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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(3): e00008621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364633

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate, via a mixed methods study, the implementation of the screening process for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) within indigenous population of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, during the 2016-2018 period. Indicators assessing the PTB screening process were elaborated and estimated. Subsequently, an evaluation of the indicators were performed based on a sampling process from health care providers of the municipalities with the highest and lowest PTB incidence and from key agents' perspective. Screening indicators were estimated and thematic analysis was performed based on the interviews conducted with key agents. Finally, a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative findings was performed. From the total population expected to have respiratory symptomatics (n = 16,711), the health care providers were able to identify 42.3% of them. Out of the individuals identified as respiratory symptomatics (n = 7,064), they were able to examine 93.2% (n = 6,585) with at least one acid-fast bacilli smear test. The reported positivity index from acid-fast bacilli smear test was 1.87%. The explanations from key agents revolved around the possibility of an overestimated targeted amount of respiratory symptomatics; insufficient personnel for the search of symptomatic individuals; high costs for the search in areas of difficult access; the need to request permissions from indigenous authorities; culturally ingrained stigma; use of traditional medicine and self-medication; and patient's personal beliefs. This study revealed barriers in the implementation of the screening process for PTB within the indigenous population from the Department of Cauca, mainly in the identifying process of the respiratory symptomatics.


El objetivo fue evaluar la implementación del proceso y los indicadores en las pruebas para detectar tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) en población indígena del Departamento de Cauca, Colombia, durante el periodo de 2016-2018, a través de un estudio de métodos mixtos. Fueron elaborados y estimados indicadores para el tamizaje de TBP. Posteriormente, a través de un proceso de muestreo de los proveedores de cuidados de salud de las municipalidades con las incidencias más altas y más bajas de TBP, y desde la perspectiva de actores clave, se intentó encontrar una explicación para los resultados de la primera fase. Se estimaron los indicadores de las pruebas y se realizó un análisis temático de las entrevistas dirigidas a los actores clave. Finalmente, se realizó la triangulación de los hallazgos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Del total de sintomáticos respiratorios esperados (n = 16.711), los proveedores de servicios de salud fueron capaces de identificar a un 42,3% de ellos, y de estos sintomáticos respiratorios identificados (n = 7.064) fueron capaces de examinar un 93,2% (n = 6.585) con al menos una prueba de frotis de bacilos ácidorresistentes. El índice de positividad informado en la prueba de la flema analizada en el microscopio, mediante la prueba de frotis de bacilos ácidorresistentes, fue 1.87%. Las explicaciones de los actores clave giraron alrededor de la percepción de un objetivo posiblemente sobreestimado de sintomáticos respiratorios; insuficiente personal para la consulta; altos costes para las consultas en áreas geográficas de difícil acceso; solicitud de permisos a las autoridades indígenas; estigma; medicina tradicional, automedicación y creencias. Este estudio reveló barreras en la implementación de las pruebas para la TBP en la población indígena del Departamento de Cauca, principalmente en el proceso de identificación de sintomáticos respiratorios.


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a implementação do processo e os indicadores de triagem para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) numa população indígena do Departamento de Cauca, Colômbia, no período 2016-2018. Foi realizado um estudo com métodos mistos. Foram elaborados e estimados os indicadores para triagem da TBP. Em seguida, procurou-se explicar os achados da primeira fase, com base em um processo de amostragem de provedores de saúde dos municípios com os coeficientes mais altos e mais baixos de incidência de TBP, e da perspectiva dos atores-chave. Os indicadores de triagem foram estimados e a análise foi realizada das entrevistas com os atores-chave. Finalmente, foi feita a triangulação dos achados quantitativos e qualitativos. Do total de sintomáticos respiratórios esperados (n = 16.711), o provedor de saúde conseguiu identificar 42,3%, e destes sintomáticos respiratórios identificados (n = 7.064) conseguiram examinar 93,2% (n = 6.585) com pelo menos um exame de escarro (teste de BAAR). O índice de positividade do teste de BAAR foi de 1,87%. As explicações dos atores chave giraram em torno da percepção de uma proporção possivelmente superestimada de sintomáticos respiratórios, pessoal insuficiente para a busca, custos elevados da busca em áreas de difícil acesso geográfico, solicitação de autorização pelas autoridades indígenas, estigma, medicina tradicional, automedicação e crenças. O estudo revelou barreiras para a implementação da triagem para TBP na população indígena do Departamento de Cauca, principalmente no processo de identificação de sintomáticos respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Indigenous Peoples , Brazil , Incidence , Colombia/epidemiology
2.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(1): e37106, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1289843

ABSTRACT

Resumen: A nivel mundial se estima que en 2018 hubo alrededor de 10 millones de nuevos casos de tuberculosis (TBC). La detección molecular es una herramienta diagnóstica crecientemente utilizada para el diagnóstico de TBC. Los predictores de riesgo para TBC pulmonar son variados y varían de acuerdo a la población estudiada. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: evaluar la performance de la detección de M. tuberculosis por la técnica Xpert® MTB/RIF para el diagnóstico de TBC pulmonar y determinar los factores predictores de presencia de esta enfermedad en pacientes asistidos en el Hospital Pasteur de Montevideo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal. Se incluyeron 254 pacientes, 68 con TBC pulmonar. La sensibilidad de la prueba Xpert® MTB/RIF para detectar M. tuberculosis fue 100% (IC 95%: 91,2-100) y la especificidad 95,1% (IC 95%: 83,9-98,7). En el análisis multivariado se evidenció que los predictores independientes para presencia de TBC pulmonar fueron: contacto cercano con otro caso de TBC (p<0,001), consumo de pasta base de cocaína (p=0,006) y presentarse con adelgazamiento (p<0,001). En suma, la prueba Xpert® MTB/RIF se comportó como una excelente herramienta diagnóstica en nuestra población con elevada prevalencia de TBC pulmonar. Los predictores independientes para esta enfermedad indican que en la población analizada las estrategias de control de esta enfermedad requieren un abordaje multidisciplinario.


Summary: According to global estimations, there were approximately 10 million new cases of tuberculosis in 2018. Molecular diagnosis constitutes a rapidly growing diagnostic tool for tuberculosis. Risk predictors for pulmonary tuberculosis are varied and they depend on the population studied. The study aimed to assess the performance of M. tuberculosis detection by use of Xpert® MTB/RIF diagnostic test to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis and to identify predictive factors for this disease in patients assisted at Pasteur Hospital in Montevideo. A descriptive, observational and transversal study was conducted, which included 254 patients, 68 of which had pulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to detect M. tuberculosis was 100% (CI 95%: 91.2-100) and specificity 95.1% (CI 95%: 83.9-98.7). Multivariate analysis evidenced the following to be the independent predictors that detect pulmonary tuberculosis: close contact with other cases of tuberculosis (p<0.001), coca-paste consumption (p=0.006) and evidence of loss of weight (p<0,001). To sum up, the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool in our population with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. Independent predictors for this disease show that, in the population studied, control strategies require a multidisciplinary approach.


Resumo: Globalmente, estima-se que em 2018 ocorreram cerca de 10 milhões de novos casos de tuberculose (TB). A detecção molecular é uma ferramenta diagnóstica cada vez mais usada para seu diagnóstico. Os preditores de risco para TB pulmonar são diversos e variam de acordo com a população estudada. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar o desempenho da detecção do M. tuberculosis pela técnica Xpert MTB/RIF para o diagnóstico da TB pulmonar e determinar os fatores preditivos da presença desta doença em pacientes atendidos no Hospital Pasteur de Montevidéu. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal. 254 pacientes foram incluídos, 68 com TB pulmonar. A sensibilidade do teste Xpert® MTB/RIF para detectar M. tuberculosis foi de 100% (IC 95%: 91,2-100) e a especificidade de 95,1% (IC 95%: 83,9- 98,7). A análise multivariada mostrou que os preditores independentes para a presença de tuberculose pulmonar foram: contato próximo com outro caso de tuberculose (p <0,001), consumo de pasta base de cocaína (p = 0,006) e apresentar perda de peso (p <0,001). Em suma, o teste Xpert® MTB/RIF se comportou como uma excelente ferramenta diagnóstica em nossa população com alta prevalência de TB pulmonar. Os preditores independentes para essa doença indicam que, na população analisada, as estratégias de controle da doença requerem uma abordagem multidisciplinar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): 553-557, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279617

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: although pediatric patients have comparatively fewer cases of COVID-19, children with Down Syndrome exhibit comorbidities such as immunodeficiency, diabetes and, in this perspective, are considered a population at risk for severe COVID-19. In addition, the literature also points to an unfavorable perspective on co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, considered an important comorbidity and a predictor of a worse clinical outcome. Description: female child, nine years old, with Down Syndrome, congenital heart disease and prematurity, with significant weight loss and intermittent fever for six months. A week ago, she had an intensification of fever, productive cough and mild respiratory distress. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 detectable in nasopharynx swab, chest X-ray with diffuse alveolar infiltrate, chest CT with consolidations, excavation, solid micronodules in a sprouting tree pattern mainly in the right upper and lower lobes. Molecular rapid test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detectable in gastric lavage. After specific treatment, the patient progressed well and was discharged from the hospital after 72 hours without fever and improvement in her breathing pattern. Discussion: despite the extensive pulmonary involvement, the patient did not require invasive ventilatory support and presented a satisfactory short-term outcome. Therefore, the relevance of the association of Tuberculosis and COVID-19 and other comorbidities in the pediatric age group still remains uncertain.


Resumo Introdução: apesar dos pacientes pediátricos apresentarem, comparativamente, menos casos da COVID-19, crianças com Síndrome de Down manifestam comorbidades como imunodeficiência, diabetes e, nessa perspectiva, são apontadas como população de risco para COVID-19 grave. Ademais, a literatura também sinaliza para um cenário desfavorável na coinfecção com Mycobacterium tuberculosis, considerada comorbidade importante e preditora para pior desfecho clínico. Descrição: criança de nove anos, sexo feminino, com Síndrome de Down, cardiopatia congênita e prematuridade, história de perda ponderal significativa e febre intermitente vespertina há seis meses. Há uma semana, apresentou intensificação da febre, tosse produtiva e desconforto respiratório leve. RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2 em swab de nasofaringe detectável, radiografia de tórax com infiltrado alveolar difuso, tomografia de tórax com consolidações, focos de escavação, micronódulos sólidos em padrão de árvore em brotamento principalmente em lobos superior e inferior direitos. Teste rápido molecular para Mycobacterium tuberculosis detectável em lavado gástrico. Após início de tratamento específico, a paciente exibiu melhora clínica e de padrão respiratório e recebeu alta hospitalar após 72 horas afebril. Discussão: apesar do extenso comprometimento pulmonar, a paciente não necessitou de suporte ventilatório invasivo e apresentou um desfecho satisfatório em curto prazo. Portanto, a relevância da associação de tuberculose e COVID-19 e outras comorbidades na faixa etária pediátrica ainda permanecem incertas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Down Syndrome/complications , Coinfection , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Risk Groups , Brazil/epidemiology
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200581, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250206

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a rapid molecular test for tuberculosis, comparing it with that of AFB staining and culture, in BAL fluid (BALF) samples from patients with clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) who are sputum smear-negative or produce sputum samples of insufficient quantity. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 140 cases of suspected PTB in patients who were smear-negative or produced insufficient sputum samples and were evaluated at a tertiary teaching hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All of the patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with BAL. The BALF specimens were evaluated by AFB staining, mycobacterial culture, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Results: Among the 140 patients, results for all three microbiological examinations were available for 73 (52.1%), of whom 22 tested positive on culture, 17 tested positive on AFB staining, and 20 tested positive on the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy for AFB staining were 68.1%, 96.1%, 88.2%, 87.5%, and 87.6%, respectively, compared with 81.8%, 96.1%, 90.0%, 92.4%, and 91.8%, respectively, for the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. The agreement between AFB staining and culture was 82.3% (kappa = 0.46; p < 0.0001), whereas that between the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and culture was 91.8% (kappa = 0.8; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In BALF samples, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay performs better than do traditional methods, providing a reliable alternative to sputum analysis in suspected cases of PTB. However, the rate of discordant results merits careful consideration.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho diagnóstico do teste Xpert MTB/RIF - teste molecular rápido para tuberculose, comparando-o com o da pesquisa de BAAR e da cultura, em amostras de LBA de pacientes com suspeita clínica de tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) que apresentam baciloscopia de escarro negativa ou produzem amostras com quantidade insuficiente de escarro. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 140 casos suspeitos de TBP em pacientes que apresentaram baciloscopia negativa ou produziram amostras de escarro insuficientes e foram avaliados em um hospital-escola terciário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à fibrobroncoscopia com LBA. Os espécimes de LBA foram avaliados por meio da realização de pesquisa de BAAR, cultura para micobactérias e teste Xpert MTB/RIF. Resultados: Entre os 140 pacientes, resultados de todos os três exames microbiológicos estavam disponíveis para 73 (52,1%), dos quais 22 apresentaram cultura positiva, 17, pesquisa de BAAR positiva, e 20, teste Xpert MTB/RIF positivo. A sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo, valor preditivo negativo e precisão global da pesquisa de BAAR foram de 68,1%, 96,1%, 88,2%, 87,5% e 87,6%, respectivamente, contra 81,8%, 96,1%, 90,0%, 92,4% e 91,8%, respectivamente, do teste Xpert MTB/RIF. A concordância entre a pesquisa de BAAR e a cultura foi de 82,3% (kappa = 0,46; p < 0,0001), enquanto a concordância entre o teste Xpert MTB/RIF e a cultura foi de 91,8% (kappa = 0,8; p < 0,0001). Conclusões: Em amostras de LBA, o teste Xpert MTB/RIF tem melhor desempenho do que os métodos tradicionais, fornecendo uma alternativa confiável à análise do escarro em casos suspeitos de TBP. No entanto, a taxa de resultados discordantes merece uma reflexão cuidadosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Sputum , Tertiary Healthcare , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 151-159, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115771

ABSTRACT

Background: Contact investigation is cardinal in the control of tuberculosis (TB) since it helps to stop its transmission. In Chile, the National TB Program strategy does not include latent TB infection testing, regular chemoprophylaxis or follow-up in adults. Active TB was found in only 1.2% of contacts at country-level during 2018. Aim: To evaluate the performance of a systematic screening of adult household contacts with targeted chemoprophylaxis and prolonged active follow-up. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort of household contacts in Santiago. Two face-to-face visits (at 0 and 12 weeks) that included QuantiFERON TB-Gold plus tests (QFT), chest radiography (CXR) at 0 and 24 weeks and, periodic text messaging or phone call follow-up for up to 48 weeks were implemented. Contacts with positive QFT were referred for TB chemoprophylaxis. Results: A total of 200 contacts were enrolled, 69% were migrants. At baseline evaluation, 45% had a positive QFT result and 1.6% had co-prevalent active TB. At follow-up, 13% contacts further converted to QFT (+), and 5.1% more were diagnosed with active TB (mean follow-up time 32 weeks). Of these 10 further active TB cases, 6 (60%) had a negative QFT and all (100%) had normal CXR at baseline; while three cases occurred in QFT converters. Conclusions: In this cohort of household contacts, 6.7 % were diagnosed with active TB (more than 2/3 at follow-up) and 13% had a late QFT (+) conversion. Active and prolonged contacts' follow-up are essential to detect new infections and tackle the TB epidemic in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Contact Tracing , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculin Test , Family Characteristics , Family Health , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200205, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136899

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is lower than in adults. In Brazil, the diagnosis of PTB is based on a diagnostic score system (DSS). This study aims to study the role of Xpert in children and adolescents with PTB symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 referral centers to TB. Children and adolescents (0-19 years old) whose respiratory samples were submitted to Xpert were included. Statistical analysis (bivariate and logistic regression) to assess the simultaneous influence of TB-related variables on the occurrence of Xpert detectable in TB cases was done. To evaluate the agreement or disagreement between Xpert results with acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and cultures, κ method was used (significancy level of 5%). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were included in the study and PTB occurred in 43 patients (49%) and Xpert was detectable in 21 patients (24%). Adolescents and positive culture results were independent predictive variables of Xpert positivity. DSS sensitivity compared with the final diagnosis of TB was 100% (95% CI, 88.1-100%), specificity was 97.2% (95% CI, 85.5-99.9%). The accuracy of the method was 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Xpert contributed to diagnosis in 9% of patients with AFB and in culture negative cases. DSS indicated relevance for this diagnostic approach of intrathoracic TB (ITB) in reference centers for presenting data both with high sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Referral and Consultation , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200051, 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136823

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are non-specific and establishing an accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. This study evaluated a Single tube nested-PCR (STNPCR) to detect genomic DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in blood and urine. METHODS: Biological samples were obtained from children (<15 years old) with clinical suspicion of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB at public hospitals in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Cultures yielded negative results in a majority of childhood TB cases, which are generally paucibacillary. A set of clinical, epidemiological, radiological, and laboratory criteria with evident clinical improvement after anti-TB treatment were frequently used to define childhood TB cases. RESULTS: Ninety children with clinical suspicion were enrolled in this study (44 with TB and 46 without TB). The pulmonary TB group had 20 confirmed cases and 46 negative controls, while the extrapulmonary TB group had 24 confirmed cases. The STNPCR showed sensitivities to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB of 47.4% and 52.2% (blood) and 38.8% and 20% (urine), respectively. Considering the low performance of STNPCR on separate samples, we decided to perform a combined analysis (parallel sensitivity analysis) of the results from blood and urine samples. The parallel sensitivity increased to 65% in blood and 62.5% in urine. The specificity in both samples ranged from 93.5-97.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Although STNPCR showed moderate sensitivity, the specificity is high; therefore, the test can be used as an auxiliary tool to diagnose TB in children. It is a rapid test that demonstrated better performance than other diagnostic tests in paucibacillary samples as it does in childhood tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/urine , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200314, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136805

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid and accurate tuberculosis detection is critical for improving patient diagnosis and decreasing tuberculosis transmission. Molecular assays can significantly increase laboratory costs; therefore, the average time and economic impact should be evaluated before implementing a new technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost and average turnaround time of smear microscopy and Xpert assay at a university hospital. METHODS: The turnaround time and cost of the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis were calculated based on the mean cost and activity based costing (ABC). RESULTS: The average turnaround time for smear microscopy was 16.6 hours while that for Xpert was 24.1 hours. The Xpert had a mean cost of USD 17.37 with an ABC of USD 10.86, while smear microscopy had a mean cost of USD 13.31 with an ABC of USD 6.01. The sensitivity of smear microscopy was 42.9% and its specificity was 99.1%, while the Xpert assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert assay has high accuracy; however, the turnaround time and cost of smear microscopy were lower than those of Xpert.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Biological Assay/economics , Pathology, Molecular/economics , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/economics , Biological Assay/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Costs and Cost Analysis , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Microscopy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
10.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 34: e34803, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1137072

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o custo da tecnologia Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® e analisar sua contribuição para o diagnóstico rápido da tuberculose. Método: estudo quantitativo e retrospectivo realizado no período de 2014 a 2016. A busca de dados foi realizada no Sistema de Informação de Agravo de Notificação e no Gerenciador de Ambiente Laboratorial. Os dados foram analisados com base nas técnicas de estatística descritiva por meio da distribuição de frequência absoluta e relativa. Resultados: foram estudados 196 casos e a média de tempo para a realização do exame para diagnóstico da tuberculose por meio do Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® foi de dois dias, com custo de R$ 35,20 por exame realizado. Conclusão: os custos da tecnologia Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® são relativamente superiores ao da baciloscopia de escarro, porém têm-se grandes vantagens quanto ao tempo para a liberação do resultado do exame e maior sensibilidade e especificidade oferecida pelo teste rápido molecular.


Objetivo: identificar el costo de la tecnología Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® y analizar su contribución para el diagnóstico rápido de la tuberculosis. Método: estudio cuantitativo, retrospectivo, realizado en el período de 2014 a 2016. Se realizó la búsqueda de datos en el Sistema de Información de Notificación de Enfermedades y en el Supervisor del Entorno de Laboratorio. Los datos fueron analizados con base en las técnicas de la estadística descriptiva por medio de distribución de frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: se estudiaron 196 casos y el promedio de tiempo para realizar el examen para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis por medio del Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® fue de dos días, con un costo de 35.20R$ por cada examen realizado. Conclusión: los costos de la tecnología Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® son relativamente más altos que los de la baciloscopía, pero tienen grandes ventajas en el tiempo para la publicación de los resultados del examen y mayor sensibilidad y especificidad ofrecidos por prueba rápida molecular.


Objective: to identify the cost of the Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® technology and analyze its contribution to the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. Method: quantitative and retrospective study, carried out in the period from 2014 to 2016. Data search was performed on the Information System of Disease Notification and on the Laboratory Environment Manager. The data were analyzed based on the techniques of descriptive statistics through distribution of absolute and relative frequency. Results: 196 cases were studied, and the average time to perform the test for diagnosis of tuberculosis through Gene Xpert MTB/Rif® was two days, with a cost of 35.20R$ per test performed. Conclusion: the costs of Gene Technology Xpert MTB/Rif® are relatively higher than that of sputum smear microscopy, but have great advantages in time to release the test result and higher sensitivity and specificity offered by the rapid molecular assay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Nursing Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System , Disease Notification
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190175, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057267

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study sought to assess the mean and activity based cost (ABC) of the laboratory diagnosis for tuberculosis through the application of conventional and molecular techniques-Xpert®MTB/RIF and Genotype®MTBDRplus-in a tertiary referral hospital in Brazil. METHODS: The mean cost and ABC formed the basis for the cost analysis of the TB laboratory diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean cost and ABC were US$ 4.00 and US$ 3.24, respectively, for a bacilloscopy; US$ 6.73 and US$ 5.27 for a Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture; US$ 105.42 and US$ 76.56 for a drug sensitivity test (DST)-proportions method (PM) in LJ; US$ 148.45 and US$ 136.80 for a DST-BACTECTM MGITTM 960 system; US$ 11.53 and US$ 9.89 for an Xpert®MTB/RIF; and US$ 84.21 and US$ 48.38 for a Genotype®MTBDRplus. CONCLUSIONS: The mean cost and ABC proved to be good decision-making parameters in the diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB. The effective implementation of algorithms will depend on the conditions at each location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/economics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Care Centers , Genotype , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
12.
In. Verga, Federico; Burghi, Gastón. Encares de paciente crítico. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro FEFMUR, 2020. p.159-175.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342646
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090796

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the radiological presentation of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in the emergency department and to investigate its association with the time to diagnosis. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in the emergency department of a tertiary university hospital in southern Brazil. Chest X-rays taken on admission were evaluated by a radiologist. The various patterns of radiological findings and locations of the lesions were described. The main study outcome was the total time elapsed between the initial radiological examination and the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Results: A total of 78 patients were included in the study. The median time from chest X-ray to diagnosis was 2 days, early and delayed diagnosis being defined as a time to diagnosis < 2 days and ≥ 2 days, respectively. Sputum smear positivity was associated with early diagnosis (p = 0.005), and positive culture was associated with delayed diagnosis (p = 0.005). Early diagnosis was associated with the presence of sputum (p = 0.03), weight loss (p = 0.047), cavitation (p = 0.001), and consolidation (p = 0.003). Pulmonary cavitation was found to be an independent predictor of early diagnosis (OR = 3.50; p = 0.028). Conclusions: There is a need for tuberculosis-specific protocols in emergency departments, not only to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment but also to modify the transmission dynamics of the disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a apresentação radiológica de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar diagnosticada no serviço de emergência e investigar sua associação com o tempo para o diagnóstico. Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo envolvendo pacientes diagnosticados com tuberculose pulmonar no serviço de emergência de um hospital universitário terciário no sul do Brasil. As radiografias de tórax realizadas na admissão foram avaliadas por um radiologista. Foram descritos os diferentes padrões de achados radiológicos e as localizações das lesões. O desfecho principal do estudo foi o tempo total decorrido entre o exame radiológico inicial e o diagnóstico de tuberculose. Resultados: Um total de 78 pacientes foi incluído no estudo. A mediana de tempo entre a radiografia de tórax e o diagnóstico foi de 2 dias, sendo os diagnósticos precoce e tardio definidos como tempo para o diagnóstico < 2 dias e ≥ 2 dias, respectivamente. A positividade da baciloscopia de escarro associou-se ao diagnóstico precoce (p = 0,005), e a cultura positiva associou-se ao diagnóstico tardio (p = 0,005). O diagnóstico precoce associou-se à presença de escarro (p = 0,03), perda de peso (p = 0,047), cavitação (p = 0,001) e consolidação (p = 0,003). A cavitação pulmonar foi um preditor independente de diagnóstico precoce (OR = 3,50; p = 0,028). Conclusões: Há necessidade de protocolos específicos para tuberculose nos serviços de emergência, não apenas para evitar atrasos no diagnóstico e no tratamento, mas também para modificar a dinâmica de transmissão da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , X-Rays , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis
14.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(3)sept.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094633

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar (TB) es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó para el año 2017 alrededor de 10 millones de personas enfermas y 1,3 millones de muertes. La facultad que posee MTB para modular la respuesta inmune, sobrevivir y persistir bajo el ambiente hostil en el hospedero y en la TB latente ha sido ampliamente investigada, y requiere de regulación y control de la expresión genética. El objetivo es presentar una revisión de las investigaciones relacionadas con los reguladores de la expresión de genes de MTB que están asociados con la virulencia, persistencia y supervivencia en la TB latente. Se hizo una revisión de las investigaciones de los últimos 20 años. Se concluye que MTB posee una maquinaria genética que controla la expresión de genes que participan en virulencia y persistencia, en respuesta a la hipoxia, estrés oxidativo, falta de nutrientes y pH ácido. Entre ellos, participan los sistemas de dos componentes, factores sigma y reguladores transcripcionales. En algunos casos se ha comprobado que funcionan interconectados como una red. Los hallazgos de las investigaciones aportan conocimientos para el descubrimiento de nuevos blancos para el desarrollo de drogas antituberculosas, nuevas vacunas y métodos de diagnóstico de la TB, con el propósito de proveer nuevas estrategias para el control de la enfermedad(AU)


Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization estimated about 10 million sick people and 1.3 million deaths in 2017. The ability of MTB to modulate the immune response, survive and persist under the hostile environment in the host and in latent TB has been extensively investigated, and requires regulation and control of genetic expression. The objective is to present a review of research related to regulators of MTB gene expression that are associated with virulence, persistence and survival in latent TB. A review of the investigations of the last 20 years was made. Finally, it is concluded that MTB has a genetic machinery that controls the expression of genes that participate in virulence and persistence in response to hypoxia, oxidative stress, lack of nutrients and acidic pH. Among them, two-component systems, sigma factors and transcriptional regulators participate. It has been proven that they work interconnected as a network in some cases. The research findings provide insights for the discovery of new targets for the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs, new vaccines and methods for diagnosis of TB, with the purpose of providing new strategies for disease control(AU)


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
15.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 316-323, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011503

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (pre-PTB, defined by cough lasting ≥ 3 weeks) and compare it between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and without PTB. Methods: Patients with pre-PTB (n=260) were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Those individuals with scores ≥ 10 were subsequently assessed with the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) to confirm diagnosis. Associations of categorical variables with PTB and MDE were calculated using the chi-square test and OR. Results: PTB was confirmed in 98 patients (37.7%). A high proportion of both groups (active PTB and no PTB) screened positive for depression (60.2 vs. 62.1%, respectively). Among 159 patients who screened positive for depression, a subset of 97 (61.0%) were further evaluated with the MINI-Plus; current MDE was confirmed in 54.6% (53/97). On univariate and multivariate analysis, female sex was the only factor associated with the diagnosis of current MDE (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The prevalence of MDE was high among individuals with prolonged respiratory symptoms, independent of PTB diagnosis. This is consistent with other studies of depression in primary care in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Middle Aged
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 246-253, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Accurate and rapid diagnostic tools are important aspects of managing tuberculosis (TB) cases appropriately. However, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic kits based on immune response such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) are still debated. Thus, the exploration and assessment of specific biomarker-targeted antibodies are needed for the development of an accurate and rapid diagnostic tool. The present study was conducted in patients with a respiratory problem suspected to be TB at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Among 102 patients tested by GeneXpert and AFB, 59 serum samples were from cases retrospectively determined to have active TB. A total of 102 serum of healthy controls (HC) was also collected. The PPD antigen and the recombinant CFP-10 and ESAT-6 proteins were prepared. Antibody responses against these proteins were evaluated by ELISA. All samples were also screened for the possibility of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection using Capilla MaC kit. The results showed that TB patients had a significantly higher concentration of IgG antibody in response to PPD than the HC. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that PPD was acceptable for diagnostic purposes with an AUC value of 0.835 (95% CI 0.770-0.900, p < 0.0001). However, ESAT-6 and CFP-10 had low AUCs, and 32 samples from both groups showed a low concentration of IgA antibody against all antigens. The MAC detection results also showed that the concentration of IgA in the HC group was the highest. The current results indicate that PPD is a better antigen for antibody-based detection of TB than ESAT-6 and CFP-10. Based on the MAC detection assay, 53 people in the HC group were probably infected with rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), although antibody response to PPD was low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Tuberculin/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Reference Values , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tuberculin Test , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia
17.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264217

ABSTRACT

Les tuberculoses extra-pulmonaires (TEP) représentent une proportion élevée de toutes les formes de tuberculose et leurs manifestations cliniques polymorphes rendent le diagnostic souvent difficile. L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et histologiques des TEP diagnostiquées dans deux laboratoires d'anatomie pathologique de Cotonou. Nous avons mené une étude transversale descriptive portant sur 53 dossiers de patients atteints de tuberculose extra-pulmonaire dans les laboratoires d'anatomie pathologique de la Faculté des Sciences de la Santé et de la Cité Houéyiho à Cotonou sur une période de 10 ans (juin 2007 - juin 2018). L'âge moyen était de 46,5 ans avec une prédominance féminine (54,7 %). Les principales localisations étaient : la tuberculose ganglionnaire à 71,7 %, suivie par la tuberculose digestive (17 %) et de la tuberculose urogénitale (9,4%). Dans les différentes formes, le type histologique le plus fréquent était le type caséo-folliculaire. Notre travail a montré une fréquence élevée de l'atteinte ganglionnaire avec le type caséo-folliculaire comme le type histologique dominant


Subject(s)
Benin , Histology , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Urogenital
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20170451, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040271

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular test for tuberculosis, using pulmonary samples obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, which is operated by the Hospital Foundation of the State of Minas Gerais, in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This was a retrospective study comparing the Xpert MTB/RIF test results with those of standard culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phenotypic susceptibility tests. Although the Xpert MTB/RIF test showed high accuracy for the detection of M. tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampin, attention must be given to the clinical status of the patient, in relation to the test results, as well as to the limitations of molecular tests.


RESUMO A tuberculose permanece como um grave problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a acurácia do teste rápido molecular Xpert MTB/RIF em amostras pulmonares no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais, localizado em Belo Horizonte (MG). Trata-se de um estudo descritivo retrospectivo, considerando-se como método padrão a cultura para o bacilo da tuberculose e o teste de sensibilidade fenotípico. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF apresentou ótima acurácia para a detecção da tuberculose e resistência à rifampicina, mas é necessária a atenção a dados clínicos do paciente em relação ao resultado do exame e às limitações dos testes moleculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Trachea/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Rifampin/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180185, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002431

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of rapid molecular testing as a diagnostic tool and estimate the incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis among the indigenous population. Methods: This is an epidemiological study based on secondary data. We calculated the incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis between January 1st, 2011 and December 31, 2016, and the performance of bacilloscopy and rapid molecular testing in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis compared to sputum culture (standard test). Results: We included 4,048 cases of indigenous people with respiratory symptoms who provided sputum samples for analysis. Among them, 3.7%, 6.7%, and 3.7% had positive results for bacilloscopy, sputum culture, and rapid molecular testing, respectively. The mean incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 269.3/100 thousand inhabitants. Rapid molecular testing had 93.1% sensitivity and 98.2% specificity, compared to sputum culture. Bacilloscopy showed 55.1% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. Conclusions: Rapid molecular testing can be useful in remote areas with limited resources and a high incidence of tuberculosis, such as indigenous villages in rural regions of Brazil. In addition, the main advantages of rapid molecular testing are its easy handling, fast results, and the possibility of detecting rifampicin resistance. Together, these attributes enable the early start of treatment, contributing to reduce the transmission in communities recognized as vulnerable to infection and disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia do teste rápido molecular como ferramenta diagnóstica e estimar a incidência de casos pulmonares positivos entre a população indígena. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico baseado em dados secundários. Foi calculada a incidência de casos de tuberculose pulmonar positiva entre 1° de janeiro de 2011 e 31 de dezembro de 2016, e o desempenho da baciloscopia e do teste rápido molecular no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar, em comparação à cultura de escarro (teste padrão). Resultados: Foram incluídos 4.048 casos de indígenas considerados sintomáticos respiratórios, que forneceram amostras de escarro para análise. Destes, 3,7%, 6,7% e 3,7% apresentaram resultados positivos para baciloscopia, cultura e teste rápido molecular, respectivamente. A incidência média de tuberculose pulmonar foi de 269,3/100 mil habitantes. A sensibilidade do teste rápido molecular, em relação à cultura, foi 93,1% e a especificidade foi 98,2%. A baciloscopia apresentou sensibilidade 55,1% e especificidade 99,6%. Conclusões: O teste rápido molecular pode ser útil em áreas remotas, com recursos limitados e incidência de tuberculose elevada, como as aldeias indígenas nas áreas rurais do país. Ademais, o teste rápido molecular apresenta como principais vantagens o fácil manuseio, os resultados rápidos e a possibilidade de identificar a resistência à rifampicina. Em conjunto, esses atributos facilitam o início do tratamento precoce, contribuindo para reduzir a transmissão em comunidades reconhecidamente vulneráveis à infecção e à doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/ethnology , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Sputum/microbiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
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