatment abandonment. Highschool degree (66.7%) predominated, with a moderate economic situation (50.0%) and high levels of alcoholism (66.7%). Multi-drug resistance prevailed in the strains in patients with previous treatment (66.6%). Conclusions: There is a coincidence of the epidemiological pattern and the resistance pattern shown in the current research with the results of previous national and international studies; these results suggest flaws in the local application of the Programa Nacional de Control y Tratamiento de la tuberculosis. It is recommended to investigate and resolve these flaws, which would have an immediate impact on reducing the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis.


RESUMO Introdução: Nos últimos 10 anos, em Cuba e, principalmente, na província de Guantánamo, observou-se um aumento no número de pacientes com tuberculose resistente aos medicamentos; esta é a província com maior incidência no país. Objetivo: Identificar as características epidemiológicas e o padrão de resistência da tuberculose resistente a medicamentos na província de Guantánamo. Método: Foi elaborado um estudo descritivo e transversal que incluiu todos os casos (n=6) com tuberculose resistente a medicamentos diagnosticados entre dezembro de 2010 e dezembro de 2019. Foram estudadas as variáveis: idade, sexo, regime terapêutico, situação econômica, categorias de casos, classificação epidemiológica de resistência e resistência da cepa isolada de acordo com o grau e perfil. Resultados: Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (66,6%) e na faixa etária abaixo de 45 anos (83,3%), a maior quantidade de resistência foi causada por violações nos tratamentos anteriores (66,6%), categorizados principalmente como crônicos e reinternações por abandono. Predominou situação econômica regular (50,0%) e alto nível de alcoolismo (66,7%). A multirresistência prevaleceu em cepas de pacientes com tratamento anterior (66,6%). Conclusões: Há coincidência do padrão epidemiológico e do padrão de resistência mostrado na pesquisa atual com os resultados de estudos nacionais e internacionais anteriores, esses resultados sugerem falhas na aplicação local do Programa Nacional de Controle e Tratamento da Tuberculose. Recomenda-se investigar e resolver essas falhas, que teriam um impacto imediato na redução da incidência de tuberculose resistente aos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Rifampin , Streptomycin , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Isoniazid
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07552020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155600

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The intensification of research and innovation with the creation of networks of rapid and effective molecular tests as strategies for the end of tuberculosis are essential to avoid late diagnosis and for the eradication of the disease. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert) in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in reference units, in scenarios with and without subsidies, and the respective cost adjustment for today. METHODS: The analyses were performed considering as criterion of effectiveness, negative culture or clinical improvement in the sixth month of follow-up. The comparison was performed using two diagnostic strategies for the drug susceptibility test (DST), BactecTMMGITTM960 System, versus Xpert. The cost effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and dollar-corrected for American inflation (US$ 1.00 = R$ 5,29). RESULTS: Subsidized Xpert had the lowest cost of US$ 33.48 (R$67,52) and the highest incremental average efficiency (13.57), thus being a dominated analysis. After the inflation was calculated, the mean cost was DST-MGIT=US$ 74.85 (R$ 396,73) and Xpert = US$ 37.33 (R$197,86) with subsidies. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert in the diagnosis of TB-DR in these reference units was cost-effective with subsidies. In the absence of a subsidy, Xpert in TB-DR is not characterized as cost effective. This factor reveals the vulnerability of countries dependent on international organizations' subsidy policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cost-Benefit Analysis
3.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(1): e2019190, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090244

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar o Sistema de Vigilância da Tuberculose Drogarresistente (SV-TBDR)/Brasil. Métodos: estudo avaliativo, segundo diretrizes do Centro de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças, sobre dados nacionais do Sistema de Informação de Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose (SITETB) e do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan) de 2013-2017. Resultados: a completitude média dos dados foi de 95% (escolaridade [89,1%; 5.417/6.078]; nacionalidade [94,7%; 5.754/6.078]; raça/cor da pele [99,1%; 6.023/6.078]; tipo de resistência [98,6%; 5.995/6.078]; forma clínica [100%; 6.078/6.078]; e teste para HIV [87%; 5.289/6.078]); a proporção média de casos com culturas realizadas foi de 65,7% (cultura 1 [94,8%; 5.764/6.078]; cultura 2 [69,8%; 4.241/6.078]; cultura 3 [54,7%; 3.324/6.078]; e cultura 4 [43,6%; 2.652/6.078]); em 2015, o SV-TBDR notificou 52% (1.197/2.300) dos casos multirresistentes estimados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, 41,3% (990/2.400) em 2016 e 45,8% (1.100/2.400) em 2017. Conclusão: a baixa sensibilidade do SV-TBDR recomenda melhorias no acesso ao diagnóstico da TBDR.


Objetivo: evaluar el Sistema de Vigilancia de la Tuberculosis Drogorresistente (SV-TB -DR)/Brasil. Métodos: estudio evaluativo, según directrices del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades, sobre datos nacionales del Sistema de Información de Tratamientos Especiales de Tuberculosis (SITETB) y del Sistema Nacional de Agravamientos de Notificación (Sinan) entre 2013 y 2017. Resultados: la completitud promedio de los datos fue de 95% (escolaridad [89,1%; 5.417/6.078]; nacionalidad [94,7%; 5.754/6.078]; raza/color de la piel ­[99,1%; 6.023/6.078]; tipo de resistencia [98,6%; 5.995/6.078]; forma clínica [100%; 6.078/6.078]; y prueba de VIH [87%; 5.289/6.078]); la proporción promedio de los casos con cultivos realizados fue 65,7% (cultivo 1 [94,8%; 5.764/6.078]; cultivo 2 [69,8%; 4.241/6.078]; cultivo 3 [54,7%; 3.324/6.078]; y cultivo 4 [43,6%; 2.652/6.078]); el SV-TB-DR reportó en 2015 52% (1.197/2.300) de los casos multirresistentes estimados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, 41,3% (990/2.400) en 2016 y 45,8% (1.100/2.400) en 2017. Conclusión: la baja sensibilidad del SV-TB-DR sugiere la necesidad de mejorar el acceso al diagnóstico de TB-DR.


Objective: to evaluate the Brazilian Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Surveillance System (DRTB-SS). Methods: this was an evaluative study, following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, using national data from the Special Tuberculosis Treatment Information System (SITETB), and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN), from 2013 to 2017. Results: average data completeness was 95% (schooling [89.1%; 5,417/6,078], nationality [94.7%; 5,754/6,078], race/skin color [99.1%; 6,023/6,078], type of resistance [98.6%; 5,995/6,078], clinical form [100%; 6,078/6,078], and HIV test [87%; 5,289/6,078]); average proportion of cases with sputum cultures performed was 65.7% (culture 1 [94.8%; 5,764/6,078], culture 2 [69.8%; 4,241/6,078], culture 3 [54.7%, 3,324/6,078], and culture 4 [43.6%; 2,652/6,078]); DRTB-SS reported 52% (1,197/2,300) of multi-resistant cases estimated by the World Health Organization in 2015, 41.3% (990/2,400) in 2016, and 45.8% (1,100/2,400) in 2017. Conclusion: low DRTB-SS sensitivity suggests the need for improved access to DRTB diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Health Information Systems/organization & administration , Health Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Data Accuracy , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Qualitative Research , Public Health Surveillance , Epidemiological Monitoring
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190175, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057267

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study sought to assess the mean and activity based cost (ABC) of the laboratory diagnosis for tuberculosis through the application of conventional and molecular techniques-Xpert®MTB/RIF and Genotype®MTBDRplus-in a tertiary referral hospital in Brazil. METHODS: The mean cost and ABC formed the basis for the cost analysis of the TB laboratory diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean cost and ABC were US$ 4.00 and US$ 3.24, respectively, for a bacilloscopy; US$ 6.73 and US$ 5.27 for a Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture; US$ 105.42 and US$ 76.56 for a drug sensitivity test (DST)-proportions method (PM) in LJ; US$ 148.45 and US$ 136.80 for a DST-BACTECTM MGITTM 960 system; US$ 11.53 and US$ 9.89 for an Xpert®MTB/RIF; and US$ 84.21 and US$ 48.38 for a Genotype®MTBDRplus. CONCLUSIONS: The mean cost and ABC proved to be good decision-making parameters in the diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB. The effective implementation of algorithms will depend on the conditions at each location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/economics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
5.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264287

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Le linezolide est un médicament potentiellement efficace pour le traitement des patients atteints de tuberculose pharmaco-résistante. En dépit de son efficacité et sa bonne biodisponibilité, il présente des toxicités, dont celle hématologique demeure l'une des plus graves. Nous rapportons deux cas de toxicité hématologique du linézolide au cours du traitement de la tuberculose pharmacorésistante. Le premier cas concernait un patient de 65 ans traité pour une tuberculose multi-résistante avec un schéma thérapeutique contenant du linézolide. L'évolution fut marquée par la survenue d'une pancytopénie avec anémie sévère à 5,4 g et un tableau d'insuffisance rénale. L'issue fut favorable après arrêt du médicament et transfusion sanguine. Le second cas concernait un patient de 33 ans, pré XDR qui lutte contre la tuberculose depuis 10 ans avec cinq cures de chimiothérapie antituberculeuse qui se sont soldées par des échecs et résistances. Au cours de son suivi, il a présenté une bonne évolution clinique et bactériologique initiale mais rapidement était survenue une anémie sévère à 5g/dl, à cette anémie était associées des neuropathies périphériques. Le Linezolide avait été retiré du schéma thérapeutique, suivi de transfusions sanguines. La suite avait été favorable sous traitement antituberculeux et le patient fut guéri de sa tuberculose. Conclusion Le linézolide est efficace dans le traitement de la tuberculose pharmacorésistante mais présente une toxicité hématologique


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion , Guinea , Linezolid , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180128, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002440

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, by using a commercial line probe assay for rifampicin and isoniazid detection (LPA-plus), in the routine workflow of a tuberculosis reference laboratory. Methods: The LPA-plus was prospectively evaluated on 341 isolates concurrently submitted to the automated liquid drug susceptibility testing system. Results: Among 303 phenotypically valid results, none was genotypically rifampicin false-susceptible (13/13; 100% sensitivity). Two rifampicin-susceptible isolates harboured rpoB mutations (288/290; 99.3% specificity) which, however, were non-resistance-conferring mutations. LPA-plus missed three isoniazid-resistant isolates (23/26; 88.5% sensitivity) and detected all isoniazid-susceptible isolates (277/277; 100% specificity). Among the 38 (11%) invalid phenotypic results, LPA-plus identified 31 rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible isolates, one isoniazid-resistant and six as non-Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusions: LPA-plus showed excellent agreement (≥91%) and accuracy (≥99%). Implementing LPA-plus in our setting can speed up the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, yield a significantly higher number of valid results than phenotypic drug susceptibility testing and provide further information on the drug-resistance level.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o diagnóstico rápido de tuberculose multirresistente, utilizando um teste comercial de sondas em linha (LPA-plus), na rotina de um laboratório de referência de tuberculose. Métodos: O teste LPA-plus foi avaliado prospectivamente em 341 isolados simultaneamente submetidos ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos em meio líquido, pelo sistema automatizado. Resultados: Entre os 303 resultados fenotipicamente válidos, nenhum foi genotipicamente falso suscetível à rifampicina (13/13; 100% de sensibilidade). Dois isolados sensíveis à rifampicina apresentavam mutações no gene rpoB (288/290; especificidade de 99,3%), as quais, no entanto, não são associadas à resistência a rifampicina. O LPA-plus não identificou resistência à isoniazida em três isolados fenotipicamente resistentes (23/26; 88,5% de sensibilidade) e detectou todos os isolados sensíveis à isoniazida (277/277; especificidade de 100%). Entre os 38 (11%) resultados fenotípicos inválidos, o LPA-plus identificou 31 isolados sensíveis à rifampicina e à isoniazida, um resistente à isoniazida e seis como micobactérias não tuberculosas. Conclusões: O LPA-plus mostrou excelente concordância (≥91%) e acurácia (≥99%). Sua implementação pode acelerar o diagnóstico da tuberculose multirresistente, produzir número significativamente maior de resultados válidos do que o teste fenotípico de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos e fornecer informações adicionais sobre o nível de resistência aos fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Phenotype , Rifampin/pharmacology , Time Factors , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Early Diagnosis , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
7.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 34(2): 122-128, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959417

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta parte de la información entregada durante un curso de capacitación en tuberculosis con resistencia a fármacos para referentes clínicos del PROCET de Chile, con la colaboración del Dr. José Antonio Caminero Luna. Se enfatizó el uso de métodos de diagnóstico rápidos de resistencia a fármacos basados en la biología molecular, técnicas más sensibles y específicas, con el análisis de algunos algoritmos de diagnóstico factibles de implementar en nuestro país. Se detallaron las nuevas propuestas de terapia de tuberculosis con resistencia a fármacos, especialmente TBC-MDR (multidrogo resistente), y las ventajas de nuevos esquemas terapéuticos de mayor eficacia como los que son recomendados actualmente por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS).


This publication summarizes part of the information provided during a training in multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) for clinical specialists in all health services of Chile with the collaboration of Dr. Jose Antonio Caminero Luna and the Chilean Program of Control and Eradication of Tuberculosis (PROCET). Emphasis was placed on early, sensitive and specific diagnostic methods of resistance to drugs based on molecular biology, showing some diagnostic algorithms feasible to implement in our country. Some proposals were made for changes in the treatment of tuberculosis with resistance to drugs, especially MDR-TB, with more effective therapeutic regimens recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , World Health Organization , Algorithms , Chile/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 324-330, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957432

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: High endemic levels of pulmonary tuberculosis in prisons result from overcrowding, limited access to healthcare, delayed diagnosis, sustained transmission owing to poor control measures, and multidrug resistance. This study evaluated locally implemented measures for early pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and evaluated resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHODS: This transversal study employed data from the Mato Grosso do Sul State Tuberculosis Control Program obtained from 35 correctional facilities in 16 counties for 2 periods (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). RESULTS: Statewide prevalence (per 100,000) was 480.0 in 2007 and 972.9 in 2014. The following indicators showed improvement: alcohol-acid-fast bacillus testing (from 82.7% to 92.9%); cultures performed (55.0% to 81.8%); drug susceptibility testing of positive cultures (71.6% to 62.4%); and overall drug susceptibility testing coverage (36.6% to 47.4%). Primary and acquired resistance rates for 2007-2014 were 21.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Primary and acquired multidrug resistance rates were 0.3% and 1.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates increased, and laboratory indicators improved as a result of capacity building and coordination of technical teams and other individuals providing healthcare to inmates. Resistance rates were high, thereby negatively affecting disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 463-467, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950028

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis, considerada desde 2003 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud una emergencia global de salud, provoca una mortalidad anual de alrededor de 2 millones de personas, fundamentalmente, en países en vías de desarrollo. En la población pediátrica española, la incidencia es de 5 casos/100 000 niños de entre 5 y 14 años y 13 casos/100 000 niños de entre 0 y 4 años. La infección se transmite por vía respiratoria por enfermos bacilíferos. Los niños eliminan escasos bacilos en secreciones respiratorias y no suelen transmitir la infección. En España, el porcentaje de resistencias a isoniazida en la población general es de 5% y es superior en la población inmigrante, lo cual es importante tener en cuenta para el tratamiento de los casos. Se presenta un caso de tuberculosis por Mycobacterium africanum multirresistente al tratamiento, con evolución satisfactoria posterior a la terapia múltiple.


Tuberculosis, considered since 2003 by the World Health Organization a global health emergency, causes annual mortality of approximately 2 million people, mainly in developing countries. In the Spanish pediatric population, the incidence is 5 cases/100 000 children between 5 and 14 years and 13 cases/100 000 children between 0 and 4 years. The infection is transmitted through the respiratory tract by baciliferous patients. Children eliminate few bacilli in respiratory secretions and do not usually transmit the infection. In Spain, the resistance to isoniazid in the general population is 5%, being higher in the immigrant population, which is important to take into account for the treatment of cases. A case of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium africanum multiresistant to treatment is presented, with satisfactory evolution after multiple therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Mycobacterium/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 234-236, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041454

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The teste rápido molecular para tuberculose (TRM-TB) was introduced in 2014 in Brazil for tuberculosis screening. However, its role in adolescents in Brazil has not been studied. METHODS A descriptive study of adolescents with suspected tuberculosis using National Laboratory software. RESULTS Of 852 (15.4%) suspected cases, 131 were positive by TRM-TB and 2% were resistant to rifampicin. Among TRM-TB-positive cases, 105 (91.4%) were culture-positive. Sixty-four of 96 samples were sensitive to rifampicin by TRM-TB; 11 were resistant to other drugs by drug sensitivity test (DST). CONCLUSIONS Among suspected cases, 16% were diagnosed by TRM-TB, of which 17% were drug-resistant by DST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Rifampin/pharmacology , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
11.
PJMR-Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. 2018; 57 (1): 14-19
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192409

ABSTRACT

Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an infection that is resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. Management of Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is a serious challenge worldwide


Objectives: To investigate hotspot mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA genes and its possible co-relation with predominant genotypes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


Study design, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was conducted after approval from research and ethics committee of Provincial TB Control Program, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in March 2015


Materials and Methods: A total of 166 clinical isolates were analysed which were collected from programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis units. All samples were characterized by phonotypical drug susceptibility test, genotypic drug resistant test [line probe assay] and spoligotyping analysis using ''TB-SPRINT' micro bead assay


Results: Out of the total 166 samples, 97 strains were resistant to rifampicin [RIF] and 106 strains were resistant to isoniazid [INH]. Most common mutation in rpoB was S531L in 75 [77%] isolates followed by D516V in 10 [10%] and H526Y in 6 [6%] samples respectively. A rare mutation in rpoB gene at codon 522 and deletion of codon 518 was also reported. In 106 INH resistant strains, 97[91%] were associated with mutation in katG gene while resistance in 9 [8.4%] strain was due to mutation in the inhA promoter region. Spoligotyping analysis revealed 55 distinct types of different patterns. Spoligotyping patterns of 146 samples matched with 15 different linage of M.tuberculosis in which 101 [60%] were identified as the predominant CAS1-Delhi linage. The pattern of 20 strains [12%] did not matched to any other pattern in the SITVIT database and were named orphan KP


Conclusion: Molecular characterization of M.tuberculosis is very helpful in the early identification of MDR-TB. As CAS1-Delhi is the predominant type in this region, its association with drug resistance, treatment failure and patient demographic profiles should be investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Molecular Typing , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Endemic Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 785-790, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Early diagnosis of tuberculosis is of major clinical importance. Among 4733 clinical specimens collected from 3363 patients and subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen microscopy, 4109 were inoculated onto Löwenstein-Jensen slants and 3139 in Bactec/9000MB. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed in 3139 specimens, whereas, a genotypic assay was directly applied in 93 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex PCR-positive for isoniazid and rifampicin resistance detection specimens (GenoType MTBDRplus). Recovered M. tuberculosis isolates (64) as well as, 21 more sent from Regional Hospitals were tested for antimycobacterial resistance with a phenotypic (manual MGIT-SIRE) and a genotypic assay (GenoType MTBDRplus). PCR in the clinical specimens showed excellent specificity (97.4%) and accuracy (96.8%), good sensitivity (70.4%), but low positive predictive value (40.3%). MGIT-SIRE performed to M. tuberculosis did not confer a reliable result in 16 isolates. Of the remaining 69 isolates, 15 were resistant to streptomycin, seven to isoniazid, seven to ethambutol and five to rifampicin. GenoType MTBDRplus correctly detected isoniazid (seven) and rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains (five), showing an excellent performance overall (100%). Susceptibility results by the molecular assay applied directly to clinical specimens were identical to those obtained from recovered isolates of the corresponding patients. Combining molecular and conventional methods greatly contribute to early diagnosis and accurate susceptibility testing of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Culture Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Culture Techniques/economics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 769-774, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The accurate detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is critical for the application of appropriate patient treatment and prevention of transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between phenotypic and molecular techniques for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnostics. Molecular techniques used were the line probe assay genotype MTBDRplus and the recently described tuberculosis-spoligo-rifampin-isoniazid typing (TB-SPRINT) bead-based assay. Conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) was done on a BACTECTM MGIT 960 TB. METHOD We studied 80 M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) clinical isolates from Minas Gerais state, of which conventional DST had classified 60 isolates as MDR and 20 as drug susceptible. FINDINGS Among the 60 MDR-TB isolates with MGIT as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for rifampicin (RIF) resistance using TB-SPRINT and MTBDRplus, were 96.7% versus 93.3%, 100.0% versus 100.0%, 97.5% versus 95.0% and 0.94 versus 0.88, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for isoniazid (INH) resistance were 85.0% and 83.3%, 100.0% and 100.0%, 88.8% and 87.5% and 0.74 and 0.71 for both tests, respectively. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa for MDR-TB were 85.0% and 83.3%, 100.0% and 100.0%, 88.8% and 87.5% and 0.74 and 0.71 for both tests, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Both methods exhibited a good correlation with the conventional DST. We suggest estimating the cost-effectiveness of MTBDRplus and TB-SPRINT in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pathology, Molecular , Genotype
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 756-759, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most significant causes of mortality and morbidity. Early diagnose is important especially in multiple drug resistant tuberculosis to avoid transmission. Traditional techniques requires at least one to three weeks for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Diagnostic delays with multiple drug resistant tuberculosis are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased transmission The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is one of the new diagnostic device for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and rapid detection of rifampicin resistance. OBJECTIVE We assessed the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detecting rifampicin resistance using phenotypic drug susceptibility tests as automated BD MGIT 960. METHODS Total of 2136 specimens were included in the study. Xpert MTB/RIF testing was performed on samples, using version 4 cartridges, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MTBC culture and first-line phenotypic DST were performed in automated BD MGIT 960 (Becton & Dickinson, USA) according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. Agar proportion was used in the case of inconsistency for rifampicin resistance. FINDINGS Thirty-four samples (19 respiratory and 15 nonrespiratory samples) were determined as positive for M. tuberculosis complex by Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid GeneXpert® System, USA). Xpert MTB/RIF assay detected 4/34 (11.7%) specimens as rifampicin resistant. One of the rifampicin resistant isolates was determined susceptible in MGIT 960 automated system. This isolate was also tested with agar proportion method and found susceptible to rifampicin. MAIN CONCLUSION The Xpert MTB/RIF assay can be used as first-line assay for the detection of M. tuberculosis. However, microbiologists must be aware of the limitations of the assay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Phenotype , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 93-100, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772615

ABSTRACT

Developing a fast, inexpensive, and specific test that reflects the mutations present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates according to geographic region is the main challenge for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) control. The objective of this study was to develop a molecular platform to make a rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant TB based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations present in therpoB, katG, inhA,ahpC, and gyrA genes from Colombian M. tuberculosis isolates. The amplification and sequencing of each target gene was performed. Capture oligonucleotides, which were tested before being used with isolates to assess the performance, were designed for wild type and mutated codons, and the platform was standardised based on the reverse hybridisation principle. This method was tested on DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates from 160 Colombian patients who were previously phenotypically and genotypically characterised as having susceptible or MDR M. tuberculosis. For our method, the kappa index of the sequencing results was 0,966, 0,825, 0,766, 0,740, and 0,625 forrpoB, katG, inhA,ahpC, and gyrA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were ranked between 90-100% compared with those of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Our assay helps to pave the way for implementation locally and for specifically adapted methods that can simultaneously detect drug resistance mutations to first and second-line drugs within a few hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Colombia , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/classification , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Gene Amplification , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149379

ABSTRACT

A worsening scenario of drug-resistant tuberculosis has increased the need for new treatment strategies to tackle this worldwide emergency. There is a pressing need to simplify and shorten the current 6-month treatment regimen for drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Rifamycins and fluoroquinolones, as well as several new drugs, are potential candidates under evaluation. At the same time, treatment outcomes of patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis should be improved through optimizing the use of fluoroquinolones, repurposed agents and newly developed drugs. In this context, the safety and tolerance of new therapeutic approaches must be addressed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Therapy, Combination , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 759-764, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753059

ABSTRACT

Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a reality worldwide, and its diagnosis continues to be difficult and time consuming. To face this challenge, the World Health Organization has recommended the use of rapid molecular tests. We evaluated the routine use (once a week) of a line probe assay (Genotype MTBDRplus) for early diagnosis of resistance and for assessment of the main related risk factors over 2 years. A total of 170 samples were tested: 15 (8.8%) were resistant, and multidrug resistance was detected in 10 (5.9%). The sensitivity profile took 3 weeks (2 weeks for culture and 1 week for rapid testing). Previous treatment for tuberculosis and the persistence of positive acid-fast smears after 4 months of supervised treatment were the major risk factors observed. The use of molecular tests enabled early diagnosis of drug-resistant bacilli and led to appropriate treatment of the disease. This information has the potential to interrupt the transmission chain of resistant M. tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genotyping Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Brazil , Early Diagnosis , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Rifampin/pharmacology , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
18.
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 19(2): 17-25, mayo-jul. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981656

ABSTRACT

El aumento de tuberculosis y la multidrogo resistencia de cepas de micobacterias es un problema de los sistemas de salud, en 2009, en el Hospital Roosevelt Gordillo y cols, determinaron la TB-MDR en pacientes con tuberculosis diagnosticada microbiológicamente, la tasa de resistencia fue de 4.3%. Objetivo: Determinar los patrones de resistencia y perfiles genéticos de cepas con monoresistencia y cepas TB-MDR del Complejo M. tuberculosis. Métodos: Se utilizaron dos métodos para evaluar las cepas de M. tuberculosis, un método fenotípico, MGIT, y un método Genotípico, Genotype HAIN LifeScience para determinar el perfil genético de las cepas. Resultados: Se evaluaron 846 cepas de micobacterias de los años 2008 al 2013, encontrándose un 2.2% de TB-MDR. Las cepas evaluadas genotípicamente fueron 761, a las cuales se determinó los genes de resistencia, encontrándose monoresistencia a Isoniacida en 58 cepas, 7.6%, monoresistencia a Rifampicina en 18 cepas, 2.4% y 15 cepas MDR, 2.0%. Las mutaciones más frecuentes en monoresistencia fueron inhA MUT1 y katG MUT1 y la combinación de ambos genes 3.2%, 3.0% y 1.3%, para cepas TB-MDR la combinación rpoB Mutación silenciosa + katG MUT1 + inhA MUT1. Se encontró que en pacientes con cepas MDR el 3.1% son HIV+ y el 1.5% son HIV-...(AU)


Introduction: The increase of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance in mycobacteria strains is a problem for health systems, in 2009, in Hospital Roosevelt, Gordillo and cols, determined the TB-MDR in patients diagnosed with tuberculosis microbiologically, the resistance rate was 4.3%. Objective: To determine the resistance patterns and genetic profiles of monoresistant strains and MDR-TB strains of M. tuberculosis complex. Methods: Two methods for evaluating M. tuberculosis strains were used, a phenotypic method, MGIT, and a genotypic method, Genotype HAIN LifeScience to determine the genetic profile of the strains. Results: 846 strains of mycobacteria of the years 2008 to 2013 were evaluated, finding 2.2% of MDR-TB. The strains genotypically evaluated were 761, of wich, resistance genes were determined, finding isoniazid monoresistance in 58 strains, 7.6%, Rifampicin monoresistance in 18 strains, 2.4% and 15 MDR strains, 2.0%. The most frequent mutations for monoresistant strains were inhA MUT1 and katG MUT1 and the combination of both genes 3.2%, 3.0% and 1.3%, respectively, and the most frequent mutations for TB-MDR strains was the combination rpoB silent mutation + katG MUT1 + inhA MUT1. There was found that in patients with MDR strains 3.1% are HIV+ and 1.5% are HIV-. Conclusions: The percentage of TB-MDR strains was 2.3%, and the most common genes were rpoB silent mutation, inhA MUT1 y katG MUT1. There was found a higher percentage of monoresistance in isoniazid than rifampicin, being the HIV+ patient population the one that presented higher percentages in both monoresistance to RIF and INH and TB-MDR strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Genes, MDR , Genes, MDR/genetics , Genotyping Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Rifamycins/pharmacology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Isoniazid/pharmacology
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 17(1): 1-1, ene.-jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755626

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Caracterizar los casos de tuberculosis farmacorresistente mediante pruebas de susceptibilidad a los fármacos antituberculosos en personas privadas de la libertad en Colombia. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un análisis descriptivo retrospectivo de los casos de tuberculosis en personas privadas de la libertad procesados por el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia, evaluando las variables de; sexo, edad, procedencia, coinfección TB/VIH y presencia de farmacorresistencia. Resultados Se realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad a fármacos antituberculosos a un total de 72 pacientes privados de la libertad. El estudio mostro una distribución de 90,7 % en población masculina y 9,3 % femenina, el 12 % del total de casos presento infección concomitante TB/VIH, el 94 % de los pacientes evaluados no habían tomado tratamiento antituberculoso previo, seis casos presentaron farmacorresistencia que corresponde al 8,8 % y dos casos presentaron tuberculosis multirresistente con un 1,3 %. De los casos farmacorresistentes el 83,3 % presento coinfección con VIH. Los casos antes tratados comprenden el 5,6 % del total evaluado, y se observó el caso con coinfeccion TB/VIH con resistencia a rifampicina correspondiente al 1,3 %. Conclusión El país debe definir una política clara en el tema de tuberculosis en personas privadas de la libertad debido a que se presenta una alta tasa de la enfermedad y se evidencia que la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos se asocia a coinfección TB/VIH, que en las condiciones de hacinamiento y poca calidad de vida de estos lugares se pueden convertir en un grave problema de salud pública.


Objective To characterize tuberculosis drug-resistance using anti-tuberculosis drug-sensitivity tests in Colombian prisoners. Methods Descriptive-retrospective analyses were performed on cases of tuberculosis in prisoners. Samples were evaluated by the National Reference Laboratory. Conditions like gender, TB/VIH co-infection and drug-resistance were evaluated. Results Anti-tuberculosis drug-sensitivity tests were carried out on 72 prisoners. Results showed a distribution of 90.7 % of cases in males and 9.3 % of cases in females. 12 % of cases were TB/VIH co-infections, 94 % of the cases had not received any anti-tuberculosis treatment before, six isolates were drug-resistant corresponding to 8.8 % of total cases, and two cases were multi drug-resistant representing 1.3 % of the cases. Of the drug-resistant cases, 83.3 % were TB/VIH co-infected. Previously treated cases corresponded to 5.6 % of the total cases analyzed. One case with TB/VIH co-infection and rifampicin resistance was observed, representing 1.3 % of the total cases. Conclusion The government must create a clear policy for prisoners in Colombia, because a high rate of disease in prisoners was observed. In addition, the results showed an association between drug-resistance and TB/VIH co-infection. Overcrowding and low quality of life in penitentiaries could become an important public health problem.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the trend in the rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) over time, as well as the difference in the drug-resistance pattern between pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) at a private referral center in South Korea. METHODS: All patients with culture-confirmed TB from 2006 to 2013 were included. RESULTS: In total, 1,745 patients were included: 1,431 (82.0%) were new cases, and 314 (18.0%) were cases treated previously; 1,610 (92.3%) were diagnosed with PTB, and 135 (7.7%) were diagnosed with EPTB. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB were detected in 5.8% and 2.0% of new cases and in 20.1% and 8.6% of previously treated cases, respectively. The MDR TB rate during the study period decreased remarkably, whereas the MDR and XDR TB rates decreased significantly in previously treated cases. No difference in the drug-resistance rate was detected between PTB and EPTB. CONCLUSIONS: The TB drug-resistance rate, particularly that of MDR TB, remained high at a private referral hospital, and the drug-resistance rate did not decrease significantly from 2006 to 2013. This finding underscores the need for a national survey regarding the prevalence of drug-resistant TB to obtain the most accurate and current drug-resistance status in South Korea, including the private sector.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Female , Hospitals, Private , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
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