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1.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(1): 43-47, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388172

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) ha mejorado dramáticamente el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis (TBC). Con él ha nacido la categoría de trazas, que es la menor carga bacilar detectable por este examen. OBJETIVO: Describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con presencia de trazas en el Ultra y evaluar la confirmación de la TBC como diagnóstico clínico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de serie de casos. Se extrajo la información de fichas clínicas de pacientes con positividad a trazas. Se confrontaron datos clínicos, microbiológicos e histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 21 pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 52 años. Todos los casos presentaron baciloscopias negativas. Cuatro cultivos en medio líquido MGIT fueron positivos, dos en pleura parietal, uno en líquido pleural y otro en expectoración. En pleura parietal, tres casos presentaron granulomas con necrosis caseosa y un granuloma esbozos de necrosis. En tejido pulmonar se observaron dos casos con granulomas con esbozos de necrosis y dos con granulomas no necrotizantes. Tres pacientes tenían el antecedente de TBC previa, se interpretó la positividad de trazas en ellos como falsos positivos. Finalmente se diagnosticaron 13 casos como TBC activa, donde cinco de ellos fueron TBC pleurales. La mayor concordancia clínica, microbiológica e histopatológica fue en muestras de líquido y tejido pleural. DISCUSIÓN: Se debe interpretar con cautela los hallazgos de esta prueba en muestras de vía aérea; el análisis multidisciplinario (clínica, imágenes, microbiología, histología) es crucial en las decisiones de nuestras conductas clínicas futuras. El hallazgo de trazas en pleura tiene, a nuestro parecer, un alto valor diagnóstico en el estudio de la tuberculosis en esta localización.


INTRODUCTION: Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra has dramatically changed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. A new category called traces appeared, which is the smallest amount of bacillar load detectable. OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical characteristics of patients that present traces in Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra test, and to evaluate the confirmation of tuberculosis as clinical diagnosis. METHODS: We perform a descriptive case series study. Information was recovered from clinical records of patients with positive test for traces. Clinical, histopathological and microbiological results were confronted. RESULTS: Twenty one patients were analyzed. The mean age was 52 years-old. All cases had negative smear microscopy and four MGIT cultures were positive, two in pleural fluid and another in sputum. In parietal pleura, three cases presented granulomas with caseous necrosis, and one showed granuloma with very little necrosis. In pleural tissue we observed two cases of granulomas with traces of necrosis and two with non-necrotizing granulomas. Three patients had history of previous tuberculosis and positive traces, the test was interpreted as a false positive result. Finally, active tuberculosis was diagnosed in 13 cases, and five of them were pleural tuberculosis. The highest clinical, microbiological and histopathological agreement was in fluid and pleural tissue samples. DISCUSSION: The findings of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra in airway samples must be interpreted carefully. Multi-disciplinary analysis is crucial in future clinical decisions. The finding of traces in pleura has, in our opinion, a high diagnostic value in the study of tuberculosis in this location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pleural/pathology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200558, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of determining the adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, the 2'-deoxyadenosine/ADA ratio, and the LDH/ADA ratio in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (PT) in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary hospital in a high-tuberculosis-incidence area, between 2001 and 2018. All patients with ADA in pleural fluid and a confirmed diagnosis of PT (cPT) or parapneumonic effusion (PPE) were included. Results: The cPT and PPE groups comprised 25 and 68 individuals, respectively. At a cutoff of 40 U/L, ADA measurement showed the following: sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 31%; positive predictive value (PPV), 32%; negative predictive value (NPV), 88%; and overall accuracy, 46%. The best cutoffs were an ADA level of 125 U/L, a 2'-deoxyadenosine/ADA ratio of 0.5, and an LDH/ADA ratio of 8.3, with AUC of 0.67, 0.75, and 0.82, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and overall accuracy of the 125 U/L ADA cutoff were 84%, 65%, 47%, 92%, and 70%, respectively, compared with 79%, 79%, 59%, 91%, and 79%, respectively, for the 8.3 LDH/ADA ratio cutoff. Changing the LDH/ADA ratio cutoff to 3.0 increased the specificity to 98%. Conclusions: The ADA level and the 2'-deoxyadenosine/ADA ratio are not good biomarkers for the diagnosis of PT in pediatric patients. Determination of the LDH/ADA ratio provides the best overall accuracy for the diagnosis of PT in such patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia da determinação do nível de adenosina desaminase (ADA), da relação 2'-desoxiadenosina/ADA e da relação LDH/ADA no líquido pleural para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural (TP) em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo realizado em um hospital terciário em uma área de alta incidência de tuberculose entre 2001 e 2018. Todos os pacientes com determinação de ADA no líquido pleural e com diagnóstico confirmado de TP (TPc) ou de derrame parapneumônico (DPP) foram incluídos. Resultados: Os grupos TPc e DPP foram compostos por 25 e 68 indivíduos, respectivamente. Num ponto de corte de 40 U/L, a medida de ADA mostrou o seguinte: sensibilidade, 88%; especificidade, 31%; valor preditivo positivo (VPP), 32%; valor preditivo negativo (VPN), 88%; e acurácia geral, 46%. Os melhores pontos de corte foram ADA de 125 U/L, relação 2'-desoxiadenosina/ADA de 0,5 e relação LDH/ADA de 8,3, com ASC de 0,67, 0,75 e 0,82, respectivamente. A sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP, VPN e acurácia geral do ponto de corte de 125 U/L para ADA foram de 84%, 65%, 47%, 92% e 70%, respectivamente, em comparação com 79%, 79%, 59%, 91% e 79%, respectivamente, para o ponto de corte de 8,3 para a relação LDH/ADA. Ao alterar o ponto de corte da relação LDH/ADA para 3,0 a especificidade aumentou para 98%. Conclusões: O nível de ADA e a relação 2'-desoxiadenosina/ADA não são bons biomarcadores para o diagnóstico de PT em pacientes pediátricos. A determinação da relação LDH/ADA fornece a melhor acurácia geral para o diagnóstico de PT nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Adenosine Deaminase , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
3.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(2): 22-26, ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021347

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa por Mycobacterium tuberculosis conocida desde la antigüedad y con gran importancia en la actualidad ubicándose como una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad, puede tener presentación pulmonar y extrapulmonar. Se presenta el caso clínico de una adolescente inmunocompetente con tuberculosis con descripción de la historia natural, a raíz del cual se realiza y presenta una revisión de literatura actual confrontando con artículos de revisiones de temas en búsqueda electrónica en bases de datos de RIMA, MEDLINE, PUBMED, MEDSCAPE, de 2013 a 2018. CONCLUSIONES: Es primordial conocer la presentación extrapulmonar corresponde al 21% de los casos de tuberculosis puede ser asintomático o sintomático con fiebre, tos y dolor pleurítico.


Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has been known since antiquity and with great importance at present, being one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, it can have pulmonary and extrapulmonary presentation. METHOD: review of current literature comparing articles with reviews of subjects in electronic search in databases of RIMA, MEDLINE, PUB-MED, MEDSCAPE, from 2013 to 2018 Clinical case: the clinical case of an immunocompetent adolescent with tuberculosis is represented. description of the natural history CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to know the extrapulmonary presentation corresponds to 21% of cases of tuberculosis can be asymptomatic or symptomatic with fever, cough and pleuritic pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Immunocompetence
4.
Medwave ; 19(5): e7655, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005861

ABSTRACT

El quilotórax tuberculoso es una patología infecciosa infrecuente, que se produce como consecuencia del bloqueo del conducto torácico. Su tratamiento está dirigido a combatir la infección tuberculosa. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 55 años de edad, chofer, natural de Trujillo-Perú, que acudió a emergencia por disnea progresiva y tos seca de cinco días de evolución. El examen físico reveló frémito vocal, matidez y murmullo vesicular disminuido en 2/3 inferiores del hemitórax izquierdo. La radiografía y ecografía torácica evidenciaron derrame pleural significativo, y la toracocentesis reveló quilotórax. Posteriormente, se colocó un tubo de drenaje torácico, con disminución progresiva del volumen del líquido pleural y cambios citoquímicos. Se realizó videobroncoscopía diagnóstica con aspirado broncoalveolar, revelando bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. El paciente recibió tratamiento antituberculoso, con evolución favorable. El quilotórax tuberculoso constituye una causa importante de quilotórax a considerar en zonas endémicas de tuberculosis. El tratamiento adecuado de la infección, conlleva a resolución de la enfermedad.


Tuberculous chylothorax is a rare infectious disease that occurs when the thoracic duct is obstructed. Treatment is directed to the tuberculosis infection. A 55-year-old male, driver, born in Trujillo (Peru) is admitted to the emergency department with increasing dyspnea and a 5-day dry cough. The physical examination revealed vocal fremitus, dullness to percussion, and a vesicular murmur that was decreased on the lower 2/3 of the left hemithorax. The X-ray and the thoracic ultrasound revealed significant left pleural effusion. The thoracocentesis drained fluid identified as chylothorax. Subsequently, a thoracic tube was placed, with a decrease in pleural fluid volume and later normalization of the cytochemical changes. Diagnostic video bronchoscopy was performed with a bronchoalveolar aspirate, revealing acid-fast bacilli. The patient received antituberculosis treatment with a favorable outcome. Tuberculous chylothorax is an important cause of chylothorax to be considered in endemic areas of tuberculosis. Proper treatment of the infection leads to resolution of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Chylothorax/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Peru , Tuberculosis, Pleural/drug therapy , Bronchoscopy , Chylothorax/microbiology , Chylothorax/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology
5.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(1): 29-31, ene. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999237

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is a common cause of pleural effusion in young people from endemic areas. Among the forms of extrapulmonary TB in people with immunodeficiencies, the most frequent localization is the pleura. The use of immunological and molecular biology tests for the diagnosis of TB in pleural fluid and other locations with high sensitivity and specificity is highlighted. We present a clinical case with the objective of giving an overview of the treatment of the patient with suspected pleural tuberculosis


La Tuberculosis (TB) es una causa común de derrame pleural en jóvenes en zonas endémicas. Dentro de las formas de TB extrapulmonar en personas que cursan con inmunodeficiencias, la localización más frecuente es la TB pleural. Se destaca el uso de las pruebas inmunológicas y de biología molecular para el diagnóstico de TB en líquido pleural y de otras localizaciones con una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad. Se presenta un caso clínico con el objetivo de describir una visión general del abordaje del paciente con sospecha de tuberculosis pleural


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pleural/complications , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/enzymology , Tuberculosis, Pleural/enzymology , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adenosine Deaminase
6.
Colomb. med ; 48(2): 47-52, Apr,-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890855

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis requires an invasive and time-consuming reference method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is rapid, but validation in pleural tuberculosis is still weak. Objective: To establish the operating characteristics of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) hybridization probes for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. Methods: The validity of the RT-PCR hybridization probes was evaluated compared to a composite reference method by a cross-sectional study at the Hospital Universitario de la Samaritana. 40 adults with lymphocytic pleural effusion were included. Pleural tuberculosis was confirmed (in 9 patients) if the patient had at least one of three tests using the positive reference method: Ziehl-Neelsen or Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture in fluid or pleural tissue, or pleural biopsy with granulomas. Pleural tuberculosis was ruled out (in 31 patients) if all three tests were negative. The operating characteristics of the RT-PCR, using the Mid-P Exact Test, were determined using the OpenEpi 2.3 Software (2009). Results: The RT-PCR hybridization probes showed a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% CI: 33.2%-90.7%) and a specificity of 93.5% (95% CI: 80.3%-98.9%). The PPV was 75.0% (95% CI: 38.8%-95.6%) and a NPV of 90.6% (95% CI: 76.6%-97.6%). Two false positives were found for the test, one with pleural mesothelioma and the other with chronic pleuritis with mesothelial hyperplasia. Conclusions: The RT-PCR hybridization probes had good specificity and acceptable sensitivity, but a negative value cannot rule out pleural tuberculosis.


Resumen Introducción: El diagnóstico de tuberculosis pleural requiere un método de referencia invasivo y demorado. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa es rápida, pero su validación en tuberculosis pleural aún es débil. Objetivo: Establecer las características operativas de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR) sondas de hibridación para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis pleural. Métodos: Se evaluó la validez de la RT-PCR sondas de hibridación comparada con un método de referencia compuesto mediante un estudio transversal en el Hospital Universitario de la Samaritana. Se incluyeron 40 adultos con derrame pleural linfocitario. Tuberculosis pleural fue confirmada (en 9 pacientes) si el paciente tenía mínimo una de tres pruebas del método de referencia positiva: Ziehl-Neelsen o cultivo para Mycobacterium tuberculosis en líquido o tejido pleural, o biopsia pleural con granulomas; se descartó tuberculosis pleural (en 31 pacientes) si las tres pruebas eran negativas. Se determinaron las características operativas de la RT-PCR, mediante la Prueba Mid-P Exact, con el Software OpenEpi 2.3 (2009). Resultados: La RT-PCR sondas de hibridación mostró una sensibilidad del 66.7% (IC 95%: 33.2%-90.7%) y una especificidad del 93.5% (IC 95%: 80.3%-98.9%). El VPP fue de 75.0% (IC 95%: 38.8%-95.6%) y un VPN de 90.6% (IC 95%: 76.6%-97.6%). Se encontraron dos falsos positivos para la prueba, uno con mesotelioma pleural y otro con pleuritis crónica con hiperplasia mesotelial. Conclusiones: La RT-PCR sondas de hibridación tuvo una buena especificidad y una aceptable sensibilidad, pero un valor negativo no puede descartar tuberculosis pleural.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pleurisy/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colombia , Hospitals, University , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(2): 106-113, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780882

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the quality of diagnosis and the epidemiological profile of patients with pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, in order to provide technical support for the development and implementation of public policies to combat the disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of pleural forms of tuberculosis in Roraima between 2005 and 2013 and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria used, as well as their determinants. This study was based on secondary data from the Brazilian Case Registry Database, including all reported cases of pleural tuberculosis in the state during the study period. Diagnoses based on bacteriological or histopathological confirmation were defined as high-quality diagnoses. Results: Among the 1,395 cases of tuberculosis reported during the study period, 116 (8.3%) were cases of pleural tuberculosis, accounting for 38.9% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the sample. The incidence rate of pleural tuberculosis did not follow the downward trend observed for the pulmonary form of the disease during the same period. The prevalence of cases with a high-quality diagnosis was 28.5% (95% CI: 20.4-37.6%). In a univariate analysis, none of the demographic or clinical characteristics collected from the database were found to have a significant impact on the outcome (as explanatory variables). Conclusions: The quality of the diagnoses in our study sample was considered unsatisfactory. Limited access to specific diagnostic methods might have contributed to these results.


Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade dos diagnósticos e o perfil epidemiológico de portadores de tuberculose pleural no estado de Roraima, visando embasar tecnicamente o fomento e a aplicação de políticas públicas para o enfrentamento dessa doença. Métodos: Estudo transversal, desenhado para determinar a prevalência de formas pleurais da tuberculose em Roraima entre 2005 e 2013 e avaliar os critérios diagnósticos utilizados e seus determinantes. Este estudo foi baseado na revisão de dados secundários do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, incluindo todos os casos notificados como tuberculose pleural no estado durante o período de estudo. Diagnósticos baseados em confirmação bacteriológica ou histopatológica foram definidos como de qualidade. Resultados: Dos 1.395 casos de tuberculose notificados no período do estudo, 116 (8,3%) foram da apresentação pleural, totalizando 38,9% das formas extrapulmonares na amostra. A taxa de incidência dessa apresentação clínica não acompanhou a tendência decrescente da forma pulmonar da doença no período. A prevalência de diagnósticos de qualidade encontrada foi de 28,5% (IC95%: 20,4-37,6%) e, na análise univariada, nenhuma variável explicativa dentre as características demográficas e clínicas coletadas do banco de dados tiveram um impacto significativo no desfecho (como variáveis explicativas). Conclusões: A qualidade dos diagnósticos na amostra estudada foi considerada insatisfatória. O acesso limitado a métodos diagnósticos específicos pode ter contribuído para esses resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Reference Standards , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(2): 76-80, abr. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841546

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis (TB) pleural ocupa el primer lugar dentro de las localizaciones extrapulmonares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la proporción de TB pleural entre los casos de TB y caracterizar la forma de presentación, métodos de diagnóstico y evolución de los pacientes internados en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital Ángela I. de Llano, Corrientes, Argentina, durante el período enero de 2011 a junio de 2014. Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo. Fueron diagnosticados 10 pacientes con TB pleural. La edad media fue 48.5 ± 16.9 (16-63) años. El tiempo de evolución antes de la consulta fue 21.3 ± 11.6 (7-45) días. Todos fueron exudados unilaterales, con recuento celular de 2152 ± 687 (84-7000) células; 8 casos presentaron predominio linfocitario. El valor promedio de adenosina deaminasa (ADA) fue 92.7 ± 27.0 (60-150) UI/l. La baciloscopia del líquido pleural fue positiva en 4 casos; se obtuvo desarrollo de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en 3 casos. En el estudio histológico 3 presentaron granulomas caseificantes. Se registró un óbito. Si bien suele darse en hombres, de mediana edad, con un tiempo de evolución menor al mes, como un derrame pleural unilateral exudativo a predominio de linfocitos, el diagnóstico de certeza presenta sus limitaciones, por ende la clínica, la epidemiología, los estudios por imágenes, la anatomía patológica y los exámenes de laboratorio, como la determinación de los niveles de ADA, constituyen un aporte valioso para el diagnóstico.


Pleural tuberculosis ranks first in extrapulmonary sites. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion pleural TB among TB cases, and characterize the presentation, diagnostic methods and outcomes of patients hospitalized in the Ángela I. de Llano hospital, Corrientes, Argentina, between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2014. We performed a descriptive and observational study. Ten patients were diagnosed with TB pleural effusion. The mean age was 48.5 ± 16.9 (16-63) years. The average evolution time before the consultation was 21.3 ± 11.6 (7-45) days. All were unilateral, exudates, with cell count of 2152 ± 687 (84-7000) cells; 8 cases had lymphocyte predominance. The average value of adenosine deaminase determination (ADA) was 92.7 ± 27.0 (60-150) IU/l. The pleural effusion smear was positive in 4 cases; development of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was obtained in 3 cases; histologically, three presented caseating granulomas. One death was recorded. Although pleural TB usually occurs in male patients, middle-aged, as a unilateral exudative pleural effusion with lymphocytic predominance, with less than a month´s evolution, diagnostic certainty has its limitations, thus clinical suspicion, epidemiology, imaging, pathology and laboratory tests, and determination of adenosine deaminase levels, represent a valuable contribution to diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pleural/epidemiology , Adenosine Deaminase/blood , Argentina/epidemiology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Granuloma/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
9.
Pulmäo RJ ; 25(1): 11-16, 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848939

ABSTRACT

Depois de introduzir os conceitos básicos da enzima adenosina desaminase (ADA), uma breve discussão sobre a estrutura, o mecanismo enzimático, terapia genética e potencial utilização terapêutica de inibidores de ADA são apresentados. O estudo da ADA é muito mais complexo do que simplesmente seu papel como biomarcador diagnóstico para tuberculose pleural que veio revolucionar o setor de diagnóstico na medicina clínica nos últimos anos. O aumento de sua atividade no líquido pleural, e em outros líquidos orgânicos, impede que o paciente na maioria dos casos com síndrome do derrame pleural por tuberculose seja submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos invasivos com possíveis complicações potencialmente fatais AU.


After introducing the basic concepts of ADA, a brief discussion on the structure, enzymatic mechanism, gene therapy and potential therapeutic use of ADA inhibitors are presented. The study of the ADA is much more complex than simply its role as a biomarker for pleural tuberculosis that has revolutionized the diagnostic in clinical medicine in recent years. The increase in its activity in the pleural fluid, and other body fluids, prevents the patient in most cases with pleural effusion tuberculosis is subjected to invasive surgical procedures with possible life-threatening complications. AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/ultrastructure , Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 56-61, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis produces no specific symptoms or radiologic findings, allowing for the possibility of misdiagnosis. We evaluated the specific clinical and pleural fluid features of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiologic characteristics of 20 patients diagnosed with pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis between 2001 and 2011. RESULTS: In total, 17 patients presented with respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea (30%), hemoptysis (20%), cough (20%), and pleuritic chest pain (15%). Chest radiographs revealed intrapulmonary parenchymal lesions, including air-space consolidation (30%), nodular opacities (20%), cystic lesions (15%), ground-glass opacities (10%), and pneumothorax (5%). A pleural f luid examination revealed eosinophilia, low glucose levels, and high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in 87%, 76%, and 88% of the patients, respectively. These traits helped to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis from other pleural diseases such as parapneumonic effusion, malignancy, and pleural tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis is often initially misdiagnosed as other pleural diseases. Therefore, it is important to establish the correct diagnosis. In patients with unexplained pleural effusion living in paragonimiasis-endemic areas, pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis should be examined to distinguish pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis. When marked eosinophilia, high LDH levels, and low glucose levels are identified in pleural fluid, physicians could consider a diagnosis of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Biomarkers/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia/diagnosis , Glucose/analysis , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Lung Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Paracentesis , Paragonimiasis/diagnosis , Paragonimus westermani/isolation & purification , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 871-875, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210700

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of implementation of an automated liquid culture system on the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy in an HIV-uninfected patient population. We retrospectively compared the culture yield, time to positivity, and contamination rate of pleural effusion samples in the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) and Ogawa media among patients with tuberculous pleurisy. Out of 104 effusion samples, 43 (41.3%) were culture positive on either the MGIT or the Ogawa media. The culture yield of MGIT was higher (40.4%, 42/104) than that of Ogawa media (18.3%, 19/104) (P<0.001). One of the samples was positive only on the Ogawa medium. The median time to positivity was faster in the MGIT (18 days, range 8-32 days) than in the Ogawa media (37 days, range 20-59 days) (P<0.001). No contamination or growth of nontuberculous mycobacterium was observed on either of the culture media. In conclusion, the automated liquid culture system could provide approximately twice as high yields and fast results in effusion culture, compared to solid media. Supplemental solid media may have a limited impact on maximizing sensitivity in effusion culture; however, further studies are required.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Automation, Laboratory/methods , Cell Culture Techniques , Culture Media/classification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pleura/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159315

ABSTRACT

Primary pulmonary hypoplasia is rare in adulthood. It is characterized by decreased number or size of bronchi, vessels and alveoli. We present a case of unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia in 44-old-year male smoker who presented with right pleural effusion. His chest X-ray revealed an inhomogenous opacity on the left side with bronchiectatic changes and right minimal pleural effusion. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed blind end bronchi in left upper lobe and computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed hypoplastic lung with cystic bronchiectasis on the left side and hypoplastic left pulmonary artery. It was not associated with any other congenital anomalies. In addition to symptomatic management, he was started on anti-tuberculous treatment for tuberculous pleural effusion and kept under follow-up.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple , Adult , Angiography/methods , Humans , Lung/abnormalities , Lung Diseases , Male , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Brasília; CONITEC; maio 2014. tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-836905

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Teste de Dosagem de Adenosina Deaminase (ADA). Indicação: Diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural. Demandante: Secretaria de Saúde do Estado de São Paulo e Secretarias de Atenção à Saúde e de Vigilância em Saúde do Ministério da Saúde. Contexto: A tuberculose (TB) continua sendo mundialmente um importante problema de saúde, exigindo o desenvolvimento de estratégias para o seu controle. As apresentações extrapulmonares da TB têm seus sinais e sintomas dependentes dos órgãos e/ou sistemas acometidos. Sua ocorrência aumenta entre pacientes com aids, especialmente entre aqueles com imunocomprometimento grave. A tuberculose pleural é a mais comum forma de TB extrapulmonar em indivíduos HIV soronegativos, ocorre mais em jovens, cursa com dor torácica do tipo pleurítica. A tuberculose pleural é causa freqüente de derrame pleural, do tipo exsudato, e deve entrar no diagnóstico diferencial de exsudatos pleurais. Na maioria das vezes, a tuberculose pleural implica numa reação de hipersensibilidade da pleura ao bacilo da tuberculose, o que explica a baixíssima positividade em outros métodos diagnósticos. O Manual de recomendações para o controle da tuberculose no Brasil elaborado pelo Ministério da Saúde indica o teste ADA como método diagnóstico complementar a ser utilizado nos casos de suspeita de TB pleural, porém este teste não está disponível no SUS. O teste é colorimétrico, de fácil execução e é rápido, não necessitando de outras tecnologias para sua incorporação e nem treinamento especializado. Pergunta: O teste de dosagem de ADA é acurado para o diagnóstico de tuberculose em derrame pleural? Evidências científicas: foi elaborado parecer técnico-científico (PTC) pelo DECIT/SCTIE/MS sobre o Teste de Dosagem de ADA, para Diagnóstico Precoce da Tuberculose Pleural, que atualizou outro PTC emitido pelo Hospital João de Barros Barreto da Universidade Federal do Pará. A análise de todos os estudos mostrou heterogeneidade entre eles, porém foi possível recomendar a utilização do teste ADA para diagnóstico precoce de tuberculose pleural. Entretanto, quando o teste ADA for positivo, deverá haver a tentativa de isolamento do bacilo por cultura. Avaliação de Impacto Orçamentário: A Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde levantou os custos para a realização do teste de ADA em 6 laboratórios públicos e privados de referência. Discussão: De acordo com as evidências apresentadas no PTC, a ADA quando dosada no líquido pleural é capaz de auxiliar no diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural precocemente, principalmente no que se refere ao seu valor preditivo negativo (em torno de 0,98), o que favorece a exclusão de pacientes suspeitos que não tenham a TB pleural. O teste ADA se trata de método colorimétrico, com técnica de dosagem fácil, rápida, reprodutível e de baixo custo. Sua inclusão no protocolo do SUS possibilitaria a redução do número de exames desnecessários e invasivos, reduzindo gastos e a exposição do paciente ao risco de exames invasivos, visto que um resultado negativo praticamente afasta a possibilidade de tuberculose pleural. No caso de valores considerados positivos devem ser associados a outras evidências ou testes para se confirmar o diagnóstico, como o isolamento do bacilo por cultura. Deste modo, a incorporação da tecnologia deve ser realizada mediante integração da mesma ao protocolo de diagnóstico da tuberculose do Ministério da Saúde, e, além disso, os resultados sobre acurácia do mesmo na prática clínica devem ser monitorados em centros de referência para fins de avaliação do impacto da introdução do método para a saúde da população. Deliberação final: o s membros da CONITEC presentes na reunião do plenário do dia 1º de agosto de 2013, por unanimidade, ratificaram a deliberação por recomendar a incorporação do Teste de Dosagem de Adenosina Deaminase (ADA) no Diagnóstico Precoce de Tuberculose Extrapulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Brazil , Diagnosis, Differential , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
15.
Clinics ; 69(12): 799-803, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732392

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our previous study demonstrated that superoxide dismutase levels were higher in tuberculous pleural effusions than in malignant pleural effusions, but that this difference could not be used to discriminate between the two. The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of superoxide dismutase 2 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural effusion superoxide dismutase 2. METHODS: Superoxide dismutase 2 concentrations were determined in pleural effusions from 54 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion and 33 with malignant pleural effusion using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Pleural effusion interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were also analyzed by ELISA. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the significance of differences. Associations between superoxide dismutase 2 concentrations and sex, age and smoking habits were assessed using Spearman's or Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis. Receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the value of superoxide dismutase 2 levels in the discrimination of tuberculous pleural effusion from malignant pleural effusion. RESULTS: Superoxide dismutase 2 levels were significantly higher in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion compared with those with malignant pleural effusion ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Biopsy , Biomarkers/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
16.
Comun. ciênc. saúde ; 24(4): 385-390, out.-dez. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-755197

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: relatar um caso de tuberculose pleural em uma criança.Descrição do caso: Apresenta-se o caso de um escolar de 12 anos,gênero feminino, com dor em hipocôndrio esquerdo e picos febrisnão aferidos com duração de 6 dias, alem de perda de peso, adinamiae hiporexia, negando tosse e dispneia. Na radiografia de tóraxapresentou derrame pleural à esquerda, sendo realizada toracocentesecom retirada de liquido amarelo-citrino e coletado materialpara biópsia. O teste tuberculínico foi reagente, a baciloscopia negativaem 3 amostras e a dosagem de adenosina deaminase (ADA)foi acima de 200 U/l. No anátomo patológico havia infiltradolinfocítico-granulomatoso com áreas de necrose de caseificação ecélulas gigantes tipo Langhans, compatível com o diagnostico detuberculose pleural.Conclusões: Tb pleural é um diagnóstico que deve ser consideradoem crianças não toxemiadas que apresentam derrames pleurais. Érara, sendo mais comum em adolescentes. O diagnóstico em crianças,devido a sua característica paucibacilar, deve ser realizado pormeio de critérios epidemiológicos e clínico-radiológicos, baseando--se em quatro pilares: a clínica do paciente, o contágio com algumgrupo de risco, a radiografia de tórax e o teste tuberculínico, estandopresente três destes critérios pode-se confirmar o diagnóstico.Nos últimos anos, a dosagem de ADA vem sendo uma alternativapara o diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural. Os autores discutem queos sinais e sintomas da tuberculose na infância são inespecíficos, oque dificulta a suspeição clínica e retarda o diagnóstico da doença.


Objective: To report a case of pleural tuberculosis in a child.Case description: We present the case of a school girl 12 years old,female gender, with pain in the left upper quadrant and fever spikesnot measured lasting 6 days, besides weight loss, lethargy andappetite loss, denying cough and dyspnea. Chest radiographs showedleft pleural effusion, thoracentesis was performed with removalof citrus-yellow liquid and samples for biopsy. The tuberculintest was positive, a negative smear in 3 samples and determinationof adenosine deaminase was above 200 U/ l. Pathology had granulomatous-lymphocytic infiltrate with areas of caseous necrosis andLanghans giant cells, reaching the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.Conclusions: Pleural TB is a diagnosis that should be consideredin children who have not toxemiadas pleural effusions. It is rareand is more common in adolescents. The diagnosis in children, dueto its characteristic paucibacillary, must be accomplished throughepidemiological and clinical criteria, radiological, based on fourpillars: clinical signs, with some contagion risk group, the chest radiographand tuberculin skin test being present three of these criteriacan confirm the diagnosis. In recent years, the dosage of ADAhas been an alternative for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.The authors discuss the signs and symptoms of childhood tuberculosisare nonspecific, which makes the clinical suspicion and slowsdisease diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
17.
Acta méd. peru ; 30(4): 127-131, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-702438

ABSTRACT

Objetivo de estudio: Describir las características clínicas, radiográficas, de laboratorio y hallazgos bacteriológicos de pacientes pediátricos con derrame pleural tuberculoso. Material y Métodos: En este estudio retrospectivo se revisaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes menores de 16 años internados en el Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue, de enero del 2003 a diciembre del 2012, con el diagnóstico de tuberculosis pleural. Resultados: En total fueron 96 pacientes diagnosticados de derrame pleural tuberculoso. La edad mediana de los pacientes fue 11 años. El 60.42% fueron eutróficos, el 26.04% tuvieron sobrepeso u obesidad y solo 13.54% eran desnutridos. La positividad al test de tuberculina fue de 89.86%. El derrame pleural fue la única manifestación radiográfica en 36.5% y la enfermedad parenquimal estuvo asociada en 63.5% de los casos. La confirmación bacteriológica de tuberculosis se obtuvo en 13 pacientes (13.5%). El tratamiento antituberculoso por 6 meses fue efectivo en todos los casos. Conclusiones: La tuberculosis pleural está generalmente asociada a un test de tuberculina positivo y un infiltrado parenquimal pulmonar. La mayoría de los pacientes eran eutróficos o con sobrepeso u obesidad. Un curso de 6 meses de tratamiento fue efectivo.


Study objective: To describe the clinical features, radiographics, laboratory and bacteriologic findings of pediatric patients with tuberculous pleural effusion. Material and Methods: It is a retrospective study. We have collected information from medical records of inpatients < 16 years old, who were admitted at Hipolito Unanue Hospital from January 2003 to December 2012, with diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis. Results: Ninety – six children were diagnosed with tuberculous pleural effusion. The median age was 11 years. 60.42% of the patients were eutrophic, 26.04%were overweight or obese and only 13.65%suffered of malnutrition. Positive tuberculin skin tests were seen in 89.86%. Pleural effusion was the sole radiographic manifestation in 36.5% of cases and parenchymal disease was associated in 63.5% of the patients. Bacteriologic confirmation of tuberculosis was achieved in 13 cases (13.5%). Antituberculous therapy for 6 months was effective in all cases. Conclusions: Tuberculous pleural effusion was usually associated with a positive tuberculin skin test, and lung parenquimal infiltrates. A short course of chemotherapy is effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
J. bras. med ; 101(5): 21-23, set.-out. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-706142

ABSTRACT

Atualmente o diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural pode ser realizado com a dosagem de biomarcadores diagnósticos no líquido pleural, especificamente com a dosagem da enzima adenosina desaminase. Os quadros clínico, laboratorial, imagem e citopatologia sugestivos sempre devem ser valorizados no conjunto do diagnóstico. Tal abordagem elege somente o procedimento de toracocentese como necessário para início do diagnóstico. Na maioria das apresentações clínicas, procedimentos cirúrgicos mais invasivos (biopsias pleurais), com complicações potencialmente fatais, não precisam ser realizados para exame histopatológico


Currently the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis can be performed with the dosage of diagnostic biomarkers in pleural fluid, specifically the enzyme adenosine deaminase. The clinical, imaging and cytology suggestive should always be valued in the set of diagnosis together laboratory measurements. This approach selects only a thoracentesis procedure for early diagnosis. In most clinical presentations, more invasive surgical procedures (pleural biopsies) with life-threatening complications for histopathological examination


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/enzymology , Biomarkers/analysis , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Clinical Enzyme Tests/methods , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Paracentesis/methods , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(5): 594-599, Sept-Oct/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-691419

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study evaluated the performance of an in-house nested-PCR system for the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in pleural fluid, blood and urine samples from pleural effusion tuberculosis patients by health services physicians in Pernambuco, Brazil. Methods A prospective double-blind study with 37 hospitalized patients of both sexes, aged over 15, was used to investigate the diagnosis of pleural effusion. The criteria used to define the cases included the demonstration of bacillus in biological samples by smear or culture or by a granulomatous finding in the histopathological examination, associated with an evident response to specific treatments to each clinical situation. Pleural fluid, blood and urine samples were collected and subjected to routine tests and the nested PCR technique to assess for M. tuberculosis amplification. Results In total, 37 pleural effusion patients took part in the study, of whom 19 (51.3%) had tubercular etiologies and 18 (48.7%) had etiologies from other causes. When the pleural fluid, blood and/or urine sample in-house nested-PCR sensitivities were evaluated simultaneously, the results were positive regardless of the biological specimen (the sensitivity was 84.2%); however, when the blood and/or urine samples were analyzed together, the sensitivity was 72.2%. When the pleural fluid samples were evaluated alone, the sensitivity was only 33.3%. Conclusions The performance of the diagnostic pleural tuberculosis nested-PCR was directly related to the diversity of the samples collected from the same patient. Additionally, this study may identify a need to prioritize non-invasive blood and urine collection for this diagnosis. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Double-Blind Method , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Pleural Effusion/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Pleural/blood , Tuberculosis, Pleural/urine
20.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 31(3): 411-415, set. 2013. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To present a case of a patient with clinical and radiological features of reexpansion pulmonary edema, a rare and potentially fatal disease. CASE DESCRIPTION An 11-year-old boy presenting fever, clinical signs and radiological features of large pleural effusion initially treated as a parapneumonic process. Due to clinical deterioration he underwent tube thoracostomy, with evacuation of 3,000 mL of fluid; he shortly presented acute respiratory insufficiency and needed mechanical ventilation. He had an atypical evolution (extubated twice with no satisfactory response). Computerized tomography findings matched those of reexpansion edema. He recovered satisfactorily after intensive care, and pleural tuberculosis was diagnosed afterwards. COMMENTS Despite its rareness in the pediatric population (only five case reports gathered), the knowledge of this pathology and its prevention is very important, due to high mortality rates. It is recommended, among other measures, slow evacuation of the pleural effusion, not removing more than 1,500 mL of fluid at once. .


OBJETIVO Relatar caso de paciente con cuadro clínico y radiológico de edema pulmonar de reexpansión, patología rara y potencialmente fatal. DESCRIPCIÓN DEL CASO Niño de 11 años con fiebre y cuadro clínico-radiológico de derrame pleural voluminoso, inicialmente tratado como parapneumónico. Después de la compensación clínica, se realizó drenaje torácico, con salida de 3000mL de líquido. Evolucionó rápidamente con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, necesitando ventilación mecánica. Tuvo dos extubaciones mal sucedidas y, debido a la evolución atípica, se realizó tomografía computadorizada, cuyos hallazgos fueron compatibles con edema de reexpansión. Después de soporte intensivo, evolucionó satisfactoriamente y, posteriormente, se diagnosticó tuberculosis pleural. COMENTARIOS Es importante el conocimiento de la patología, aunque sea rara en la población pediátrica (encontrados solamente cinco casos descriptos), para prevención, una vez que la tasa de mortalidad es muy alta. Se recomienda, entre otras medidas, que el vaciamiento de un derrame pleural sea lento y que el volumen total retirado no sobrepase 1500mL. .


OBJETIVO Relatar caso de paciente com quadro clínico e radiológico de edema pulmonar de reexpansão, patologia rara e potencialmente fatal. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO Menino de 11 anos com febre e quadro clínico-radiológico de derrame pleural volumoso, inicialmente tratado como parapneumônico. Após descompensação clínica, realizou-se drenagem torácica, com saída de 3.000mL de líquido. Evoluiu rapidamente com insuficiência respiratória aguda, necessitando de ventilação mecânica. Teve duas extubações malsucedidas e, devido à evolução atípica, realizou-se tomografia computadorizada, cujos achados foram compatíveis com edema de reexpansão. Após suporte intensivo, evoluiu satisfatoriamente e, posteriormente, foi diagnosticado com tuberculose pleural. COMENTÁRIOS É importante o conhecimento da patologia, ainda que seja rara na população pediátrica (encontrados apenas cinco casos descritos), para prevenção, visto que a taxa de mortalidade é muito alta. Recomenda-se, entre outras medidas, que o esvaziamento de um derrame pleural seja lento e que o volume total retirado não ultrapasse 1.500mL. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pleural Effusion , Pulmonary Edema , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
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