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2.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2727-2738, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156770

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: hace más de un siglo, Robert Koch identificó el microorganismo que causa la tuberculosis en el hombre, el Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sin embargo, aún constituye un grave problema epidemiológico a nivel mundial. Se presentó un estudio realizado en los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Infeccioso del Hospital Regional de Malabo. Objetivo: caracterizar los pacientes con tuberculosis ingresados en la primera fase de tratamiento antituberculoso. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Tratamiento de Infecciosos del Hospital Regional de Malabo. Periodo correspondiente a los meses de enero a julio del 2016. El universo fue 172 pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis en todas sus formas clínicas. Los datos se obtuvieron en las historias clínicas. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en el 57,5 % de los pacientes y el grupo etáreo de 25 a 34 años con el 33,7 %. La baciloscopia negativa representó el 67,9 % de los casos y el estado nutricional más frecuente fue el bajo peso con 50,09 %. La tuberculosis en su forma pulmonar predominó en el 95,9 % de los pacientes. El 65,6 % de los pacientes fueron VIH negativos. La mejoría clínico radiológica al terminar el tratamiento fue de un 87,7 %. Conclusiones: el 57,5 % de los pacientes fueron masculinos entre 25 y 34 años de edad. Predominó la Baciloscopia negativa y la tuberculosis en su forma pulmonar. La mejoría clínica radiológica fue superior al terminar el tratamiento (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: More than a century ago, Robert Koch identified the microorganism causing tuberculosis in people: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But it is still a serious epidemiologic problem around the world. The authors presented a study carried out in patients admitted in the Infectious Service of the Regional Hospital of Malabo. Objective: to characterize the patients with tuberculosis admitted in the first stage of the anti-tuberculosis treatment. Materials and methods: a descriptive, retrospective study was carried out on the patients who were admitted in the Infectious Service of the Regional Hospital of Malabo in the period from January to July 2016. The universe were 172 patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis in all its clinical forms. Data were gathered from the clinical records. Results: male sex predominated in 57.5 % of the patients as it also did the 25-34 years-old age group with 33.7 %. Negative sputum smear represented 67.9 % of the cases and the most frequent nutritional status was the low weight with 50.9 %. Tuberculosis in its pulmonary form predominated in 95.9 % of the patients. 65.6 % of the patients were HIV negative. The clinical radiological improvement at the end of the treatment was 87.7 %. Conclusions: 57.5 % of the patients were male aged 25-34 years old. Negative sputum smear and the pulmonary form of tuberculosis predominated. The clinical radiological improvement was higher at the end of the treatment (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Comprehensive Health Care , Hospital Care , Health Policy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1253869

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es la primera causa de mortalidad infectocontagiosa a nivel mundial. La tuberculosis pulmonar corresponde a la presentación más frecuente, sin embargo, el 15 % de los casos cursan con infección extrapulmonar, siendo raro el compromiso amigdalino. Este reporte de caso describe a un paciente de 39 años con odinofagia recurrente secundaria a amigdalitis por Mycobacterium tuberculosis, un raro caso de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. La amigdalitis es una infección leve y frecuente de la vía aérea superior, que responde adecuadamente al manejo antibiótico; sin embargo, cuadros recurrentes y prolongados, manifestaciones atípicas o pobre respuesta a la antibioticoterapia son características que obligan a la búsqueda de diagnósticos diferenciales, lo que lleva a considerar la presencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis como agente etiológico, especialmente en países con alto índice de tuberculosis como Colombia


Tuberculosis is the leading cause of infectious mortality worldwide. The pulmonary one corresponds to the most frequent presentation, however up to 15% of tuberculosis cases present extrapulmonary involvement, tonsillar tuberculosis being rare. The following is a case report of a 39-year-old patient with recurrent odynophagia secondary to Mycobacterium tuberculosis tonsillitis, a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Tonsillitis is a benign and extremely common infection of the upper airway. Such patients benefit from systemic antibiotics, although, recurrent episodes, prolonged odynophagia, atypical manifestations, or poor response to antimicrobial therapy forces consideration of diagnostic possibilities other than the obvious, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the etiological agent, especially in countries with the highest rates of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tonsillitis/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Tonsillitis/drug therapy , Tonsillitis/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e525, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149917

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Colombia el control de la tuberculosis se ha visto amenazado por la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos y especialmente la tuberculosis multidrogorresistente. Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia global y perfiles de resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis a fármacos antituberculosos de primera línea y combinaciones. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el que se evaluaron 2 701 pacientes con tuberculosis en el Departamento del Atlántico (Colombia), durante los años 2011 a 2016. Se valoraron aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos y condiciones de riesgo. Se realizó análisis de frecuencias relativas y absolutas, diferencia de proporciones ((2) y razón de prevalencias. Resultados: El 66,5 por ciento de los pacientes eran hombres, el 53 por ciento tenían entre 15 y 44 años de edad. El 47,34 por ciento con pérdida en el seguimiento y el 11,62 por ciento monorresistentes a isoniacida. La resistencia en casos nuevos fue 7,30 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 6,3-8,5), para este grupo la multidrogorresistencia fue de 1,1 por ciento; mientras que en los previamente tratados la resistencia fue de 18,27 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 15,6- 22,4) y la multidrogorresistencia de 5,7 por ciento. Los factores asociados a resistencia fueron presencia de VIH/TB (RP= 2,6; p= 0,000), otros factores inmunosupresores (RP= 3,5; p= 0,009), contacto de paciente con tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (RP= 16; p= 0,000) y caso previamente tratado (RP= 2,24; p= 0,00). Conclusiones: Se evidencia un descenso en la resistencia global a rifampicina e isoniacida, así como en la prevalencia multidrogorresistente tanto en casos nuevos como en previamente tratados en la población estudiada; lo que genera una línea base para la toma de decisiones que permita continuar mejorando la vigilancia y control de la resistencia del M. tuberculosis a fármacos de primera línea, debido a los nuevos retos que este microorganismo representa para la salud pública(AU)


Introduction: Tuberculosis control in Colombia has been hampered by resistance to antituberculosis drugs and particularly by multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Objective: Determine the overall resistance and resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-line antituberculosis drugs and their combinations. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 2 701 tuberculosis patients from Atlántico Department in Colombia in the period 2011-2016. The evaluation included sociodemographic aspects, clinical characteristics and risk conditions. Data analysis was based on relative and absolute frequencies, proportion difference (x2) and prevalence ratio. Results: Of the total sample, 66.5 percent were men and 53 percent were aged 15-44 years. 47.34 percent were lost to follow-up and 11.62 percent were monoresistant to isoniazid. In new cases resistance was 7.30 percent (CI 95 percent: 6.3-8.5) and multi-drug resistance was 1.1 percent, whereas in previously treated cases resistance was 18.27 percent (CI 95 percent: 15.6-22.4) and multi-drug resistance was 5.7 percent. The factors associated to resistance were the presence of HIV/TB (AR= 2.6; p= 0.000), other immunosuppressive factors (AR= 3.5; p= 0.009), contact with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patient (AR= 16; p= 0.000) and previously treated case (AR= 2.24; p= 0.00). Conclusions: A reduction is observed in overall resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, as well as in the prevalence of multi-drug resistance, both in new cases and in previously treated cases, which creates a baseline for the taking of decisions aimed at the continuing improvement of the surveillance and control of M. tuberculosis resistance to first-line drugs, due to the new challenges posed by this microorganism to public health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
5.
In. Verga, Federico; Burghi, Gastón. Encares de paciente crítico. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro FEFMUR, 2020. p.159-175.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342646
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180198, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare patients with and without previous lung disease, in terms of the spirometry results after they had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and cured, as well as to analyze risk factors related to functional severity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted at four referral centers in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those with a history of lung disease or smoking (LDS+ group); and those with no such history (LDS− group). Patients underwent spirometry (at least six months after being cured). Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Results: A total of 378 patients were included: 174 (46.1%) in the LDS+ group and 204 (53.9%) in the LDS− group. In the sample as a whole, 238 patients (62.7%) had spirometric changes. In the LDS+ group, there was a predominance of obstructive lung disease (in 33.3%), whereas restrictive lung disease predominated in the LDS− group (in 24.7%). Radiological changes were less common in the LDS− group than in the LDS+ group (p < 0.01), as were functional changes (p < 0.05). However, of the 140 (79.1%) LDS− group patients with a normal or minimally altered chest X-ray, 76 (54%) had functional changes (p < 0.01). The risk factors associated with functional severity in the LDS− group were degree of dyspnea (p = 0.03) and moderate or severe radiological changes (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Impaired pulmonary function is common after treatment for PTB, regardless of the history of lung disease or smoking. Spirometry should be suggested for patients who develop moderate/severe dyspnea or relevant radiological changes after treatment for PTB.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os resultados da espirometria de pacientes tratados e curados para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) com e sem doença pulmonar prévia e analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à gravidade funcional. Métodos: Estudo transversal, multicêntrico, em quatro centros de referência no Brasil. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: grupo com doença pulmonar prévia ou história de tabagismo (grupo DPT+) e grupo sem doença pulmonar prévia e sem tabagismo (grupo DPT−). Os pacientes realizaram espirometria (pelo menos seis meses após a cura), e foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 378 pacientes: 174 (46,1%) no grupo DPT+ e 204 (53,9%) no grupo DPT−. Na amostra total, 238 pacientes (62,7%) apresentaram alguma alteração espirométrica. No grupo DPT+ houve predominância de distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo (em 33,3%), e distúrbio ventilatório restritivo predominou no grupo DPT− (em 24,7%). Quando comparados com o grupo DPT+, os pacientes do grupo DPT− apresentaram menos frequentemente alteração radiológica (p < 0,01) e funcional (p < 0,05). Porém, dos 140 (79,1%) do grupo DPT− com radiografia de tórax normal ou minimamente alterada, 76 (54%) apresentaram alguma alteração funcional (p < 0,01). Os fatores de risco relacionados com a gravidade funcional no grupo DPT− foram grau de dispneia (p = 0,03) e alterações radiológicas moderadas ou acentuadas. Conclusões: O comprometimento da função pulmonar é frequente após o tratamento da TBP independentemente do histórico de tabagismo ou doença pulmonar prévia. A espirometria deve ser sugerida para esses pacientes que evoluem com grau moderado/grave de dispneia e/ou alteração radiológica relevante após o tratamento da TBP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Smoking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung/microbiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
7.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 24(2): e20190209, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1090270

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Compreender a vivência dos portadores de tuberculose referente aos cuidados recebidos durante o tratamento e sua relação com os profissionais de saúde. Método Pesquisa fenomenológica realizada com 27 portadores de tuberculose em unidades de Estratégia de Saúde da Família do município do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas analisadas pelo referencial Heideggeriano. Resultados A análise evidenciou que os usuários estão dispostos no modo de ser da inautenticidade característica dos serviços de saúde; o temor existencial da morte domina o cotidiano dos doentes e os mantêm seguindo o tratamento. Considerações finais e implicações para a prática Existe a possibilidade de se efetivar um cuidado que integre o conhecimento técnico capaz de dominar o modo de ser dos profissionais na dimensão subjetiva de quem precisa do tratamento, superando a tradição ôntica do cuidado inautêntico para o cuidado autêntico, que libera o outro para a cura.


RESUMEN Objetivos Comprender la vivencia de los portadores de tuberculosis referentes a los cuidados recibidos durante el tratamiento y su relación con los profesionales de salud. Método Investigación fenomenológica realizada con 27 portadores de tuberculosis en unidades de Salud de la Familia del municipio de Rio de Janeiro. Los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de entrevistas analizadas con referencial Heideggeriano. Resultados El análisis de los discursos evidenció que los usuarios están dispuestos en el modo-de-ser de la inautenticidad característico de los servicios de salud; el temor existencial de la muerte es lo que domina el cotidiano de los enfermos y los mantiene siguiendo el tratamiento. Consideraciones finales e implicaciones para la práctica Existe la posibilidad de realizar un cuidado que integre el conocimiento técnico que domina el modo-de-ser de los profesionales con la dimensión subjetiva de quien necesita el tratamiento, superando la tradición óntica de un cuidado inauténtico para el cuidado auténtico que libera al otro para la curación.


ABSTRACT Objectives To understand the experience of patients having tuberculosis regarding the care received during treatment and their relationship with health professionals. Method Phenomenological research carried out with 27 tuberculosis patients in Family Health Strategy Units in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The data were obtained through interviews analyzed by Heidegger's referential. Results The analysis of the discourses evidenced that the users are disposed in the mode of being of the inauthenticity characteristic of health services; the existential fear of death dominates the daily lives of the patients and it keeps them following the treatment. Final considerations and Implications for the practice There is the possibility of performing a care, which integrates the technical knowledge able to dominate the way of being of professionals with the subjective dimension of those who need treatment, overcoming the ontic tradition of inauthentic care for the authentic care, which frees the other for the healing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Family Health Strategy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/nursing , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
8.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180386, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for the development of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between October of 2012 and October of 2014. We evaluated sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and radiological variables. The outcome considered to identify associations between tuberculosis and the explanatory variables was the treatment prescribed. To evaluate the associations between MDR-TB and the same explanatory variables, the change in MDR-TB treatment was considered. Results: The factors associated with tuberculosis were alcoholism, comorbidities, pulmonary cavitations, and a radiological pattern suggestive of tuberculosis. Cavitation and previous treatment for tuberculosis were associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: Despite the significant progress made in the fight against tuberculosis, there is a need for coordinated actions that include social protection measures and patient support.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco de pacientes atendidos em um hospital de referência terciária para o desenvolvimento de tuberculose e tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR). Métodos: Estudo transversal baseado em dados obtidos de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, na cidade de Belo Horizonte (MG), entre outubro de 2012 e outubro de 2014. As variáveis utilizadas foram agrupadas em características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, clínicas e radiológicas. O desfecho considerado para verificar associações entre tuberculose e variáveis explicativas foi o tratamento prescrito para tuberculose. Para avaliar a associação entre a tuberculose resistente e as mesmas variáveis explicativas considerou-se a mudança de tratamento para TBMR. Resultados: Alcoolismo, padrão radiológico sugestivo de tuberculose, presença de comorbidades e presença de cavitações pulmonares foram fatores associados à tuberculose. A TBMR foi associada a tratamento prévio para tuberculose e presença de cavitações. Conclusões: Apesar dos importantes progressos na luta contra a tuberculose, é necessário um conjunto de ações articuladas que incluam medidas de proteção social e suporte aos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 381-387, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089317

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Setting: Treatment of tuberculosis (TB) can result in Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) since hepatotoxic metabolites are formed during the biotransformation of isoniazid (INH).DILI can be related to the genetic profile of the patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms have been associated with adverse events caused by INH. Objective: To characterize the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTT1 and GSTM1 in TB carriers. Design: This is an observational prospective cohort study of 45 patients undergoing treatment of TB. PCR-RFLP and multiplex-PCR were used. Results: The distribution of genotypic frequency in the promoter region (CYP2E1 gene) was: 98% wild genotype and 2% heterozygous. Intronic region: 78% wild genotype; 20% heterozygous and 2% homozygous variant. GST enzyme genes: 24% Null GSTM1 and 22% Null GSTT1. Patients with any variant allele of the CYP2E1 gene were grouped in the statistical analyses. Conclusion: Patients with the CYP2E1 variant genotype or Null GSTT1 showed higher risk of presenting DILI (p = 0.09; OR: 4.57; 95% CI: 0.75-27.6). Individuals with both genotypes had no increased risk compared to individuals with one genotype.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Polymorphism, Genetic , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/enzymology , Prospective Studies , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Cytochrome P450 Family 2 , Genotype , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 663-666, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La bacteriemia es una presentación atípica de la infección por Campylobacter jejuni, y es más frecuente en pacientes con inmunodepresión avanzada debido al VIH u otras enfermedades sistémicas. Debido a la terapia anti-retroviral, en las últimas décadas el número de casos ha disminuido. Presentamos el caso de una mujer en situación de calle, con VIH en etapa C3, que cursó con una bacteriemia por C. jejuni durante su hospitalización por una tuberculosis pulmonar. Realizamos una breve revisión de bacteriemia por C. jejuni en pacientes con VIH.


Bacteremia is an atypical presentation of Campylobacter jejuni infection and it is more frequent in patients with advanced inmunodepression due to HIV or other sistemic diseases. Because of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, in the last decades the number of cases had declined. We report a case of a homeless woman with HIV in C3 stage who was diagnosed with the bacteremia during her hospitalization for pulmonary tuberculosis, and a brief review of C. jejuni bacteremia in HIV patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Campylobacter Infections/immunology , Campylobacter Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(9): 575-578, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042337

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to data from the World Health Organization, this disease remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although it most commonly affects the lungs, tuberculosis can compromise any organ. The present study reports a rare case of vulvar tuberculosis in a postmenopausal woman with a history of asymptomatic pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis, with no prior documented contact with the bacillus. Diagnosis was based on vulvar lesion biopsies, with histological findings suggestive of infection and isolation of M. tuberculosis by microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) essays. The lesions reverted to normal after tuberculostatic therapy.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença infeciosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. De acordo com dados da Organização Mundial de Saúde, esta doença mantém-se entre as principais causas demorte nomundo. Embora afetemais frequentemente os pulmões, a tuberculose pode comprometer qualquer órgão. O presente artigo relata um caso raro de tuberculose vulvar numa mulher na pós-menopausa, com antecedentes de tuberculose pleural e pulmonar assintomática, sem contato documentado com o bacilo. O diagnóstico foi feito com base na biópsia da lesão vulvar, com achados histológicos sugestivos da infeção e isolamento do M. tuberculosis pormeios de cultura e pela técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Após terapêutica tuberculostática, as lesões reverteram.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/pathology , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/drug therapy , Female Urogenital Diseases/diagnosis , Female Urogenital Diseases/pathology , Female Urogenital Diseases/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Vulva/pathology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 130-133, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039224

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Rifampicin is used in both phases of treatment for tuberculosis. In chronic use, the short half-life and the self-induction of metabolism can decrease the levels of the drug below the minimal inhibitory concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate whether plasma concentrations of rifampicin are sustained above 0.5 µg/mL in patients with tuberculosis using 600 mg/day. Rifampicin was measured in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and a sputum smear microscopy was performed in all days of the study. A total of 44 male patients completed the study. On days 31, 61 and 91, the mean plasma concentrations of rifampicin were 0.6 (0.5) µg/mL, 0.55 (0.5) µg/mL and 0.46 (0.4) µg/mL. There was a high variation of rifampicin levels leading to a high percentage of samples with concentrations below 0.5 µg/mL. There was no significant association between the frequency of samples with drug levels below 0.5 µg/mL with the conversion of the sputum microscopy. These data suggest that pre-doses samples offer limited information on the exposure of M. tuberculosis to rifampicin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/blood , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/administration & dosage , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/blood , Reference Values , Sputum/drug effects , Sputum/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
13.
Rev. APS ; 22(1): 89-105, 20190101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102637

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar fatores associados ao tabagismo em pacientes com tuberculose (TB) pulmonar. Métodos: estudo transversal utilizando entrevista domiciliar com pacientes em tratamento para tuberculose pulmonar na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Campinas (SP), no período de 2013­2014. Foram incluídos pacientes não institucionalizados com 18 anos ou mais. As características de fumantes, ex-fumantes e não fumantes foram comparadas mediante Qui-quadrado de Pearson. Para comparar fumantes com não fumantes as variáveis com p < 0,20 foram incluídas em regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: dos 195 entrevistados 37,9% eram não fumantes; 24,6% ex-fumantes; e 37,4% fumantes. Em fumantes, observaram-se maiores frequências de pais e cônjuges fumantes em relação aos ex-fumantes. O perfil dos fumantes caracterizou-se por: escolaridade baixa, apresentar falta de ar e uso abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas. Não tentar parar de fumar nos últimos 12 meses associou-se a familiar/amigo que oferece cigarro. Conclusão: destacou-se a necessidade de incluir a família no tratamento do tabagismo e o uso abusivo de álcool em pacientes com TB pulmonar.


Objective: to identify factors associated with smoking in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Cross-sectional study using a home interview with patients undergoing treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in Primary Health Care in Campinas/SP, Brazil, 2013-2014. Non-institutionalized patients 18 years of age or older were included. The characteristics of smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers were compared using Pearson's chi square. To compare smokers with nonsmokers variables with p <0.20 were included in multiple logistic regression. Results: Of the 195 interviewees, 37.9% were non-smokers, 24.6% were ex-smokers and 37.4% were smokers. In smokers, higher frequencies of smokers among parents and spouses were observed in comparison to ex-smokers. The profile of smokers was characterized by: low schooling, shortness of breath and abusive use of alcoholic beverages. Not trying to quit smoking in the last 12 months was associated with family / friend who offer cigarette. Conclusion: It was highlighted the need to include the family in the treatment of smoking and in the abuse of alcohol in patients with pulmonary TB.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Primary Health Care , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tobacco Use Cessation
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 324-330, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957432

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: High endemic levels of pulmonary tuberculosis in prisons result from overcrowding, limited access to healthcare, delayed diagnosis, sustained transmission owing to poor control measures, and multidrug resistance. This study evaluated locally implemented measures for early pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and evaluated resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHODS: This transversal study employed data from the Mato Grosso do Sul State Tuberculosis Control Program obtained from 35 correctional facilities in 16 counties for 2 periods (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). RESULTS: Statewide prevalence (per 100,000) was 480.0 in 2007 and 972.9 in 2014. The following indicators showed improvement: alcohol-acid-fast bacillus testing (from 82.7% to 92.9%); cultures performed (55.0% to 81.8%); drug susceptibility testing of positive cultures (71.6% to 62.4%); and overall drug susceptibility testing coverage (36.6% to 47.4%). Primary and acquired resistance rates for 2007-2014 were 21.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Primary and acquired multidrug resistance rates were 0.3% and 1.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates increased, and laboratory indicators improved as a result of capacity building and coordination of technical teams and other individuals providing healthcare to inmates. Resistance rates were high, thereby negatively affecting disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis
16.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 7(1): 22-27, ene.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021891

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la adherencia terapéutica y factores condicionantes en su cumplimiento en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar atendidos en la Micro Red La Palma, Ica 2017. Materiales y métodos: Nivel de investigación observacional, tipo analítico, prospectivo y transversal. Realizado mediante un test de Morisky-Green-Levine. El análisis se realizó mediante spss 24.0 aplicando el test exacto de fisher (p-valor <0.05) Resultados: Se encuentra que existe 42% de mala adherencia, entre factores asociados, se encuentra con los factores relacionados a la terapéutica, con relación a la asistencia sanitaria, y con factores en relación al paciente. (AU)


Objective: To determine the therapeutic adherence and conditioning factors in its compliance in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated in the La Palma Micro-Network, Ica 2017. Materials and methods: Level of observational research, analytical, prospective and transversal type. Performed by a Morisky-Green-Levine Test. The analysis was performed by SPSS 24.0 applying the Fisher exact test (p-value <0.05) Results: It is found that there is 42% of poor adherence, among associated factors, it is found with the factors related to the therapeutic, in relation to health care, and with factors in relation to the patient. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Medication Adherence , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 85-92, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate early detection of amikacin-induced ototoxicity in a population treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), by means of three different tests: pure-tone audiometry (PTA); high-frequency audiometry (HFA); and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Methods: This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study involving patients aged 18-69 years with a diagnosis of MDR-TB who had to receive amikacin for six months as part of their antituberculosis drug regimen for the first time. Hearing was assessed before treatment initiation and at two and six months after treatment initiation. Sequential statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: We included 61 patients, but the final population consisted of 10 patients (7 men and 3 women) because of sequential analysis. Comparison of the test results obtained at two and six months after treatment initiation with those obtained at baseline revealed that HFA at two months and PTA at six months detected hearing threshold shifts consistent with ototoxicity. However, DPOAE testing did not detect such shifts. Conclusions: The statistical method used in this study makes it possible to conclude that, over the six-month period, amikacin-associated hearing threshold shifts were detected by HFA and PTA, and that DPOAE testing was not efficient in detecting such shifts.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a detecção precoce de ototoxicidade causada pelo uso de amicacina numa população tratada para tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) por meio da realização de três testes distintos: audiometria tonal liminar (ATL), audiometria de altas frequências (AAF) e pesquisa de emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção (EOAPD). Métodos: Estudo longitudinal de coorte prospectiva incluindo pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 18 e 69 anos, com diagnóstico de TBMR pulmonar e que necessitaram utilizar amicacina por seis meses em seu esquema medicamentoso antituberculose pela primeira vez. A avaliação auditiva foi realizada antes do início do tratamento e depois de dois e seis meses do início do tratamento. A análise dos resultados foi realizada por meio de análise estatística sequencial. Resultados: Foram incluídos 61 pacientes, mas a população final foi constituída de 10 pacientes (7 homens e 3 mulheres), em razão da análise sequencial. Ao se comparar os valores das respostas dos testes com aqueles encontrados na avaliação basal, foram verificadas mudanças nos limiares auditivos compatíveis com ototoxicidade após dois meses de tratamento através da AAF e após seis meses de tratamento através da ATL. Entretanto, essas mudanças não foram verificadas através da pesquisa de EOAPD. Conclusões: Ao se considerar o método estatístico utilizado nessa população, é possível concluir que mudanças nos limiares auditivos foram associadas ao uso da amicacina no período de seis meses por meio de AAF e ATL e que a pesquisa de EOAPD não se mostrou eficiente na identificação dessas mudanças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Amikacin/adverse effects , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Hearing Disorders/diagnosis , Hearing Disorders/chemically induced , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Audiometry, Pure-Tone/methods , Auditory Threshold/drug effects , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics as Topic , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/drug effects , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/complications , Early Diagnosis , Hearing/drug effects , Hearing Disorders/physiopathology , Hearing Tests/methods
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 99-105, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893899

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of smoking on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment outcomes and the two-month conversion rates for Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum cultures among patients with culture-confirmed PTB in an area with a moderate incidence of tuberculosis in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of PTB patients diagnosed and treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2012. Results: Of the 298 patients diagnosed with PTB during the study period, 174 were included in the outcome analysis: 97 (55.7%) were never-smokers, 31 (17.8%) were former smokers, and 46 (26.5%) were current smokers. Smoking was associated with a delay in sputum culture conversion at the end of the second month of TB treatment (relative risk = 3.58 &091;95% CI: 1.3-9.86&093;; p = 0.01), as well as with poor treatment outcomes (relative risk = 6.29 &091;95% CI: 1.57-25.21&093;; p = 0.009). The association between smoking and a positive culture in the second month of treatment was statistically significant among the current smokers (p = 0.027). Conclusions: In our sample, the probability of a delay in sputum culture conversion was higher in current smokers than in never-smokers, as was the probability of a poor treatment outcome.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do tabagismo no desfecho do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) e na taxa de conversão da cultura de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no escarro ao final do segundo mês de tratamento em pacientes com TBP confirmada por cultura em um local com incidência de tuberculose moderada no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo envolvendo pacientes com TBP diagnosticados e tratados no Instituto de Doenças do Tórax da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro entre 2004 e 2012. Resultados: De 298 pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de TBP no período do estudo, 174 foram incluídos na análise dos desfechos: 97 nunca fumaram (55,7%), 31 eram ex-tabagistas (17,8%), e 46 eram tabagistas atuais (26,5%). O tabagismo foi associado ao atraso na conversão da cultura do final do segundo mês do tratamento (risco relativo = 3,58 &091;IC95%: 1,30-9,86&093;; p = 0,01), assim como ao desfecho de tratamento não favorável (risco relativo = 6,29 &091;IC95%: 1,57-25,21&093;; p = 0,009). A associação entre tabagismo e cultura positiva ao final do segundo mês de tratamento foi estatisticamente significante entre os tabagistas atuais (p = 0.027). Conclusões: Nesta amostra, os pacientes tabagistas atuais apresentaram uma maior probabilidade de atraso na conversão da cultura após dois meses de tratamento e de desfecho de tratamento não favorável do que aqueles que nunca fumaram.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Smoking/adverse effects , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Brazil , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 11(4): 1-12, 2018. ilus
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259047

ABSTRACT

Contexte et objectifs. La République Démocratique du Congo compte parmi les pays à lourd fardeau pour la tuberculose (TB), l'incidence réelle de la maladie n'est pas formellement connue. La présente étude vise à décrire les tendances de l'incidence notifiée des patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire bactériologiquement confirmée (TP+) et leurs issues thérapeutiques. Méthodes. Cette étude documentaire, analyse les données des patients diagnostiqués et traités pour tuberculose de 2007 à 2017 en RDC. L'incidence notifiée des patients TP+, le taux d'accroissement annuel, les issues thérapeutiques ont été recherchés. Les variations du nombre de patients sont exprimées par les proportions. Les tendances sont présentées à travers les courbes de régression linéaire. Les issues thérapeutiques sont comparées à l'aide du z-score avec un seuil significatif de p˂ 0,05. Résultats. Au total 884 458 patients TP+ ont été rapportés, dont 820 858 nouveaux patients (NP TP+) et 63 600 déjà traités. Le taux d'accroissement au cours de cette décade était de 28,95%, soit de 66099 en 2007 à 93767 en 2017 pour les NP TP+. L'augmentation annuelle moyenne était de 2,41% +/- 3,28 pour les NP TP+ et de 5,7% +/- 0,26 par an pour les rechutes. La notification des échecs de traitement initial et repris après abandon de traitement ont une tendance à la baisse. L'évaluation thérapeutique de tous les cas cumulés a concerné 848 163 patients dont 789 716 NP TP+ et 58447 en retraitement. Le succès thérapeutique était de 88,0 % pour les NP TP+ et 70,0 % pour les rechutes, de 64,3 % pour les échecs et de 67,8% pour les repris en traitement après abandon. En somme 70 515 (8,3%) patients ont gardé des expectorations positives. Conclusion. Cette étude montre une tendance à la hausse de notification des cas incidents dont l'issue de traitement répond aux standards de l'OMS. En outre, un nombre des personnes demeurent porteurs de germes persistants précurseurs d'une TB pharmacorésistante acquise


Subject(s)
Democratic Republic of the Congo , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy
20.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 11(4): 1-12, 2018. ilus
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259051

ABSTRACT

Contexte et objectifs. La République Démocratique du Congo compte parmi les pays à lourd fardeau pour la tuberculose (TB), l'incidence réelle de la maladie n'est pas formellement connue. La présente étude vise à décrire les tendances de l'incidence notifiée des patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire bactériologiquement confirmée (TP+) et leurs issues thérapeutiques. Méthodes. Cette étude documentaire, analyse les données des patients diagnostiqués et traités pour tuberculose de 2007 à 2017 en RDC. L'incidence notifiée des patients TP+, le taux d'accroissement annuel, les issues thérapeutiques ont été recherchés. Les variations du nombre de patients sont exprimées par les proportions. Les tendances sont présentées à travers les courbes de régression linéaire. Les issues thérapeutiques sont comparées à l'aide du z-score avec un seuil significatif de p˂ 0,05. Résultats. Au total 884 458 patients TP+ ont été rapportés, dont 820 858 nouveaux patients (NP TP+) et 63 600 déjà traités. Le taux d'accroissement au cours de cette décade était de 28,95%, soit de 66099 en 2007 à 93767 en 2017 pour les NP TP+. L'augmentation annuelle moyenne était de 2,41% +/- 3,28 pour les NP TP+ et de 5,7% +/- 0,26 par an pour les rechutes. La notification des échecs de traitement initial et repris après abandon de traitement ont une tendance à la baisse. L'évaluation thérapeutique de tous les cas cumulés a concerné 848 163 patients dont 789 716 NP TP+ et 58447 en retraitement. Le succès thérapeutique était de 88,0 % pour les NP TP+ et 70,0 % pour les rechutes, de 64,3 % pour les échecs et de 67,8% pour les repris en traitement après abandon. En somme 70 515 (8,3%) patients ont gardé des expectorations positives. Conclusion. Cette étude montre une tendance à la hausse de notification des cas incidents dont l'issue de traitement répond aux standards de l'OMS. En outre, un nombre des personnes demeurent porteurs de germes persistants précurseurs d'une TB pharmacorésistante acquise


Subject(s)
Bacteriology , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
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