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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(3): e00008621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364633

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate, via a mixed methods study, the implementation of the screening process for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) within indigenous population of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, during the 2016-2018 period. Indicators assessing the PTB screening process were elaborated and estimated. Subsequently, an evaluation of the indicators were performed based on a sampling process from health care providers of the municipalities with the highest and lowest PTB incidence and from key agents' perspective. Screening indicators were estimated and thematic analysis was performed based on the interviews conducted with key agents. Finally, a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative findings was performed. From the total population expected to have respiratory symptomatics (n = 16,711), the health care providers were able to identify 42.3% of them. Out of the individuals identified as respiratory symptomatics (n = 7,064), they were able to examine 93.2% (n = 6,585) with at least one acid-fast bacilli smear test. The reported positivity index from acid-fast bacilli smear test was 1.87%. The explanations from key agents revolved around the possibility of an overestimated targeted amount of respiratory symptomatics; insufficient personnel for the search of symptomatic individuals; high costs for the search in areas of difficult access; the need to request permissions from indigenous authorities; culturally ingrained stigma; use of traditional medicine and self-medication; and patient's personal beliefs. This study revealed barriers in the implementation of the screening process for PTB within the indigenous population from the Department of Cauca, mainly in the identifying process of the respiratory symptomatics.


El objetivo fue evaluar la implementación del proceso y los indicadores en las pruebas para detectar tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) en población indígena del Departamento de Cauca, Colombia, durante el periodo de 2016-2018, a través de un estudio de métodos mixtos. Fueron elaborados y estimados indicadores para el tamizaje de TBP. Posteriormente, a través de un proceso de muestreo de los proveedores de cuidados de salud de las municipalidades con las incidencias más altas y más bajas de TBP, y desde la perspectiva de actores clave, se intentó encontrar una explicación para los resultados de la primera fase. Se estimaron los indicadores de las pruebas y se realizó un análisis temático de las entrevistas dirigidas a los actores clave. Finalmente, se realizó la triangulación de los hallazgos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Del total de sintomáticos respiratorios esperados (n = 16.711), los proveedores de servicios de salud fueron capaces de identificar a un 42,3% de ellos, y de estos sintomáticos respiratorios identificados (n = 7.064) fueron capaces de examinar un 93,2% (n = 6.585) con al menos una prueba de frotis de bacilos ácidorresistentes. El índice de positividad informado en la prueba de la flema analizada en el microscopio, mediante la prueba de frotis de bacilos ácidorresistentes, fue 1.87%. Las explicaciones de los actores clave giraron alrededor de la percepción de un objetivo posiblemente sobreestimado de sintomáticos respiratorios; insuficiente personal para la consulta; altos costes para las consultas en áreas geográficas de difícil acceso; solicitud de permisos a las autoridades indígenas; estigma; medicina tradicional, automedicación y creencias. Este estudio reveló barreras en la implementación de las pruebas para la TBP en la población indígena del Departamento de Cauca, principalmente en el proceso de identificación de sintomáticos respiratorios.


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a implementação do processo e os indicadores de triagem para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) numa população indígena do Departamento de Cauca, Colômbia, no período 2016-2018. Foi realizado um estudo com métodos mistos. Foram elaborados e estimados os indicadores para triagem da TBP. Em seguida, procurou-se explicar os achados da primeira fase, com base em um processo de amostragem de provedores de saúde dos municípios com os coeficientes mais altos e mais baixos de incidência de TBP, e da perspectiva dos atores-chave. Os indicadores de triagem foram estimados e a análise foi realizada das entrevistas com os atores-chave. Finalmente, foi feita a triangulação dos achados quantitativos e qualitativos. Do total de sintomáticos respiratórios esperados (n = 16.711), o provedor de saúde conseguiu identificar 42,3%, e destes sintomáticos respiratórios identificados (n = 7.064) conseguiram examinar 93,2% (n = 6.585) com pelo menos um exame de escarro (teste de BAAR). O índice de positividade do teste de BAAR foi de 1,87%. As explicações dos atores chave giraram em torno da percepção de uma proporção possivelmente superestimada de sintomáticos respiratórios, pessoal insuficiente para a busca, custos elevados da busca em áreas de difícil acesso geográfico, solicitação de autorização pelas autoridades indígenas, estigma, medicina tradicional, automedicação e crenças. O estudo revelou barreiras para a implementação da triagem para TBP na população indígena do Departamento de Cauca, principalmente no processo de identificação de sintomáticos respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Indigenous Peoples , Brazil , Incidence , Colombia/epidemiology
2.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2727-2738, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156770

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: hace más de un siglo, Robert Koch identificó el microorganismo que causa la tuberculosis en el hombre, el Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sin embargo, aún constituye un grave problema epidemiológico a nivel mundial. Se presentó un estudio realizado en los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Infeccioso del Hospital Regional de Malabo. Objetivo: caracterizar los pacientes con tuberculosis ingresados en la primera fase de tratamiento antituberculoso. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Tratamiento de Infecciosos del Hospital Regional de Malabo. Periodo correspondiente a los meses de enero a julio del 2016. El universo fue 172 pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis en todas sus formas clínicas. Los datos se obtuvieron en las historias clínicas. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en el 57,5 % de los pacientes y el grupo etáreo de 25 a 34 años con el 33,7 %. La baciloscopia negativa representó el 67,9 % de los casos y el estado nutricional más frecuente fue el bajo peso con 50,09 %. La tuberculosis en su forma pulmonar predominó en el 95,9 % de los pacientes. El 65,6 % de los pacientes fueron VIH negativos. La mejoría clínico radiológica al terminar el tratamiento fue de un 87,7 %. Conclusiones: el 57,5 % de los pacientes fueron masculinos entre 25 y 34 años de edad. Predominó la Baciloscopia negativa y la tuberculosis en su forma pulmonar. La mejoría clínica radiológica fue superior al terminar el tratamiento (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: More than a century ago, Robert Koch identified the microorganism causing tuberculosis in people: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But it is still a serious epidemiologic problem around the world. The authors presented a study carried out in patients admitted in the Infectious Service of the Regional Hospital of Malabo. Objective: to characterize the patients with tuberculosis admitted in the first stage of the anti-tuberculosis treatment. Materials and methods: a descriptive, retrospective study was carried out on the patients who were admitted in the Infectious Service of the Regional Hospital of Malabo in the period from January to July 2016. The universe were 172 patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis in all its clinical forms. Data were gathered from the clinical records. Results: male sex predominated in 57.5 % of the patients as it also did the 25-34 years-old age group with 33.7 %. Negative sputum smear represented 67.9 % of the cases and the most frequent nutritional status was the low weight with 50.9 %. Tuberculosis in its pulmonary form predominated in 95.9 % of the patients. 65.6 % of the patients were HIV negative. The clinical radiological improvement at the end of the treatment was 87.7 %. Conclusions: 57.5 % of the patients were male aged 25-34 years old. Negative sputum smear and the pulmonary form of tuberculosis predominated. The clinical radiological improvement was higher at the end of the treatment (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Comprehensive Health Care , Hospital Care , Health Policy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878330

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Prior pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) on chest X-ray (CXR) was commonly found in infertile patients receiving examinations before @*Method@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 14,254 infertile patients who had received IVF-ET at Peking University Third Hospital in 2017. Prior PTB was defined as the presence of signs suggestive of old or inactive PTB on CXR, with or without a clinical TB history. Patients who had prior PTB on CXR but had not received a clinical diagnosis and anti-TB therapy were included for analysis. Live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates were compared between the untreated PTB and non-PTB groups.@*Results@#The untreated PTB group had significantly lower clinical pregnancy (31.7% @*Conclusions@#Untreated PTB was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes after IVF-ET, especially in patients with unexplained infertility, highlighting the clinical significance of PTB in this specific patient population.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Embryo Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fertilization in Vitro/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infertility, Female/etiology , Live Birth/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 151-159, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115771

ABSTRACT

Background: Contact investigation is cardinal in the control of tuberculosis (TB) since it helps to stop its transmission. In Chile, the National TB Program strategy does not include latent TB infection testing, regular chemoprophylaxis or follow-up in adults. Active TB was found in only 1.2% of contacts at country-level during 2018. Aim: To evaluate the performance of a systematic screening of adult household contacts with targeted chemoprophylaxis and prolonged active follow-up. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort of household contacts in Santiago. Two face-to-face visits (at 0 and 12 weeks) that included QuantiFERON TB-Gold plus tests (QFT), chest radiography (CXR) at 0 and 24 weeks and, periodic text messaging or phone call follow-up for up to 48 weeks were implemented. Contacts with positive QFT were referred for TB chemoprophylaxis. Results: A total of 200 contacts were enrolled, 69% were migrants. At baseline evaluation, 45% had a positive QFT result and 1.6% had co-prevalent active TB. At follow-up, 13% contacts further converted to QFT (+), and 5.1% more were diagnosed with active TB (mean follow-up time 32 weeks). Of these 10 further active TB cases, 6 (60%) had a negative QFT and all (100%) had normal CXR at baseline; while three cases occurred in QFT converters. Conclusions: In this cohort of household contacts, 6.7 % were diagnosed with active TB (more than 2/3 at follow-up) and 13% had a late QFT (+) conversion. Active and prolonged contacts' follow-up are essential to detect new infections and tackle the TB epidemic in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Contact Tracing , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculin Test , Family Characteristics , Family Health , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200205, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136899

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is lower than in adults. In Brazil, the diagnosis of PTB is based on a diagnostic score system (DSS). This study aims to study the role of Xpert in children and adolescents with PTB symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 referral centers to TB. Children and adolescents (0-19 years old) whose respiratory samples were submitted to Xpert were included. Statistical analysis (bivariate and logistic regression) to assess the simultaneous influence of TB-related variables on the occurrence of Xpert detectable in TB cases was done. To evaluate the agreement or disagreement between Xpert results with acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and cultures, κ method was used (significancy level of 5%). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were included in the study and PTB occurred in 43 patients (49%) and Xpert was detectable in 21 patients (24%). Adolescents and positive culture results were independent predictive variables of Xpert positivity. DSS sensitivity compared with the final diagnosis of TB was 100% (95% CI, 88.1-100%), specificity was 97.2% (95% CI, 85.5-99.9%). The accuracy of the method was 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Xpert contributed to diagnosis in 9% of patients with AFB and in culture negative cases. DSS indicated relevance for this diagnostic approach of intrathoracic TB (ITB) in reference centers for presenting data both with high sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Referral and Consultation , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(5): e00075720, 20202. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100965

ABSTRACT

Diante da pandemia de COVID-19 e da escassez de ferramentas para orientar as ações de vigilância, controle e assistência de pessoas infectadas, o presente artigo tem por objetivo evidenciar áreas de maior vulnerabilidade aos casos graves da doença na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, caracterizada por grande heterogeneidade socioespacial. Para o estabelecimento dessas áreas foi elaborado um índice de vulnerabilidade aos casos graves de COVID-19 com base na construção, ponderação e integração de três planos de informação: a densidade intradomiciliar média, a densidade de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais (ambas por setor censitário) e a incidência de tuberculose por bairros no ano de 2018. Os dados referentes à densidade intradomiciliar e de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais provêm do Censo Demográfico de 2010 e os de incidência de tuberculose do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). A ponderação dos indicadores que compuseram o índice foi realizada por meio da Análise Hierárquica de Processos (AHP), e os planos de informação foram integrados pela Combinação Linear Ponderada por álgebra de mapas. A espacialização do índice de vulnerabilidade aos casos graves na cidade do Rio de Janeiro evidencia a existência de áreas mais vulneráveis em diferentes porções do território, refletindo a sua complexidade urbana. Contudo, é possível observar que as áreas de maior vulnerabilidade estão nas regiões Norte e Oeste da cidade e em comunidades carentes encrustadas nas áreas nobres como as zonas Sul e Oeste. A compreensão dessas condições de vulnerabilidade pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de estratégias de monitoramento da evolução da doença, bem como para o direcionamento das ações de prevenção e promoção da saúde.


Ante la pandemia de COVID-19, y la escasez de instrumentos para orientar las acciones de vigilancia, control y asistencia a las personas infectadas, el objetivo de este artículo persigue resaltar las áreas de mayor vulnerabilidad, donde se producen los casos graves de la enfermedad en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, caracterizada por una gran heterogeneidad socioespacial. Para el establecimiento de esas áreas se elaboró un índice de vulnerabilidad con los casos graves de COVID-19, a partir de la creación, ponderación e integración de tres planos de información: el de densidad intradomiciliaria media, el de densidad de personas con 60 años o más (ambas por sector de censo), y la incidencia de tuberculosis por barrios en el año 2018. Los datos referentes a la densidad intradomiciliaria y de personas con 60 años o más proceden del Censo Demográfico de 2010 y los de incidencia de tuberculosis del Sistema de Información para Enfermedades de Notificación (SINAN). La ponderación de los indicadores que formaron parte del índice se realizó mediante el Proceso Analítico Jerárquico (AHP por sus siglas en inglés) y los planos de información se integraron a través de la Combinación Lineal Ponderada por álgebra de mapas. La espacialización del índice de vulnerabilidad en lo que se refiere a los casos graves, en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, pone en evidencia la existencia de áreas más vulnerables en diferentes áreas del territorio, reflejando su complejidad urbana. Por ello, es posible observar que las áreas de mayor vulnerabilidad se encuentran en las Regiones Norte y Oeste de la ciudad, así como en comunidades sin recursos insertadas en áreas pudientes como las Zonas Sur y Oeste. La comprensión de estas condiciones de vulnerabilidad puede apoyar el desarrollo de estrategias de supervisión de la evolución de la enfermedad, así como la dirección de acciones de prevención y promoción de la salud.


Given the characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic and the limited tools for orienting interventions in surveillance, control, and clinical care, the current article aims to identify areas with greater vulnerability to severe cases of the disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a city characterized by huge social and spatial heterogeneity. In order to identify these areas, the authors prepared an index of vulnerability to severe cases of COVID-19 based on the construction, weighting, and integration of three levels of information: mean number of residents per household and density of persons 60 years or older (both per census tract) and neighborhood tuberculosis incidence rate in the year 2018. The data on residents per household and density of persons 60 years or older were obtained from the 2010 Population Census, and data on tuberculosis incidence were taken from the Brazilian Information System for Notificable Diseases (SINAN). Weighting of the indicators comprising the index used analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and the levels of information were integrated via weighted linear combination with map algebra. Spatialization of the index of vulnerability to severe COVID-19 in the city of Rio de Janeiro reveals the existence of more vulnerable areas in different parts of the city's territory, reflecting its urban complexity. The areas with greatest vulnerability are located in the North and West Zones of the city and in poor neighborhoods nested within upper-income parts of the South and West Zones. Understanding these conditions of vulnerability can facilitate the development of strategies to monitor the evolution of COVID-19 and orient measures for prevention and health promotion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Comorbidity , Incidence , Risk Factors , Epidemiological Monitoring , Spatial Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180386, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for the development of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between October of 2012 and October of 2014. We evaluated sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and radiological variables. The outcome considered to identify associations between tuberculosis and the explanatory variables was the treatment prescribed. To evaluate the associations between MDR-TB and the same explanatory variables, the change in MDR-TB treatment was considered. Results: The factors associated with tuberculosis were alcoholism, comorbidities, pulmonary cavitations, and a radiological pattern suggestive of tuberculosis. Cavitation and previous treatment for tuberculosis were associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: Despite the significant progress made in the fight against tuberculosis, there is a need for coordinated actions that include social protection measures and patient support.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco de pacientes atendidos em um hospital de referência terciária para o desenvolvimento de tuberculose e tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR). Métodos: Estudo transversal baseado em dados obtidos de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, na cidade de Belo Horizonte (MG), entre outubro de 2012 e outubro de 2014. As variáveis utilizadas foram agrupadas em características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, clínicas e radiológicas. O desfecho considerado para verificar associações entre tuberculose e variáveis explicativas foi o tratamento prescrito para tuberculose. Para avaliar a associação entre a tuberculose resistente e as mesmas variáveis explicativas considerou-se a mudança de tratamento para TBMR. Resultados: Alcoolismo, padrão radiológico sugestivo de tuberculose, presença de comorbidades e presença de cavitações pulmonares foram fatores associados à tuberculose. A TBMR foi associada a tratamento prévio para tuberculose e presença de cavitações. Conclusões: Apesar dos importantes progressos na luta contra a tuberculose, é necessário um conjunto de ações articuladas que incluam medidas de proteção social e suporte aos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(3)sept.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094633

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar (TB) es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó para el año 2017 alrededor de 10 millones de personas enfermas y 1,3 millones de muertes. La facultad que posee MTB para modular la respuesta inmune, sobrevivir y persistir bajo el ambiente hostil en el hospedero y en la TB latente ha sido ampliamente investigada, y requiere de regulación y control de la expresión genética. El objetivo es presentar una revisión de las investigaciones relacionadas con los reguladores de la expresión de genes de MTB que están asociados con la virulencia, persistencia y supervivencia en la TB latente. Se hizo una revisión de las investigaciones de los últimos 20 años. Se concluye que MTB posee una maquinaria genética que controla la expresión de genes que participan en virulencia y persistencia, en respuesta a la hipoxia, estrés oxidativo, falta de nutrientes y pH ácido. Entre ellos, participan los sistemas de dos componentes, factores sigma y reguladores transcripcionales. En algunos casos se ha comprobado que funcionan interconectados como una red. Los hallazgos de las investigaciones aportan conocimientos para el descubrimiento de nuevos blancos para el desarrollo de drogas antituberculosas, nuevas vacunas y métodos de diagnóstico de la TB, con el propósito de proveer nuevas estrategias para el control de la enfermedad(AU)


Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization estimated about 10 million sick people and 1.3 million deaths in 2017. The ability of MTB to modulate the immune response, survive and persist under the hostile environment in the host and in latent TB has been extensively investigated, and requires regulation and control of genetic expression. The objective is to present a review of research related to regulators of MTB gene expression that are associated with virulence, persistence and survival in latent TB. A review of the investigations of the last 20 years was made. Finally, it is concluded that MTB has a genetic machinery that controls the expression of genes that participate in virulence and persistence in response to hypoxia, oxidative stress, lack of nutrients and acidic pH. Among them, two-component systems, sigma factors and transcriptional regulators participate. It has been proven that they work interconnected as a network in some cases. The research findings provide insights for the discovery of new targets for the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs, new vaccines and methods for diagnosis of TB, with the purpose of providing new strategies for disease control(AU)


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3815-3824, Oct. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039488

ABSTRACT

Resumo Esse artigo analisa o conhecimento, atitudes e práticas sobre tuberculose de agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS) no Recife, município com altas taxas de incidência e de abandono do tratamento no Brasil. O estudo transversal foi conduzido em uma amostra representativa dos ACS utilizando questionário padronizado. Descreveram-se as frequências das variáveis referentes ao conhecimento, atitudes e práticas e analisou-se a associação do conhecimento satisfatório e práticas adequadas com características dos ACS. Dos 401 ACS elegíveis, 385 (96,0%) foram entrevistados. A maioria era composta por mulheres (87,5%), com idade ≥ 40 anos (66,0%) e desempenhando a função há mais de nove anos (74,5%). Um percentual de 61,7% tinha conhecimento satisfatório e esse conhecimento (75,8%) esteve associado às práticas adequadas (p = 0,008). Quanto às atitudes, 97,1% dos ACS acreditavam estar sob risco de contrair tuberculose e 53,2% atribuíram o risco à função. Parcela significativa dos ACS apresentou conhecimento satisfatório sobre tuberculose e esse conhecimento esteve associado às práticas adequadas. Esse resultado sugere a necessidade de investimentos em ações de capacitação que podem contribuir para a melhoria dos indicadores de tuberculose no município.


Abstract This article analyses the knowledge, attitudes and practices of community health agents (CHAs) regarding tuberculosis in Recife, a municipality with a high incidence of tuberculosis and high treatment dropout rates in Brazil. The cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of CHAs and a standardized questionnaire. The frequencies of the variables related to knowledge, attitudes and practices were described, and the association between satisfactory knowledge and appropriate practices of CHAs was analysed. Of the 401 eligible CHAs, 385 (96.0%) were interviewed. The majority were women (87.5%) aged ≥ 40 years (66.0%) and had been on the job for more than nine years (74.5%). A large percentage (61.7%) had satisfactory knowledge about tuberculosis, and this knowledge (75.8%) was associated with appropriate practices (p = 0.008). Regarding attitudes, 97.1% of CHAs were believed to be at risk of contracting tuberculosis, and 53.2% attributed this risk to their job. The results suggest the need for investment in training actions that may help improve tuberculosis indicators in the municipality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Personnel/standards , Middle Aged
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 316-323, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011503

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (pre-PTB, defined by cough lasting ≥ 3 weeks) and compare it between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and without PTB. Methods: Patients with pre-PTB (n=260) were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Those individuals with scores ≥ 10 were subsequently assessed with the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) to confirm diagnosis. Associations of categorical variables with PTB and MDE were calculated using the chi-square test and OR. Results: PTB was confirmed in 98 patients (37.7%). A high proportion of both groups (active PTB and no PTB) screened positive for depression (60.2 vs. 62.1%, respectively). Among 159 patients who screened positive for depression, a subset of 97 (61.0%) were further evaluated with the MINI-Plus; current MDE was confirmed in 54.6% (53/97). On univariate and multivariate analysis, female sex was the only factor associated with the diagnosis of current MDE (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The prevalence of MDE was high among individuals with prolonged respiratory symptoms, independent of PTB diagnosis. This is consistent with other studies of depression in primary care in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Middle Aged
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(3): 286-291, may.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094466

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To describe the epidemiological studies about the relationship between lung cancer (LC) and pulmonary tuberculosis (Tb) and its possible molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: We reviewed research databases in search of publications that included keywords LC and Tb. Results: It has been proposed that chronic inflammation in the lungs due to Tb could cause clastogenic activity in the DNA of bronchial epithelium. Another possibility is lateral gene transfer; since Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) is an intracellular organism, bacterial DNA could integrate to bronchial epithelial cells inducing neoplastic transformation. Conclusions: There are epidemiological reports, particularly from Asian countries, which confirm a relationship between LC and Tb. MTb could play an active role in cellular transformation and it is important to elucidate the mechanism involved.


Resumen: Objetivo: Describir los estudios que documentan la relación entre el cáncer de pulmón (CP) y la tuberculosis pulmonar (Tb) y sus posibles mecanismos moleculares. Material y métodos: Se revisaron bases de datos de publicaciones, usando como palabras clave CP y Tb. Resultados: Se ha propuesto que la inflamación crónica en el pulmón provocada por la Tb podría producir actividad clastogénica. Otra posibilidad es la transferencia lateral de genes; Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) es un organismo intracelular facultativo cuyo DNA podría integrarse al material genético del epitelio bronquial induciendo transformación neoplásica. Conclusión: Existen evidencias epidemiológicas, particularmente en países asiáticos, que documentan la relación entre CP y Tb. MTb podría desempeñar un papel activo en la transformación neoplásica cuyo mecanismo debe de ser elucidado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology
12.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(2): 47-49, jun. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013849

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un modelo predictivo sobre la presencia de tuberculosis pulmonar activa utilizando datos clínico-epidemiológicos y hallazgos de radiografía simple (Rx) y tomografía computadorizada (TC) de tórax. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico, que recopiló 22 variables clínico-epidemiológicas, 11 hallazgos radiológicos en Rx de tórax y 23 en la TC, que se realizaron en pacientes con sospecha clínica de tuberculosis pulmonar durante un período de 10 años. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística multivariado a los predictores potenciales de cultivo positivo, obteniendo un modelo predictivo. Resultados: Se recogieron 1.540 pacientes con sospecha clínica de tuberculosis a los que se les realizó Rx y TC torácico. El cultivo fue positivo en 101 casos. Se utilizó un proceso de eliminación hacia atrás para obtener el mejor conjunto de variables predictivas. Se obtuvieron 24 variables que fueron significativas (6 clínicas, 5 de Rx y 13 de TC) y se les asignó una puntuación. A la suma de estas puntuaciones se restó la edad en años multiplicada por 0,03. El modelo sugiere el diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar activa en pacientes con una puntuación superior a 1,845. Obtuvo una sensibilidad de 85,1%, especificidad de 83,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 26,6%, y valor predictivo negativo de 98,7%. El área bajo la curva ROC fue de 0,9163. Conclusión: Este sistema de puntuación basado en criterios clínico-epidemiológicos y hallazgos radiológicos puede ayudar a diagnosticar tuberculosis pulmonar activa en casos de sospecha diagnóstica.


Abstract:Introduction: The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model on the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis using clinical-epidemiological data and findings of chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography (CT). Material and methods: An observational, retrospective, descriptive and analytical study was conducted, which collected 22 clinical and epidemiological variables, 11 radiological findings on chest x-ray and 23 on CT that were performed in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis during a period of 10 years. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to the potential predictors of positive culture, obtaining a predictive model. Results: We collected 1,540 patients with clinical suspicion of tuberculosis who underwent radiography and thoracic CT. The culture was positive in 101 cases. A backward elimination process was used to obtain the best set of predictive variables. We obtained 24 variables that were significant (6 clinical, 5 of chest plain films and 13 of CT) and were assigned a score. The sum of these scores was subtracted from the age in years and multiplied by 0.03. The model suggests the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with a score higher than 1.845. The model obtained a sensitivity of 85.1%, specificity of 83.6%, positive predictive value of 26.6, and negative predictive value of 98.7%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.9163. Conclusion: This scoring system based on clinical-epidemiological criteria and radiological findings can help rule out active pulmonary tuberculosis in cases of diagnostic suspicion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Age Factors
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(supl.3): e00074218, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019641

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever características clínicas e sociodemográficas, estimar a incidência da tuberculose (TB), além de analisar fatores associados ao abandono e ao óbito na vigência do tratamento dos casos de TB notificados entre crianças e adolescentes indígenas, no Brasil, entre 2006-2016. Realizou-se análise da série histórica de incidência, segundo faixa etária e macrorregião e utilizou-se regressão logística multinomial para elucidar fatores associados ao abandono e ao óbito. Do total de 2.096 casos notificados, 88,2% tiveram cura, 7,2% abandonaram o tratamento e 4,6% evoluíram para óbito. Houve predomínio de casos em meninos de 15-19 anos e maior proporção de óbitos (55,7%) em < 4 anos. Considerando o conjunto de crianças e adolescentes indígenas com TB no Brasil, a incidência média foi 49,1/100 mil, variando de 21,5/100 mil a 97,6/100 mil nas regiões Nordeste e Centro-oeste, respectivamente. Os casos com acompanhamento insuficiente e regular tiveram maiores chances de abandono (OR = 11,1; IC95%: 5,2-24,8/OR = 4,4; IC95%: 1,9-10,3) e óbito (OR = 20,3; IC95%: 4,9-84,9/OR = 5,1; IC95%: 1,2-22,7). Os casos em retratamento (OR = 2,4; IC95%: 2,08-8,55) e com anti-HIV positivo (OR = 8,2; IC95%: 2,2-30,9) também mostraram-se associados ao abandono. As formas clínicas extrapulmonar (OR = 1,8; IC95%: 1,1-3,3) e mista (OR = 5,6; IC95%: 2,8-11,4), os casos em < 4 anos (OR = 3,1; IC95%: 1,5-6,4) e os casos provenientes das regiões Norte (OR = 2,8; IC95%: 1,1-7,1) e Centro-oeste (OR = 2,8; IC95%: 1,1-7,0) mostraram-se associados ao óbito. Acreditamos que o controle da TB em crianças e adolescentes indígenas não poderá ser alcançado sem investimentos em pesquisa e desenvolvimento e sem a redução das desigualdades sociais.


Abstract: The study aimed to describe clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, estimate incidence, and analyze factors associated with dropout and death during treatment of TB cases reported in indigenous children and adolescents in Brazil from 2006 to 2016. A historical case series was performed on incidence according to age bracket and major geographic region, and multinomial logistic regression was used to explain factors associated with treatment dropout and death. Of the 2,096 reported cases, 88.2% evolved to cure, 7.2% dropped out of treatment, and 4.6% evolved to death. There was a predominance of cases in boys 15-19 years of age and a higher proportion of deaths (55.7%) in children < 4 years. Considering indigenous children and adolescents with TB in Brazil as a whole, mean incidence was 49.1/100,000, ranging from 21.5/100,000 to 97.6/100,000 in the Northeast and Central, respectively. Cases with insufficient and irregular follow-up showed higher odds of dropout (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 5.2-24.8/OR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.9-10.3) and death (OR = 20.3; 95%CI: 4.9-84.9/OR = 5.1; 95%CI: 1.2-22.7). Cases in retreatment (OR = 2.4; 95%CI: 2.08-8.55) and with HIV coinfection (OR = 8.2; 95%CI: 2.2-30.9) were also associated with dropout. Extrapulmonary (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.3) and mixed clinical forms (OR = 5.6; 95%CI: 2.8-11.4), age < 4 years (OR = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.5-6.4), and cases from the North (OR = 2.8; 95%CI: 1.1-7.1) and Central (OR = 2.8; 95%CI: 1.1-7.0) were associated with death. TB control in indigenous children and adolescents cannot be achieved without investments in research and development and without reducing social inequalities.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir características clínicas y sociodemográficas, estimar la incidencia de la tuberculosis (TB), además de analizar factores asociados al abandono y al óbito en la vigencia del tratamiento de los casos de TB, notificados entre niños y adolescentes indígenas, en Brasil entre 2006-2016. Se realizó un análisis de la serie histórica de incidencia, según la franja de edad y macrorregión y se utilizó la regresión logística multinomial para elucidar factores asociados al abandono y al óbito. Del total de 2.096 casos notificados, un 88,2% tuvieron cura, un 7,2% abandonaron el tratamiento y un 4,6% evolucionaron hacia óbito. Hubo un predominio de casos en chicos de 15-19 años y mayor proporción de óbitos (55,7%) en < 4 años. Considerando el conjunto de niños y adolescentes indígenas con TB en Brasil, la incidencia media fue 49,1/100.000, variando de 21,5/100.000 a 97,6/100.000 en las regiones Nordeste y Centro-oeste, respectivamente. Los casos con un seguimiento insuficiente y regular tuvieron mayores oportunidades de abandono (OR = 11,1; IC95%: 5,2-24,8/OR = 4,4; IC95%: 1,9-10,3) y óbito (OR = 20,3; IC95%: 4,9-84,9/OR = 5,1; IC95%: 1,2-22,7). Los casos de retorno al tratamiento (OR = 2,4; IC95%: 2,08-8,55) y con anti-VIH positivo (OR = 8,2; IC95%: 2,2-30,9) también se mostraron asociados al abandono. Las formas clínicas extrapulmonares (OR = 1,8; IC95%: 1,1-3,3) y mixta (OR = 5,6; IC95%: 2,8-11,4), los casos en < 4 años (OR = 3,1; IC95%: 1,5-6,4) y los casos procedentes de las regiones Norte (OR = 2,8; IC95%: 1,1-7,1) y Centro-oeste (OR = 2,8; IC95%: 1,1-7,0) se mostraron asociados al óbito. Creemos que el control de la TB en niños y adolescentes indígenas no se podrá alcanzar sin inversiones en investigación y desarrollo y sin la reducción de las desigualdades sociales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Death , Patient Dropouts/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/ethnology , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data
14.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180033, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1004082

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar como o pertencimento a certos grupos sociais contribui para a constituição das vulnerabilidades associadas ao adoecimento pela coinfecção tuberculose/HIV/aids. METODOLOGIA Pesquisa qualitativa realizada em Porto Alegre-RS, em regiões de alta vulnerabilidade social. Foram entrevistadas 20 pessoas coinfectadas em serviços especializados de saúde, entre agosto e dezembro de 2016. A análise teve como aporte os referenciais The Sound of Silence e Vulnerabilidade e Direitos Humanos. RESULTADOS Condições socioeconômicas foram decisivas para constituição das condições de vulnerabilidade. Processos de invisibilização das pessoas e silenciamento de suas vozes, em um cenário marcado por desigualdades econômicas, raciais e de gênero contribuíam para que suas necessidades de saúde não fossem compreendidas e efetivamente levadas em consideração nas ações dos serviços. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS Quanto mais efetivas forem as estratégias para legitimar as vozes e compreender as necessidades das pessoas afetadas pela coinfecção, maiores serão as chances de que as respostas programáticas para o problema sejam exitosas.


Resumen OBJETIVO Analizar cómo la pertenencia a ciertos grupos sociales contribuye a la constitución de las vulnerabilidades asociadas al padecimiento de coinfección tuberculosis/VIH/SIDA. METODOLOGÍA Investigación cualitativa realizada en Porto Alegre-RS/Brasil, en zonas de alta vulnerabilidad social. Fueron entrevistadas 20 personas coinfectadas en servicios especializados de salud, entre agosto y diciembre de 2016. Análisis con aporte de referenciales The Sound of Silence y Vulnerabilidad y Derechos Humanos. RESULTADOS Las condiciones socioeconómicas resultaron decisivas para constituir las condiciones de vulnerabilidad. Los procesos de invisibilización de las personas y el silenciamiento de sus voces contribuían a que sus necesidades de salud no fuesen comprendidas y efectivamente consideradas en las acciones de los servicios. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES Cuanto más efectivas sean las estrategias para legitimar las voces y comprender las necesidades de los afectados por la coinfección, mayores serán las posibilidades para que las respuestas programáticas al problema resulten exitosas.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze how belonging to certain social groups contributes to constituting the vulnerabilities associated with illnesses due to tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS coinfection. METHODOLOGYThis is a qualitative study carried out in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in regions of high social vulnerability. Twenty coinfected people were interviewed in specialized health services between August and December 2016. The analysis was based on the frameworks The Sound of Silence and Vulnerability and Human Rights. RESULTS Socioeconomic conditions were decisive for the constitution of the vulnerability conditions. Processes of people invisibilization, and the silencing of their voices, in a scenario marked by economic, racial and gender inequalities, contributed for their health needs not to be understood and effectively taken into account in the services actions. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The more effective strategies are to legitimize voices and to understand the needs of those affected by coinfection, the greater the chances that programmatic responses to the problem will be successful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Social Class , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Coinfection/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Brazil , HIV Infections/therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , Qualitative Research , Middle Aged
15.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1264217

ABSTRACT

Les tuberculoses extra-pulmonaires (TEP) représentent une proportion élevée de toutes les formes de tuberculose et leurs manifestations cliniques polymorphes rendent le diagnostic souvent difficile. L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et histologiques des TEP diagnostiquées dans deux laboratoires d'anatomie pathologique de Cotonou. Nous avons mené une étude transversale descriptive portant sur 53 dossiers de patients atteints de tuberculose extra-pulmonaire dans les laboratoires d'anatomie pathologique de la Faculté des Sciences de la Santé et de la Cité Houéyiho à Cotonou sur une période de 10 ans (juin 2007 - juin 2018). L'âge moyen était de 46,5 ans avec une prédominance féminine (54,7 %). Les principales localisations étaient : la tuberculose ganglionnaire à 71,7 %, suivie par la tuberculose digestive (17 %) et de la tuberculose urogénitale (9,4%). Dans les différentes formes, le type histologique le plus fréquent était le type caséo-folliculaire. Notre travail a montré une fréquence élevée de l'atteinte ganglionnaire avec le type caséo-folliculaire comme le type histologique dominant


Subject(s)
Benin , Histology , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Urogenital
16.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190003, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Background: In Argentina, approximately 9,000 new cases of tuberculosis (TB) are recorded every year, representing an incidence rate of 22 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. There are no reported studies in Argentina examining the factors that influence the unequal distribution of the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between the distribution of social and economic factors and TB in Argentina between 2008 and 2012. Method: An ecologic study involving 525 departmental jurisdictions was conducted. Simple linear regression analysis was performed, followed by multiple linear regression for each group of determinants. A final model of determinants of TB's incidence was constructed from a model of multiple linear regression. Results: The following determinants explain 43% of the variability of TB's incidence rate among different jurisdictions: overcrowding, proportion of households with a sewage network, proportion of examined patients with respiratory symptoms and proportion of patients who discontinued treatment. Discussion: This study makes an important contribution to a better understanding of the factors influencing the TB occurrence in Argentina, which is the result of a multidimensional and complex process. Thesefactors make part of this disease's social determination. Conclusion: TB incidence is associated with different determinants, from multiple levels. Inequalities in its distribution in Argentina are driven by the unequal distribution of key social determinants.


RESUMO: Introdução: Aproximadamente 9 mil novos casos de tuberculose (TB) por ano são registrados na Argentina, representando uma taxa de incidência de 22 casos por 100 mil habitantes. Não há estudos publicados que avaliaram os fatores que influenciam a distribuição desigual da doença na Argentina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a relação entre a distribuição dos fatores sociais e econômicos e da tuberculose na Argentina entre 2008 e 2012. Método: Foi realizado um estudo ecológico envolvendo 525 departamentos. Na análise procedeu-se uma regressão linear simples, seguida de regressão linear múltipla para cada grupo de determinantes. Um modelo final com os determinantes da incidência de TB foi construído por meio de regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Os seguintes determinantes explicam 43% da variabilidade da taxa de incidência de TB entre diferentes jurisdições: aglomeração intradomiciliar, proporção de domicílios com rede de esgoto, proporção de pacientes examinados com sintomas respiratórios e proporção de pacientes com tratamento descontinuado. Discussão: Este estudo contribui de maneira importante para uma melhor compreensão dos fatores que influenciam a ocorrência da TB na Argentina, resultado de um processo multidimensional e complexo. Esses fatores fazem parte da determinação social dessa doença. Conclusão: A incidência de TB está associada a diferentes determinantes, de múltiplos níveis. A heterogeneidade na distribuição da tuberculose na Argentina deve-se, entre outros fatores, pela distribuição desigual de determinantes sociais e de acesso às ações de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Residence Characteristics , Incidence , Risk Factors
18.
Rev. méd. hered ; 29(4): 232-237, oct.-dic 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1014328

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) supone un problema de Salud Pública. Se estima que la mitad de los pacientes con TBP desarrollan a lo largo de su vida una complicación, siendo la más frecuente la bronquiectasia. Objetivos: Determinar las principales características epidemiológicas y clínicas de pacientes con bronquiectasias secundarias a TBP en un hospital general. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo, transversal. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de los casos con diagnóstico de bronquiectasia secundaria a TBP. Resultados: El 69% fue de sexo femenino y 40% fue adulto mayor. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron tos en 66,6%, expectoración 56,0% y hemoptisis 49,2%. El 43% tuvo patrón tomográfico sacular. El 53% recibió broncodilatadores, 41% corticoides inhalados, 33% antibióticos y 16% mucolíticos. El tiempo promedio entre el diagnóstico de TBP y el desarrollo de la bronquiectasia fue 16,76 ± 11,94 años. Conclusiones: Las bronquiectasias por TBP fueron más frecuentes en mujeres y en adultos mayores. Las manifestaciones más frecuentes fueron tos, expectoración y hemoptisis. El patrón tomográfico más frecuente fue el sacular. El tratamiento más frecuente fue el uso de broncodilatadores. (AU)


Pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) is a public health problem, it is estimated that patients with PT developed one complication during life with bronchiectasis being the most frequent. Objectives: Ton describe clinical and epidemiologic features of patients with bronchiectasis secondary to PT in a general hospital in Lima. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which medical reports of patients with bronchiectasis secondary to PT were reviewed. Results: 69% of patients were female; 40% were elder. Most frequent clinical manifestations were cough in 66.6%, expectoration in 56.0% and hemoptysis in 49.2%. Saccular tomographic pattern was observed in 43%. Bronchodilators were prescribed for 53%, 41% received inhaled bronchodilators, 33 received antibiotics and 16% mucolytic medications. Mean time from diagnosis of PT to development of bronchiectasis was 16.76 ± 11.94 years. Conclusions: Bronchiectasis secondary to PT were more common in females and in the elder population. The most common clinical manifestations were cough, expectoration and hemoptysis. The most common pattern at CT scan was the saccular and bronchodilators were the most common drugs used. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Signs and Symptoms , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Bronchiectasis/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 638-643, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957460

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to analyze social factors involved in the spatial distribution and under-reporting of tuberculosis (TB) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecological study of the reported cases of TB between 2009 and 2011, according to census tracts. The outcome was TB incidence for the study period and the variables of exposure were proportions of literacy, inhabitants with an income of up to half the minimum monthly wage (MMW), and inhabitants associated with sewer mains or with access to safe drinking water. We used a zero-inflated process, zero-inflated negative binomial regression (ZINB), and selected an explanatory model based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). RESULTS: A total of 588 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Vitória during the study period, distributed among 223 census tracts (38.6%), with 354 (61.4%) tracts presenting zero cases. In the ZINB model, the mean value of p i was 0.93, indicating that there is a 93% chance that an observed false zero could be due to sub-notification. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to prioritize areas exhibiting determinants that influence the occurrence of TB in the municipality of Vitória. The zero-inflated model can be useful to the public health sector since it identifies the percentage of false zeros, generating an estimate of the real epidemiological condition of TB in Vitória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Small-Area Analysis , Disease Notification , Spatial Analysis
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 324-330, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957432

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: High endemic levels of pulmonary tuberculosis in prisons result from overcrowding, limited access to healthcare, delayed diagnosis, sustained transmission owing to poor control measures, and multidrug resistance. This study evaluated locally implemented measures for early pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and evaluated resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. METHODS: This transversal study employed data from the Mato Grosso do Sul State Tuberculosis Control Program obtained from 35 correctional facilities in 16 counties for 2 periods (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). RESULTS: Statewide prevalence (per 100,000) was 480.0 in 2007 and 972.9 in 2014. The following indicators showed improvement: alcohol-acid-fast bacillus testing (from 82.7% to 92.9%); cultures performed (55.0% to 81.8%); drug susceptibility testing of positive cultures (71.6% to 62.4%); and overall drug susceptibility testing coverage (36.6% to 47.4%). Primary and acquired resistance rates for 2007-2014 were 21.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Primary and acquired multidrug resistance rates were 0.3% and 1.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates increased, and laboratory indicators improved as a result of capacity building and coordination of technical teams and other individuals providing healthcare to inmates. Resistance rates were high, thereby negatively affecting disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis
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