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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1253869

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es la primera causa de mortalidad infectocontagiosa a nivel mundial. La tuberculosis pulmonar corresponde a la presentación más frecuente, sin embargo, el 15 % de los casos cursan con infección extrapulmonar, siendo raro el compromiso amigdalino. Este reporte de caso describe a un paciente de 39 años con odinofagia recurrente secundaria a amigdalitis por Mycobacterium tuberculosis, un raro caso de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. La amigdalitis es una infección leve y frecuente de la vía aérea superior, que responde adecuadamente al manejo antibiótico; sin embargo, cuadros recurrentes y prolongados, manifestaciones atípicas o pobre respuesta a la antibioticoterapia son características que obligan a la búsqueda de diagnósticos diferenciales, lo que lleva a considerar la presencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis como agente etiológico, especialmente en países con alto índice de tuberculosis como Colombia


Tuberculosis is the leading cause of infectious mortality worldwide. The pulmonary one corresponds to the most frequent presentation, however up to 15% of tuberculosis cases present extrapulmonary involvement, tonsillar tuberculosis being rare. The following is a case report of a 39-year-old patient with recurrent odynophagia secondary to Mycobacterium tuberculosis tonsillitis, a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Tonsillitis is a benign and extremely common infection of the upper airway. Such patients benefit from systemic antibiotics, although, recurrent episodes, prolonged odynophagia, atypical manifestations, or poor response to antimicrobial therapy forces consideration of diagnostic possibilities other than the obvious, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the etiological agent, especially in countries with the highest rates of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tonsillitis/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Tonsillitis/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180198, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare patients with and without previous lung disease, in terms of the spirometry results after they had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and cured, as well as to analyze risk factors related to functional severity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted at four referral centers in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those with a history of lung disease or smoking (LDS+ group); and those with no such history (LDS− group). Patients underwent spirometry (at least six months after being cured). Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Results: A total of 378 patients were included: 174 (46.1%) in the LDS+ group and 204 (53.9%) in the LDS− group. In the sample as a whole, 238 patients (62.7%) had spirometric changes. In the LDS+ group, there was a predominance of obstructive lung disease (in 33.3%), whereas restrictive lung disease predominated in the LDS− group (in 24.7%). Radiological changes were less common in the LDS− group than in the LDS+ group (p < 0.01), as were functional changes (p < 0.05). However, of the 140 (79.1%) LDS− group patients with a normal or minimally altered chest X-ray, 76 (54%) had functional changes (p < 0.01). The risk factors associated with functional severity in the LDS− group were degree of dyspnea (p = 0.03) and moderate or severe radiological changes (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Impaired pulmonary function is common after treatment for PTB, regardless of the history of lung disease or smoking. Spirometry should be suggested for patients who develop moderate/severe dyspnea or relevant radiological changes after treatment for PTB.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os resultados da espirometria de pacientes tratados e curados para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) com e sem doença pulmonar prévia e analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à gravidade funcional. Métodos: Estudo transversal, multicêntrico, em quatro centros de referência no Brasil. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: grupo com doença pulmonar prévia ou história de tabagismo (grupo DPT+) e grupo sem doença pulmonar prévia e sem tabagismo (grupo DPT−). Os pacientes realizaram espirometria (pelo menos seis meses após a cura), e foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 378 pacientes: 174 (46,1%) no grupo DPT+ e 204 (53,9%) no grupo DPT−. Na amostra total, 238 pacientes (62,7%) apresentaram alguma alteração espirométrica. No grupo DPT+ houve predominância de distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo (em 33,3%), e distúrbio ventilatório restritivo predominou no grupo DPT− (em 24,7%). Quando comparados com o grupo DPT+, os pacientes do grupo DPT− apresentaram menos frequentemente alteração radiológica (p < 0,01) e funcional (p < 0,05). Porém, dos 140 (79,1%) do grupo DPT− com radiografia de tórax normal ou minimamente alterada, 76 (54%) apresentaram alguma alteração funcional (p < 0,01). Os fatores de risco relacionados com a gravidade funcional no grupo DPT− foram grau de dispneia (p = 0,03) e alterações radiológicas moderadas ou acentuadas. Conclusões: O comprometimento da função pulmonar é frequente após o tratamento da TBP independentemente do histórico de tabagismo ou doença pulmonar prévia. A espirometria deve ser sugerida para esses pacientes que evoluem com grau moderado/grave de dispneia e/ou alteração radiológica relevante após o tratamento da TBP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Smoking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung/microbiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(9): 575-578, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042337

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to data from the World Health Organization, this disease remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although it most commonly affects the lungs, tuberculosis can compromise any organ. The present study reports a rare case of vulvar tuberculosis in a postmenopausal woman with a history of asymptomatic pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis, with no prior documented contact with the bacillus. Diagnosis was based on vulvar lesion biopsies, with histological findings suggestive of infection and isolation of M. tuberculosis by microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) essays. The lesions reverted to normal after tuberculostatic therapy.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença infeciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. De acordo com dados da Organização Mundial de Saúde, esta doença mantém-se entre as principais causas demorte nomundo. Embora afetemais frequentemente os pulmões, a tuberculose pode comprometer qualquer órgão. O presente artigo relata um caso raro de tuberculose vulvar numa mulher na pós-menopausa, com antecedentes de tuberculose pleural e pulmonar assintomática, sem contato documentado com o bacilo. O diagnóstico foi feito com base na biópsia da lesão vulvar, com achados histológicos sugestivos da infeção e isolamento do M. tuberculosis pormeios de cultura e pela técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Após terapêutica tuberculostática, as lesões reverteram.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/pathology , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/drug therapy , Female Urogenital Diseases/diagnosis , Female Urogenital Diseases/pathology , Female Urogenital Diseases/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Vulva/pathology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 316-323, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011503

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (pre-PTB, defined by cough lasting ≥ 3 weeks) and compare it between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and without PTB. Methods: Patients with pre-PTB (n=260) were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Those individuals with scores ≥ 10 were subsequently assessed with the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) to confirm diagnosis. Associations of categorical variables with PTB and MDE were calculated using the chi-square test and OR. Results: PTB was confirmed in 98 patients (37.7%). A high proportion of both groups (active PTB and no PTB) screened positive for depression (60.2 vs. 62.1%, respectively). Among 159 patients who screened positive for depression, a subset of 97 (61.0%) were further evaluated with the MINI-Plus; current MDE was confirmed in 54.6% (53/97). On univariate and multivariate analysis, female sex was the only factor associated with the diagnosis of current MDE (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The prevalence of MDE was high among individuals with prolonged respiratory symptoms, independent of PTB diagnosis. This is consistent with other studies of depression in primary care in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Middle Aged
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(3): 286-291, may.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094466

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To describe the epidemiological studies about the relationship between lung cancer (LC) and pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb) and its possible molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: We reviewed research databases in search of publications that included keywords LC and Tb. Results: It has been proposed that chronic inflammation in the lungs due to Tb could cause clastogenic activity in the DNA of bronchial epithelium. Another possibility is lateral gene transfer; since Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) is an intracellular organism, bacterial DNA could integrate to bronchial epithelial cells inducing neoplastic transformation. Conclusions: There are epidemiological reports, particularly from Asian countries, which confirm a relationship between LC and Tb. MTb could play an active role in cellular transformation and it is important to elucidate the mechanism involved.


Resumen: Objetivo: Describir los estudios que documentan la relación entre el cáncer de pulmón (CP) y la tuberculosis pulmonar (Tb) y sus posibles mecanismos moleculares. Material y métodos: Se revisaron bases de datos de publicaciones, usando como palabras clave CP y Tb. Resultados: Se ha propuesto que la inflamación crónica en el pulmón provocada por la Tb podría producir actividad clastogénica. Otra posibilidad es la transferencia lateral de genes; Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) es un organismo intracelular facultativo cuyo DNA podría integrarse al material genético del epitelio bronquial induciendo transformación neoplásica. Conclusión: Existen evidencias epidemiológicas, particularmente en países asiáticos, que documentan la relación entre CP y Tb. MTb podría desempeñar un papel activo en la transformación neoplásica cuyo mecanismo debe de ser elucidado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology
6.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 6(2): 47-49, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247430

ABSTRACT

Rasmussen's aneurysm (RA) is a pseudoaneurysm of a pulmonary artery (AP), adjacent to or within a tuberculous cavity, appearing in 5% of these lesions. Its rupture might provoke massive hemoptysis (MH) with a near 50% mortality. The aim of this article is to report a case of massive hemoptysis following Rasmussen's aneurysm. 52-year-old man with recent history of hospita-lization due to pneumonia associated to influenza A and decompensated hyperthyroidism, pre-sents outpatient chest radiograph with signs of hyperinflation and scarring apical opacities, the patient returned to the hospital due to sharp pain of left hemi thorax during inspiration accom-panied with bloody sputum, asthenia and non-quantified weight loss. He evolves to frank MH, requiring endotracheal intubation managed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Chest computed tomography (CT) reported ground-glass opacity, nodules with a tendency to cavitation, tree-in-bud pattern in agreement with inflammation and infection, active TB is considered, and truncus of PA with vascular lesion suggestive of aneurysm dependent on pulmonary circulation, possibly RA. Fibrobronchoscopy reported signs of old and recent bleeding of left bronchial tree, probably of the lingula, blood clots in right bronchial tree. Molecular study and TB cultures was negative. Endovascular procedure with arteriography was carried out, revealing amputation of left distal segmental PA carrying the pseudoaneurysm with complete regression, discarding embolization RA It must be considered among the differential diagnoses of MH, especially on patients with pulmonary TB complications, such as the reported case. Due to its associated increased morta-lity, once RA is identified, it must be either endovascularly or surgically eradicated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Hemoptysis/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190315, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057249

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Immunological control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is dependent on the cellular immune response, mediated predominantly by Th1 type CD4+ T cells. Polarization of the immune response to Th2 can inhibit the host immune protection against pathogens. Patients with tuberculosis coinfected with helminths demonstrate more severe pulmonary symptoms, a deficiency in the immune response against tuberculosis, and an impaired response to anti-tuberculosis therapy. METHODS: We evaluated the cellular immune response and the impact of the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides on the immune and clinical response in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Ninety-one individuals were included in the study: 38 tuberculosis patients, 11 tuberculosis patients coinfected with Ascaris lumbricoides and other helminths, 10 Ascaris lumbricoides patients, and 34 non-infected control individuals. Clinical evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis was studied on 0, 30, 60, and 90 days post-diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Ascaris lumbricoides. Furthermore, immune cells and plasma cytokine profiles were examined in mono/coinfection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Ascaris lumbricoides using flow cytometry. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences in any of the evaluated parameters and the results indicated that Ascaris lumbricoides infection does not lead to significant clinical repercussions in the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The association with Ascaris lumbricoides did not influence the Th1, Th2, and Th17 type responses, or the proportions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. However, higher serum levels of IL-6 in tuberculosis patients may explain the pulmonary parenchymal damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ascariasis/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascariasis/complications , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Disease Progression , Coinfection , Flow Cytometry , Middle Aged
8.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180324, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002436

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) continue to challenge physicians and public health specialists. Global treatment outcomes continue to be unsatisfactory, positive outcomes being achieved in only 54% of patients. Overall outcomes are even worse in patients infected with highly resistant strains. Treating MDR-/XDR-TB is difficult because of frequent adverse events, the long duration of drug regimens, the high costs of second-line drugs, chronic post-infectious sequelae, and loss of organ function. Ongoing research efforts (studies and trials) have various aims: increasing the rates of treatment success; understanding the potentialities of new and repurposed drugs; shortening the treatment duration; and reducing the rates of adverse events. It is hoped that better access to rapid diagnostics, increased awareness, and treatments that are more effective will reduce the rate of complications and of lung function impairment. This article aims to discuss the management of severe tuberculosis (defined as that which is potentially life threatening, requiring higher levels of care) and its sequelae, from intensive care to the postoperative period, rehabilitation, and recovery. We also discuss the nonpharmacological interventions available to manage chronic sequelae and improve patient quality of life. Because the majority of MDR-/XDR-TB cases evolve to lung function impairment (typically obstructive but occasionally restrictive), impaired quality of life, and low performance status (as measured by walk tests or other metrics), other interventions (e.g., smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, vaccination/prevention of secondary bacterial infections/exacerbations, complemented by psychological and nutritional support) are required.


RESUMO A tuberculose multirresistente e a tuberculose extensivamente resistente ainda são um desafio para médicos e especialistas em saúde pública. Os desfechos globais do tratamento ainda são insatisfatórios; apenas 54% dos pacientes têm um desfecho positivo. Os desfechos globais são ainda piores em pacientes infectados por cepas altamente resistentes. O tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente/extensivamente resistente é difícil em virtude dos eventos adversos frequentes, da longa duração dos esquemas terapêuticos, do alto custo dos medicamentos de segunda linha, das sequelas pós-infecciosas crônicas e da perda da função orgânica. Esforços de pesquisa (estudos e ensaios) estão em andamento e têm diversos objetivos: aumentar as taxas de sucesso do tratamento; compreender o potencial de medicamentos novos e reaproveitados; encurtar o tratamento e reduzir as taxas de eventos adversos. Espera-se que melhor acesso ao diagnóstico rápido, maior conhecimento e terapias mais eficazes reduzam as complicações e o comprometimento da função pulmonar. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o tratamento da tuberculose grave (potencialmente fatal, que necessita de níveis maiores de atenção) e suas sequelas, desde a terapia intensiva até o pós-operatório, reabilitação e recuperação. São também discutidas as intervenções não farmacológicas disponíveis para tratar sequelas crônicas e melhorar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Como a maioria dos casos de tuberculose multirresistente/extensivamente resistente resulta em comprometimento da função pulmonar (obstrução principalmente, mas às vezes restrição), qualidade de vida prejudicada e desempenho reduzido (medido por meio de testes de caminhada ou outros), são necessárias outras intervenções (cessação do tabagismo, reabilitação pulmonar, vacinação e prevenção de infecções bacterianas secundárias/exacerbações, por exemplo, complementadas por apoio psicológico e nutricional).


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Disease Management , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/complications , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Critical Care , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 447-448, Dec. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976145

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Horner es el resultado de un bloqueo de la inervación simpática del ojo en cualquier punto de su trayectoria. Puede tener variadas etiologías, y es una forma muy inusual de presentación de tuberculosis pulmonar. Se describe el caso de un paciente que presenta un síndrome de Horner secundario a afectación del ápex pulmonar por tuberculosis.


Horner´s syndrome results from a blockage of the sympathetic innervation to the eye at any point along its trajectory. It presents various etiologies, and it is a very unusual form of presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis. We describe the case of a patient with a Horner syndrome secondary to involvement of the pulmonary apex due to tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Horner Syndrome/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Horner Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 10(3): 683-689, jul.-set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-906334

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Realizar um estudo de caso de um jovem portador de tuberculose pulmonar (TP) e construir um plano de assistência de enfermagem, visando a melhoria da qualidade de vida do paciente. Métodos: Estudo de caso com abordagem qualitativa de um paciente portador de TP, hipertensão arterial pulmonar, desnutrição e alcoolismo, no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz (HUOC) em Recife-PE, no período de março a junho de 2016. A coleta de dados foi realizada mediante anamnese, exame físico, análise do prontuário, pesquisa literária e histórica de enfermagem. Resultados: Identificamos 13 diagnósticos de enfermagem: padrão respiratório ineficaz, nutrição/fadiga, manutenção ineficaz da saúde e do lar, distúrbios da identidade/autoestima, risco de solidão/suicídio e angustia espiritual. Conclusão: A enfermagem tem especial importância nas ações de controle da TP realizando a supervisão do tratamento, evitando o abandono e a tuberculose resistente, garantindo a adesão e um tratamento bem-sucedido


Objetivo: Realizar un estudio de caso de un paciente joven con tuberculosis pulmonar (TP) y construir un plan de atención de enfermería con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente. Métodos: Un estudio de caso con enfoque cualitativo de un paciente con enfermedad de Parkinson, la hipertensión arterial pulmonar, la desnutrición y el alcoholismo, el Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz (HUOC) en Recife, de marzo a junio de 2016. La recolección de datos fue realizado por la historia clínica, examen físico, análisis de la historia clínica, la investigación literaria y la historia de enfermería. Resultados: Se identificaron 13 diagnósticos de enfermería: Modelo ineficaz la respiración, la nutrición/fatiga, mantenimiento ineficaz de la salud y el hogar, trastornos de identidad/autoestima, la soledad de riesgo/suicidio y la angustia espiritual. Conclusión: La enfermería tiene especial importancia en las acciones de control TP mediante la supervisión del tratamiento, evitar el abandono y la tuberculosis resistente, asegurando la adherencia y un tratamiento exitoso


Objective: Performing a case study of a young patient having pulmonary tuberculosis disease (TB) and design a nursing care plan aiming to improve the patient life quality. Methods: Case study with a qualitative approach of a patient having TB, pulmonary arterial hypertension, malnutrition state and also alcoholism. The study was done at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital (HUOC) in Recife, Brazil, from March to June 2016. Data collection was performed through anamnesis, physical examination, medical records analysis, literary research and nursing history. Results: We were able to identify 13 nursing diagnoses, as follows: ineffective respiratory pattern, nutrition/fatigue, ineffective maintenance of health and home, identity/self-esteem disorders, solitude/ suicide risk and spiritual distress. Conclusion: The nursing professionals have especial importance regarding the actions of TB control, supervising the treatment, avoiding abandonment and resistant tuberculosis, as well as, guaranteeing adherence and a successful treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Nursing Care , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/nursing , Alcoholism/nursing , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension/nursing , Malnutrition/nursing
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 85-92, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate early detection of amikacin-induced ototoxicity in a population treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), by means of three different tests: pure-tone audiometry (PTA); high-frequency audiometry (HFA); and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Methods: This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study involving patients aged 18-69 years with a diagnosis of MDR-TB who had to receive amikacin for six months as part of their antituberculosis drug regimen for the first time. Hearing was assessed before treatment initiation and at two and six months after treatment initiation. Sequential statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: We included 61 patients, but the final population consisted of 10 patients (7 men and 3 women) because of sequential analysis. Comparison of the test results obtained at two and six months after treatment initiation with those obtained at baseline revealed that HFA at two months and PTA at six months detected hearing threshold shifts consistent with ototoxicity. However, DPOAE testing did not detect such shifts. Conclusions: The statistical method used in this study makes it possible to conclude that, over the six-month period, amikacin-associated hearing threshold shifts were detected by HFA and PTA, and that DPOAE testing was not efficient in detecting such shifts.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a detecção precoce de ototoxicidade causada pelo uso de amicacina numa população tratada para tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) por meio da realização de três testes distintos: audiometria tonal liminar (ATL), audiometria de altas frequências (AAF) e pesquisa de emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção (EOAPD). Métodos: Estudo longitudinal de coorte prospectiva incluindo pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 18 e 69 anos, com diagnóstico de TBMR pulmonar e que necessitaram utilizar amicacina por seis meses em seu esquema medicamentoso antituberculose pela primeira vez. A avaliação auditiva foi realizada antes do início do tratamento e depois de dois e seis meses do início do tratamento. A análise dos resultados foi realizada por meio de análise estatística sequencial. Resultados: Foram incluídos 61 pacientes, mas a população final foi constituída de 10 pacientes (7 homens e 3 mulheres), em razão da análise sequencial. Ao se comparar os valores das respostas dos testes com aqueles encontrados na avaliação basal, foram verificadas mudanças nos limiares auditivos compatíveis com ototoxicidade após dois meses de tratamento através da AAF e após seis meses de tratamento através da ATL. Entretanto, essas mudanças não foram verificadas através da pesquisa de EOAPD. Conclusões: Ao se considerar o método estatístico utilizado nessa população, é possível concluir que mudanças nos limiares auditivos foram associadas ao uso da amicacina no período de seis meses por meio de AAF e ATL e que a pesquisa de EOAPD não se mostrou eficiente na identificação dessas mudanças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Amikacin/adverse effects , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Hearing Disorders/diagnosis , Hearing Disorders/chemically induced , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Audiometry, Pure-Tone/methods , Auditory Threshold/drug effects , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics as Topic , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/drug effects , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/complications , Early Diagnosis , Hearing/drug effects , Hearing Disorders/physiopathology , Hearing Tests/methods
12.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 82(1): 28-35, mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041865

ABSTRACT

La Tuberculosis (TBC) es una patología infecto-contagiosa de alta morbimortalidad en Chile y en el mundo, siendo la segunda causa de muerte por cuestión infecciosa y es considerada una patología de alta relevancia a nivel de salud pública. Es causada por una bacteria de alta virulencia y contagio llamada mycobacterium tuberculosis. En la actualidad contamos con protocolos de detección y tratamiento muy eficaces, que la convierten en una enfermedad prevenible y curable. El diagnóstico se realiza con estudios bacteriológicos específicos frente a una sospecha clínica-epidemiológica sugerente. Sin embargo, el uso de imágenes forma parte casi obligatoria de su estudio y control. Debido a que el órgano diana de la TBC es el pulmón, es habitual utilizar como apoyo diagnóstico una radiografía de tórax, la cual es útil, en caso de TBC pulmonar, al presentar hallazgos característicos y orientadores para su diagnóstico. Es importante destacar que el mycobacterium tuberculosis tiene alto potencial de diseminación por contigüidad, vía linfática y/o hematógena, siendo esa última vía la causante de la mayoría de las TBC extrapulmonares, las cuales se presentan en un 20% de pacientes inmunocompetentes y hasta en un 60% de inmunocomprometidos. La principal localización de una TBC extrapulmonar es a nivel pleural, seguida del compromiso ganglionar, urogenital y osteoarticular, siendo el resto de las localizaciones muy infrecuentes. Para esos casos la tomografía computada (TC) es el estudio por imágenes de elección para el diagnóstico y control, además de ser una herramienta muy útil para la detección de complicaciones.


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of high morbility and mortality in Chile and in the world. It is the second cause of death due to infectious causes in the world, and is considered of high relevance to public health. TB is caused by a highly pathogenic and virulent bacterium denominated mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nowadays, there are effective protocols for detection and treatment of this disease, which make it preventable and curable. Diagnosis is reached by specific bacteriological studies in the presence of a clinical epidemiological suspicion. Nevertheless, imagining methods are almost an obligatory part of tuberculosis study and control. Since the lung is the target organ of TB, chest X-ray is commonly used as a support for diagnosis, which is very useful in case of pulmonary TB because it provides characteristic findings to guide diagnosis. It is important to highlight that the mycobacterium tuberculosis has a high potential for dissemination by contiguity, via lymphatic and/or haematogenous, the latter being the cause of the majority of extrapulmonary TB, which are presented in 20% of immunocompetent patients and by up to 60% of immunocompromised. The main site of extrapulmonary TB is into the pleural space, followed by the lymph node, urogenital and osteoarticular involvement, the remainder being infrequent localizations. In these cases, a computed tomography (CT) study based on the selection of images, is the tool used for diagnosis and control, which is also useful for the detection of complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/classification , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Miliary/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lung/pathology
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(6): 472-486, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis treatment remains a challenge due to the need to consider, when approaching it, the context of individual and collective health. In addition, social and economic issues have been shown to be variables that need to be considered when it comes to treatment effectiveness. We conducted a critical review of the national and international literature on the treatment of tuberculosis in recent years with the aims of presenting health care workers with recommendations based on the situation in Brazil and better informing decision-making regarding tuberculosis patients so as to minimize morbidity and interrupt disease transmission.


RESUMO O tratamento da tuberculose permanece um desafio em função da necessidade de que, em sua abordagem, seja considerado o contexto da saúde do indivíduo e da saúde coletiva. Adicionalmente, as questões sociais e econômicas têm-se mostrado como variáveis a ser consideradas na efetividade do tratamento. Ao revisarmos de forma crítica a literatura científica nacional e internacional sobre o tratamento da tuberculose nos últimos anos, tivemos como objetivos apresentar aos profissionais da área de saúde as recomendações baseadas na realidade brasileira e fornecer os subsídios necessários para a melhor tomada de decisão frente ao paciente com tuberculose, de modo a minimizar a morbidade e interromper a transmissão da doença Em função disso, o TDO é recomendado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Directly Observed Therapy/standards , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Brazil , Risk Factors , Health Personnel , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Decision Making
16.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 16(3): 387-394, may.-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901732

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las formas de presentación de la tuberculosis (Tb) incluyen: la tuberculosis pulmonar, la miliar y la extrapulmonar. Fuera del pulmón, los sitios donde con mayor frecuencia se localiza la tuberculosis son, por orden de frecuencia: ganglios linfáticos, pleura, aparato genitourinario, huesos y articulaciones, meninges, peritoneo y pericardio. Objetivo: Presentar un caso interesante en la clínica de Tuberculosis extrapulmonar y Tuberculosis pulmonar. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 65 años de edad, alcohólico crónico y fumador, empezó a presentar un aumento de volumen en la región lateral derecha del cuello que fue creciendo progresivamente; además de tos húmeda con expectoración blanquecina, disfagia a los alimentos sólidos, astenia, anorexia y pérdida de peso. Al examen físico se evidencian múltiples adenopatías cervicales supurativas, la mayor de 6cm y estertores crepitantes en tercio superior de hemitórax derecho. La prueba de Mantoux fue positiva y la radiografía de tórax sugestiva de TB pulmonar. El paciente fue egresado por alta a petición con tratamiento antituberculoso y antibiótico ambulatorio, los cuales fueron abandonados por parte del paciente. Es ingresado en segunda ocasión en el Servicio de Geriatría por ulceración de la lesión mayor del cuello donde fallece al tercer día por una sepsis generalizada. Conclusiones: La tuberculosis de los ganglios linfáticos es la presentación más común de la tuberculosis extrapulmonar. Esta enfermedad ataca principalmente a personas inmunodeprimidas y en el caso presentado el paciente tenia factores que podrían haber deprimido su sistema inmune como la edad, el alcoholismo crónico y el tabaquismo(AU)


Introduction: The forms of presentation of the tuberculosis (Tb) include: the pulmonary, miliaria and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Outside of the lung, the where places with major frequency localizes tuberculosis are, by order of frequency: lymphatic ganglions, pleura, genitourinary system, bones and joints, meninges, peritoneum and pericardium. Objective: To present an interesting case in the clinic of extrapulmonary Tb and lung Tb. Case presentation: Masculine 65-years patient of age, chronic alcoholic and smoker. That began to present an increase of volume in the lateral right region of the neck that went growing progressively; besides humid cough with whitish expectoration, dysphagia to the solid foods, asthenia, anorexia and loss of weight. The physical examination made evident multiple cervical suppurative adenopathias, the major of 6cm and crepitating rasps at the superior third of the right hemi-thorax. The Mantoux proof was positive and the thorax X-ray suggested a pulmonary TB. The patient was discharged with a treatment against tuberculosis and ambulatory antibiotic, which were abandoned by the patient. He was entered in second occasion in the service of geriatrics for ulceration of the major injury of the neck and dies at the third day for a generalized sepsis. Conclusions: The tuberculosis of the lymphatic ganglions is the more common presentation of the extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Illness attacks principally to the persons with low defenses and in the presented case the patient had factors that could have depressed his immune system as the age, the chronic alcoholism and the smoking(AU)


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Case Reports
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 408-412, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041410

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study compares the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with TB, with and without DM. METHODS New cases of active pulmonary TB that occurred in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2010 were included. DM was diagnosed by based on diagnostic criteria established by the American Diabetes Association. RESULT S: Of the 323 cases of TB, 44 (13.6%) were diabetic . Patients with TB and DM were older (44.7%), with a high level of education (34.%); had slow wound healing (23.4%) and fatigue (61.7%). CONCLUSIONS Clinical symptoms differed between patients with TB, with and without DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(5): 374-385, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797940

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The role of tuberculosis as a public health care priority and the availability of diagnostic tools to evaluate functional status (spirometry, plethysmography, and DLCO determination), arterial blood gases, capacity to perform exercise, lesions (chest X-ray and CT), and quality of life justify the effort to consider what needs to be done when patients have completed their treatment. To our knowledge, no review has ever evaluated this topic in a comprehensive manner. Our objective was to review the available evidence on this topic and draw conclusions regarding the future role of the "post-tuberculosis treatment" phase, which will potentially affect several million cases every year. We carried out a non-systematic literature review based on a PubMed search using specific keywords (various combinations of the terms "tuberculosis", "rehabilitation", "multidrug-resistant tuberculosis", "pulmonary disease", "obstructive lung disease", and "lung volume measurements"). The reference lists of the most important studies were retrieved in order to improve the sensitivity of the search. Manuscripts written in English, Spanish, and Russian were selected. The main areas of interest were tuberculosis sequelae following tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment; "destroyed lung"; functional evaluation of sequelae; pulmonary rehabilitation interventions (physiotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, and ventilation); and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.The evidence found suggests that tuberculosis is definitively responsible for functional sequelae, primarily causing an obstructive pattern on spirometry (but also restrictive and mixed patterns), and that there is a rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation. We also provide a list of variables that should be discussed in future studies on pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with post-tuberculosis sequelae.


RESUMO O papel da tuberculose como uma prioridade de saúde pública e a disponibilidade de ferramentas diagnósticas para avaliar o estado funcional (espirometria, pletismografia e DLCO), a gasometria arterial, a capacidade de realizar exercícios, as lesões (radiografia de tórax e TC) e a qualidade de vida justificam o esforço de se considerar o que deve ser feito quando os pacientes completam seu tratamento. Até onde sabemos, nenhuma revisão avaliou esse tópico de forma abrangente. Nosso objetivo foi revisar as evidências disponíveis e obter algumas conclusões sobre o futuro papel da fase de "tratamento pós-tuberculose", que irá potencialmente impactar milhões de casos todos os anos. Realizou-se uma revisão não sistemática da literatura tendo como base uma pesquisa no PubMed usando palavras-chave específicas (várias combinações dos termos "tuberculose", "reabilitação", "tuberculose multirresistente", "doença pulmonar", "doença pulmonar obstrutiva", e "medidas de volume pulmonar"). As listas de referências dos artigos principais foram recuperadas para melhorar a sensibilidade da busca. Foram selecionados manuscritos escritos em inglês, espanhol e russo. As principais áreas de interesse foram sequelas de tuberculose após diagnóstico e tratamento; "pulmão destruído"; avaliação funcional das sequelas; intervenções de reabilitação pulmonar (fisioterapia, oxigenoterapia de longo prazo e ventilação); e tuberculose multirresistente. As evidências encontradas sugerem que a tuberculose é definitivamente responsável por sequelas funcionais, principalmente causando um padrão obstrutivo na espirometria (mas também padrões restritivos e mistos) e que há razão para a reabilitação pulmonar. Fornecemos também uma lista de variáveis a serem discutidas em futuros estudos sobre reabilitação pulmonar em pacientes com sequelas pós-tuberculose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/rehabilitation , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/rehabilitation , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/complications , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/prevention & control , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Function Tests , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/complications , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
19.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 88(3): 360-367, jul.-set. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-789461

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la tuberculosis pulmonar es un flagelo que continúa afectando a la población en general, y con gran repercusión en la población infantil a nivel mundial y regional. Considerada desde hace varias décadas como una enfermedad en reemergencia, debe ser reconocida -lo más tempranamente posible- por los trabajadores de la salud, y sobre todo, por el personal médico. PRESENTACIÓN DEL CASO: se presenta el caso de un paciente de 14 años de edad, del sexo masculino, que presentaba sintomatología respiratoria de más de dos meses de evolución, e ingresó en un servicio de enfermedades respiratorias con el diagnóstico de neumonía complicada. En el interrogatorio se recogen datos de interés, se supieron las condiciones socioambientales del paciente, y que un familiar conviviente con el niño había evadido el control ambulatorio al haber sido diagnosticado de tuberculosis pulmonar, por lo que no concluyó tratamiento. Se exponen los principales resultados de los complementarios (incluyendo prueba de Mantoux positiva), evolución de las radiografías de tórax y tratamiento antituberculoso aprobado con el servicio de Infectología y el Centro Nacional de Referencia de Tuberculosis Infantil. CONCLUSIONES: es importante una historia clínica epidemiológica detallada en todo paciente con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad.


INTRODUCTION: pulmonary tuberculosis is a scourge that keeps affecting the general population, with a great impact on the infant population in the region and worldwide. Since many years ago, it is considered a re-emergent disease and should be identified -as early as possible- by the health workers, and mainly the medical staff. CASE PRESENTATION: a 14 years-old male patient who presented with respiratory symptoms for more than 2 months and was admitted to a respiratory disease service under diagnosis of complicated pneumonia. During the interview, interesting data were collected about his/her social and environmental conditions and it was found out that a relative, who live in the same house, did evade the outpatient control after he being diagnosed as a pulmonary tuberculosis case, thus he did not finish the treatment. The main results of the supplementary tests (including positive Mantoux test), progress of chest x-rays and the antituberculosis treatment approved by the Infectology service and the National Center of Reference for Child Tuberculosis were all described. CONCLUSIONS: it is essential to have a detailed epidemiological clinical record of every patient with community-acquired pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications
20.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 129(1): 20-25, mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835481

ABSTRACT

La fístula anal de etiología tuberculosa es una afección rara. Presentamos un caso en una paciente HIV (-), revisamos datos epidemiológicos y discutimos la fisiopatología, manifestaciones clínicas, nuevos desarrollos diagnósticos y brevemente su tratamiento.


Tubercular fistula in-ano is a rare condition. In addition to presenting a case in a HIV (-) patient, in this paper we review epidemiologic data, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and new developments in diagnosis and their treatment is discussed briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Female , Rectal Fistula/diagnosis , Rectal Fistula/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Diagnostic Imaging , Rectal Fistula/therapy , HIV
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