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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 447-454, oct. 2023. tab, mapas, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521865

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El año 2020, la tuberculosis (TB) fue responsable por 9,9 millones de nuevos casos y 1,5 millones de muertes en el mundo. En Chile, se ha reportado aumento en las tasas de incidencia en los últimos años, con gran concentración de casos en la Región Metropolitana (RM). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación espacio-temporal de la TB pulmonar con variables socioeconómicas en la RM de Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico desarrollado entre los años 2016 y 2020. Los casos se obtuvieron desde el Ministerio de Salud (n = 4.370), describiéndose según: sexo, edad, año de confirmación diagnóstica, servicio de salud y comuna de residencia. Se utilizó análisis de componentes principales para la construcción de factores socioeconómicos comunales. La asociación entre factores y TB pulmonar se evaluó con un modelo binominal negativo multinivel. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento en la tasa de incidencia (9,97 a 10,74 casos por 100 mil), disminución de la incidencia en personas ≥ 65 años (17,56 a 13,38) y en el promedio de edad (46,03 a 41,77 años). El factor caracterizado por mayor inmigración, hacinamiento y población urbana se asoció con mayores tasas de incidencia (RTI: 1,29; IC95: 1,23-134) y el factor con mayor escolaridad, menor pobreza y menor hacinamiento con menores tasas (RTI: 0,94; IC95: 0,89-0,98) en el periodo. CONCLUSIONES: La disminución en la edad de los casos junto a la concentración de casos en comunas urbanas y céntricas, asociadas con variables socioeconómicas desfavorables, confirman que la TB pulmonar continúa siendo un problema de relevancia a considerar.


BACKGROUND: In 2020, tuberculosis (TB) was responsible for 9.9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths worldwide. In Chile, an increase in incidence rates has been reported in recent years, with a concentration of cases in the Metropolitan Region (MR). AIM: To evaluate the spatio-temporal relationship of pulmonary TB with socioeconomic variables in the MR of Chile. METHODS: Ecological study developed between 2016 and 2020. Cases were obtained from the Ministry of Health (n = 4,370) and described by: sex, age, year of confirmation, health service, and commune of residence. Principal component analysis was used to construct community socioeconomic factors, and the association between factors and pulmonary TB was evaluated with a multilevel negative binomial model. RESULTS: There was an increase in the incidence rate (9.97 to 10.74 cases per 100,000), a decrease in the incidence in people ≥ 65 years (17.56 to 13.38), and the average age (46.03 to 41.77 years). The factor characterized by greater immigration, overcrowding, and the urban population was associated with more elevated incidence rates (RTI: 1.29; IC95: 1.23-134), and the factor with higher education, less poverty, and less overcrowding with lower rates (RTI: 0.94; CI 95: 0.89-0.98) in the period. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the age of the cases together and the concentration of cases in urban and central communes, associated with unfavorable socioeconomic variables, confirm that pulmonary TB continues to be a relevant problem to consider.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
2.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 32(2): e2022586, 2023. tab, graf, mapa
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440093

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a distribuição dos casos de tuberculose no Paraná, Brasil, entre 2018 e 2021. Métodos: estudo ecológico, sobre dados secundários oriundos de notificações compulsórias; descrição das taxas de detecção por 100 mil habitantes segundo regiões de saúde do estado; cálculo das variações percentuais entre 2018-2019 e 2020-2021. Resultados: foram registrados 7.099 casos, observando-se maiores taxas nas regionais de Paranaguá (52,4/100 mil em 2018-2019; 38,2/100 mil em 2020-2021) e Foz do Iguaçu (34,4/100 mil em 2018-2019; 20,5/100 mil em 2020-2021), e menores em Irati (6,3/100 mil em 2018-2019; 8,8/100 mil em 2020-2021) e Francisco Beltrão (8,5/100 mil em 2018-2019; 7,6/100 mil em 2020-2021); em 2020-2021, houve queda nas variações percentuais dessas taxas em 18 regionais e aumento em quatro, destacando-se, respectivamente, Foz do Iguaçu (-40,5%) e Cianorte (+53,6%). Conclusão: foram observadas taxas elevadas nas regionais do litoral e da tríplice fronteira; houve declínio das taxas de detecção no período pandêmico.


Objective: to analyze the distribution of tuberculosis cases in the state of Paraná, Brazil, between 2018 and 2021. Methods: this was an ecological study using secondary data obtained from compulsory notifications; detection rates per 100,000 inhabitants were described according to health regions in the state; percentage changes between 2018-2019 and 2020-2021 were calculated. Results: a total of 7,099 cases were registered. The highest rates were observed in the health regions of Paranaguá (52.4/100,000 in 2018-2019; 38.2/100,000 in 2020-2021) and Foz do Iguaçu (34.4/100,000 in 2018-2019; 20.5/100,000 in 2020-2021), and the lowest rates in Irati (6.3/100,000 in 2018-2019; 8.8/100,000 in 2020-2021) and Francisco Beltrão (8.5/100,000 in 2018-2019; 7.6/100,000 in 2020-2021); in 2020-2021, it could be seen a decrease in percentage changes in 18 health regions, while there was an increase in four of them, especially Foz do Iguaçu (-40.5%) and Cianorte (+53.6%). Conclusion: high rates were found in the coastal and triple border regions; and there was a decline in detection rates in the pandemic period.


Objetivo: analizar la distribución de casos de tuberculosis en Paraná de 2018 a 2021. Métodos: estudio ecológico utilizando datos secundarios de notificaciones obligatorias. Se describieron las tasas de detección por 100.000 habitantes según las regiones de salud de Paraná. Se calcularon los cambios porcentuales entre 2018-2019 y 2020-2021. Resultados: se registraron 7.099 casos, observándose tasas más altas en las regiones de Paranaguá (52,4/100.000 en 2018-2019 y 38,2/100.000 en 2020-2021) y Foz do Iguaçu (34,4/100.000 en 2018-2019 y 20,5/100.000 en 2020-2021) y menor en Irati (6,3/100.000 en 2018-2019 y 8,8/100.000 en 2020-2021) y Francisco Beltrão (8,5/100.000 en 2018-2019 y 7,6/100.000 en 2020-2021). En 2020-2021, hubo descenso en 18 regiones y aumento en cuatro, con destaque para Foz do Iguaçu (-40,5%) y Cianorte (+53,6%). Conclusión: se encontraron altas tasas para las regiones de la costa y la triple frontera, además de una disminución en la detección durante el período de pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Ecological Studies , Health Information Systems , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Spatial Analysis
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 966-973, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985621

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the trend of epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among smear-positive or other types of students in Guizhou Province from 2011 to 2020, and to provide a reference for improving prevention and control measures. Methods: Data were collected from the Chinese Information System's Notifiable Disease and Tuberculosis Management Information System for disease control and prevention, the Joinpoint 4.9.1.0 software was used to analyze the trend of registration rate; the ArcGIS 10.6 software was used to construct a ring map and to perform spatial autocorrelation analysis; the SaTScan 9.7 software was used for spatial-temporal scan statistics. Results: A total of 32 682 student PTB cases were reported in Guizhou Province from 2011 to 2020, including 5 949 (18.20%) smear-positive cases. Most cases occurred from high school students of 16 to 18 years old (43.99%, 14 376/32 682); the annual average registered rate was 36.22/100 000, the highest in 2018 (52.90/100 000), and the registration rate showed an increasing trend. Meanwhile, a similar trend of registration rate was observed among smear-positive or other types of students. The spatialtemporal heterogeneity was found that the "high-high" clustering patterns of smear-positive or other types were aggregated in Bijie City. Six spatialtemporal clusters with statistically significant (all P<0.001) were detected among smear-positive or other cases, respectively. Conclusions: Upward trend with spatial- temporal clusters of PTB cases reported in students from Guizhou Province from 2011 to 2020. Surveillance should be strengthened for high school students, and regular screening should be conducted in high-risk areas to control the source of infection and reduce the risk of transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Asian People , Cluster Analysis , Software , Students
4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 949-953, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985618

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemic characteristics and drug resistance of pulmonary tuberculosis among the floating population in Beijing and to provide a scientific basis for formulating strategies for the prevention and control of tuberculosis among the floating population. Methods: Data of tuberculosis patients who were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture was collected from 16 districts and one municipal institution of tuberculosis control and prevention in Beijing in 2019. The strain samples were tested for drug sensitivity by the proportional method. According to household registration location, patients were divided into the floating population and Beijing registration. SPSS 19.0 software analyzed tuberculosis patients' epidemic characteristics and drug resistance in the floating population. Results: In 2019, there were 1 171 culture-positive tuberculosis patients in Beijing, among the floating population, 593 (50.64%) patients were identified, with a male-to-female sex ratio of 2.2∶1 (409∶184). Compared to patients under household registration as Beijing residents, a higher proportion of young adults aged 20-39 years (65.09%,386/593) were noticed, with 55.65% (330/593) reported from the urban areas and 96.80% (574/593) were reported the first time. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). After completing the drug sensitivity test, 37 cases were with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis, accounting for 6.24% (37/593). The rates of isoniazid resistance (42.11%,8/19) and multidrug resistance (21.05%,4/19) in floating population patients after retreatment were significantly higher than those in newly treated patients (11.67%, 67/574 and 5.75%, 33/574), and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Most patients with tuberculosis in the floating population in Beijing in 2019 were young males aged 20-39 years. The reporting areas were urban areas and the newly treated patients mainly. The patients with tuberculosis in the re-treated floating population were more likely to suffer from multidrug and drug resistance, which should be taken as the key population for prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Young Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Beijing/epidemiology , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Drug Resistance
5.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 117-126, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the trend of notified incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in China at different periods by population and region and to explore the effect of TB prevention and control in recent years.@*METHODS@#Using pooled data on TB cases reported by the TB Information Management Reporting System (TBIMS) from 2005 to 2020, we calculated the annual percentage change (APC) using the Joinpoint regression model.@*RESULTS@#From 2005 to 2020, a total of 16.2 million cases of PTB were reported in China, with an average notified incidence of 75.5 per 100,000 population. The age standardization rate (ASR) continued to decline from 116.9 (/100,000) in 2005 to 47.6 (/100,000) in 2020, with an average annual decrease of 5.6% [APC = -5.6, 95% confidence interval ( CI): -7.0 to -4.2]. The smallest decline occurred in 2011-2018 (APC = -3.4, 95% CI: -4.6 to -2.3) and the largest decrease in 2018-2020 (APC = -9.2, 95% CI: -16.4 to -1.3). From 2005 to 2020, the ASR in males (159.8 per 100,000 in 2005, 72.0 per 100,000 in 2020) was higher than that in females (62.2 per 100,000 in 2005, 32.3 per 100,000 in 2020), with an average annual decline of 6.0% for male and 4.9% for female. The average notified incidence was the highest among older adults (65 years and over) (182.3/100,000), with an average annual decline of 6.4%; children (0-14 years) were the lowest (4.8/100,000), with an average annual decline of 7.3%, but a significant increase of 3.3% between 2014 and 2020 (APC = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4 to 5.2); middle-aged (35-64 years) decreased by 5.8%; and youth (15-34 years) decreased by an average annual rate of 4.2%. The average ASR in rural areas (81.3/100,000) is higher than that in urban areas (76.1/100,000). The average annual decline in rural areas was 4.5% and 6.3% in urban areas. South China had the highest average ASR (103.2/100,000), with an average annual decline of 5.9%, while North China had the lowest (56.5/100,000), with an average annual decline of 5.9%. The average ASR in the southwest was 95.3 (/100,000), with the smallest annual decline (APC = -4.5, 95% CI: -5.5 to -3.5); the average ASR in the Northwest China was 100.1 (/100,000), with the largest annual decline (APC = -6.4, 95% CI: -10.0 to -2.7); Central, Northeastern, and Eastern China declined by an average of 5.2%, 6.2%, and 6.1% per year, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#From 2005 to 2020, the notified incidence of PTB in China continued to decline, falling by 55%. For high-risk groups such as males, older adults, high-burden areas in South, Southwest, and Northwest China, and rural regions, proactive screening should be strengthened to provide timely and effective anti-TB treatment and patient management services for confirmed cases. There is also a necessity to be vigilant about the upward trend of children in recent years, the specific reasons for which need to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Child , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Male , Aged , Incidence , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Population Groups
6.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 8-14, ene.-jun. 2022. tab., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1519544

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es una enfermedad potencialmente prevenible y tratable, cuya mortalidad se eleva por el retraso en su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Objetivo: describir el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de la tuberculosis pulmonar en tres Unidades de Atención Primaria de Salud. Material y Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal, mediante revisión de expedientes clínicos y fichas de vigilancia epidemiológica durante enero a agosto 2018, en los centros sanitarios mencionados. Universo 186 casos, se determinó una muestra a conveniencia de 137 expedientes se incluyó todos los casos diagnosticados con tuberculosis pulmonar mediante baciloscopía de esputo o técnica molecular GeneXpert, edad mayor a 18 años recibiendo tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado, se excluyeron los casos con diagnóstico de embarazo o cepa Multidrogoresistente. Resultados: en la muestra obtenida, 91(66.4%) casos fueron hombres, 79 (57.7%) tenían edad comprendida entre 27-59 años, media de 41.5, nivel educativo primaria incompleta 42 (30.7%), 82(59.9%) tenían empleo y 101(73.7%) desconocían haber tenido contacto con algún caso de tuberculosis. 28(20.4%) consumían alcohol y 24(17.5%) consumían tabaco. Antecedentes patológicos reportados diabetes mellitus 2, 28(20.4%) y tuberculosis previa 17 (12.4%). 132(96.4%) casos presentaron manifestaciones clínicas: pérdida de peso 105(76.6%), fiebre 103(75.2%), tos con expectoración 99(72.3%), diaforesis 68(49.6%), hiporexia 61(44.5%), dolor torácico 49(35.8%), y hemoptisis 26(19.0%). La baciloscopía fue el método diagnóstico más utilizado 127(92.7%) y el resultado más frecuente fue Pos(+), 52(40.9%). Se apegaron al tratamiento de forma completa 89(65.0%) casos. Conclusiones: En el perfil epidemiológico de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar se encontró predominio del sexo masculino, empleos que implicaban contacto con múltiples personas y los síntomas, en orden de frecuencia, fueron pérdida de peso, diaforesis, fiebre, tos y expectoración. La prevalencia puntual de casos de tuberculosis encontrada fue 23.9/100 000 habitantes...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Health Profile , Epidemiological Monitoring
7.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 36: e43082, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1376468

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a caracterização dos casos de tuberculose notificados na região Centro-Oeste, no período de 2010 a 2019. Método: estudo ecológico, longitudinal, que utilizou, para análise estatística, o programa Microsoft Excel 2010 (cálculo das frequências) e o teste Chi quadrado (X2) (verificar se as frequências diferiam). Resultados: observou-se maior prevalência da tuberculose em pacientes do sexo masculino (70,8%), pertencentes à faixa etária entre 25-34 anos (23,6%), da raça/cor parda (53%), moradores da zona urbana (83%) e que não tiveram sua escolaridade declarada (28,6%). Ao considerar aspectos epidemiológicos, destacaram-se casos novos (82,6%), na forma pulmonar (85,6%), com soropositividade negativa ao HIV (60,4%) e que não tiveram declarado o hábito de tabagismo (51,1%). Conclusão: os casos de tuberculose notificados na região Centro-Oeste assemelham-se aos encontrados na literatura, reforçando que a tuberculose é uma doença infecciosa atual e sua erradicação ainda exige muito trabalho e políticas públicas efetivas.


Objetivo: analizar la caracterización de los casos de tuberculosis reportados en la región Medio Oeste, en el período de 2010 a 2019. Método: estudio ecológico, longitudinal, que utilizó, para el análisis estadístico, el programa Microsoft Excel 2010 (cálculo de frecuencias) y la prueba de Chi cuadrado (X2) (comprobar si las frecuencias diferían). Resultados: se observó una mayor prevalencia de tuberculosis en pacientes varones (70,8%), con edades comprendidas entre 25-34 años (23,6%), mestizos/color (53%), residentes urbanos (83%) y a quienes no se les declaró la escolaridad (28,6%). Al considerar los aspectos epidemiológicos, se destacaron los nuevos casos (82,6%), en la forma pulmonar (85,6%), con seropositividad VIH negativa (60,4%) y que no habían declarado fumar (51,1%). Conclusión: los casos de tuberculosis reportados en la región del Medio Oeste son similares a los encontrados en la literatura, reforzando que la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa actual y su erradicación aún requiere mucho trabajo y políticas públicas efectivas.


Objective: to analyze the characterization of tuberculosis cases reported in the Midwest region, in the period from 2010 to 2019. Method: ecological, longitudinal study, which used, for statistical analysis, the Microsoft Excel 2010 program (calculation of frequencies) and the Chi square test (X2) (check if the frequencies differed). Results: a higher prevalence of tuberculosis was observed in male patients (70.8%), aged between 25-34 years (23.6%), mixed race/color (53%), urban residents (83%) and who did not have their schooling declared (28.6%). When considering epidemiological aspects, new cases (82.6%), in the pulmonary form (85.6%), with HIV-negative seropositivity (60.4%) and who had not declared smoking (51.1%) were highlighted. Conclusion: the cases of tuberculosis reported in the Midwest region are similar to those found in the literature, reinforcing that tuberculosis is a current infectious disease and its eradication still requires a lot of work and effective public policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Health Information Systems , Data Interpretation, Statistical
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(3): e00008621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364633

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate, via a mixed methods study, the implementation of the screening process for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) within indigenous population of the Department of Cauca, Colombia, during the 2016-2018 period. Indicators assessing the PTB screening process were elaborated and estimated. Subsequently, an evaluation of the indicators were performed based on a sampling process from health care providers of the municipalities with the highest and lowest PTB incidence and from key agents' perspective. Screening indicators were estimated and thematic analysis was performed based on the interviews conducted with key agents. Finally, a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative findings was performed. From the total population expected to have respiratory symptomatics (n = 16,711), the health care providers were able to identify 42.3% of them. Out of the individuals identified as respiratory symptomatics (n = 7,064), they were able to examine 93.2% (n = 6,585) with at least one acid-fast bacilli smear test. The reported positivity index from acid-fast bacilli smear test was 1.87%. The explanations from key agents revolved around the possibility of an overestimated targeted amount of respiratory symptomatics; insufficient personnel for the search of symptomatic individuals; high costs for the search in areas of difficult access; the need to request permissions from indigenous authorities; culturally ingrained stigma; use of traditional medicine and self-medication; and patient's personal beliefs. This study revealed barriers in the implementation of the screening process for PTB within the indigenous population from the Department of Cauca, mainly in the identifying process of the respiratory symptomatics.


El objetivo fue evaluar la implementación del proceso y los indicadores en las pruebas para detectar tuberculosis pulmonar (TBP) en población indígena del Departamento de Cauca, Colombia, durante el periodo de 2016-2018, a través de un estudio de métodos mixtos. Fueron elaborados y estimados indicadores para el tamizaje de TBP. Posteriormente, a través de un proceso de muestreo de los proveedores de cuidados de salud de las municipalidades con las incidencias más altas y más bajas de TBP, y desde la perspectiva de actores clave, se intentó encontrar una explicación para los resultados de la primera fase. Se estimaron los indicadores de las pruebas y se realizó un análisis temático de las entrevistas dirigidas a los actores clave. Finalmente, se realizó la triangulación de los hallazgos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Del total de sintomáticos respiratorios esperados (n = 16.711), los proveedores de servicios de salud fueron capaces de identificar a un 42,3% de ellos, y de estos sintomáticos respiratorios identificados (n = 7.064) fueron capaces de examinar un 93,2% (n = 6.585) con al menos una prueba de frotis de bacilos ácidorresistentes. El índice de positividad informado en la prueba de la flema analizada en el microscopio, mediante la prueba de frotis de bacilos ácidorresistentes, fue 1.87%. Las explicaciones de los actores clave giraron alrededor de la percepción de un objetivo posiblemente sobreestimado de sintomáticos respiratorios; insuficiente personal para la consulta; altos costes para las consultas en áreas geográficas de difícil acceso; solicitud de permisos a las autoridades indígenas; estigma; medicina tradicional, automedicación y creencias. Este estudio reveló barreras en la implementación de las pruebas para la TBP en la población indígena del Departamento de Cauca, principalmente en el proceso de identificación de sintomáticos respiratorios.


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a implementação do processo e os indicadores de triagem para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) numa população indígena do Departamento de Cauca, Colômbia, no período 2016-2018. Foi realizado um estudo com métodos mistos. Foram elaborados e estimados os indicadores para triagem da TBP. Em seguida, procurou-se explicar os achados da primeira fase, com base em um processo de amostragem de provedores de saúde dos municípios com os coeficientes mais altos e mais baixos de incidência de TBP, e da perspectiva dos atores-chave. Os indicadores de triagem foram estimados e a análise foi realizada das entrevistas com os atores-chave. Finalmente, foi feita a triangulação dos achados quantitativos e qualitativos. Do total de sintomáticos respiratórios esperados (n = 16.711), o provedor de saúde conseguiu identificar 42,3%, e destes sintomáticos respiratórios identificados (n = 7.064) conseguiram examinar 93,2% (n = 6.585) com pelo menos um exame de escarro (teste de BAAR). O índice de positividade do teste de BAAR foi de 1,87%. As explicações dos atores chave giraram em torno da percepção de uma proporção possivelmente superestimada de sintomáticos respiratórios, pessoal insuficiente para a busca, custos elevados da busca em áreas de difícil acesso geográfico, solicitação de autorização pelas autoridades indígenas, estigma, medicina tradicional, automedicação e crenças. O estudo revelou barreiras para a implementação da triagem para TBP na população indígena do Departamento de Cauca, principalmente no processo de identificação de sintomáticos respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Indigenous Peoples , Brazil , Incidence , Colombia/epidemiology
9.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(4): 325-331, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388160

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es la principal causa de muerte por un agente infeccioso a nivel mundial y se estima que un 6% de los casos nuevos corresponde a tuberculosis infantil. La presencia de tuberculosis en niños es una señal de la existencia de transmisión del agente en la comunidad. Esta investigación busca describir las características epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis infantil en Chile entre 2011 y 2020. METODOLOGÍA: estudio descriptivo de los casos de tuberculosis infantil registrados en Chile entre los años 2011 y 2020. RESULTADOS: se registraron 544 casos de tuberculosis en menores de 15 años en el período analizado, con una tasa de incidencia anual entre 1,1 y 2,2 casos por 100.000. Se observa un importante aumento de casos en los últimos tres años, especialmente en el grupo de menores de 5 años. 63,2% corresponden a tuberculosis pulmonar, y de ellos 62,3% fueron confirmados por bacteriología. La mayoría de los casos no presenta comorbilidades que impliquen inmunosupresión y la incidencia de meningitis tuberculosa en menores de 5 años es baja. La proporción de contactos es de 29% y la de extranjeros de 17%, ambas variables en aumento en los últimos años. CONCLUSIÓN: La tuberculosis en niños sigue siendo un problema de salud poco frecuente en Chile. Sin embargo, su aumento en los últimos años debe alertar sobre un incremento de la transmisión comunitaria de la enfermedad, por lo que se debe reforzar la detección oportuna de casos contagiantes, la investigación de contactos y el tratamiento preventivo.


Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide and it is estimated that 6% of new cases are children. Childhood tuberculosis reflects ongoing transmission within communities. This study aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics of childhood tuberculosis in Chile between 2011 and 2020. METHODOLOGY: descriptive study of the cases of tuberculosis under 15 years-old registered in Chile from 2011 to 2020. RESULTS: 544 cases were registered in the period analyzed, with an annual incidence rate between 1.1 and 2.2 cases per 100,000. A significant increase in cases is observed in the last three years, especially in the group under 5 years-old. 63.2% correspond to pulmonary tuberculosis, and among them 62.3% are confirmed by bacteriology. Most of the cases do not have comorbidities and the incidence of tuberculous meningitis in children under 5 years is low. Contacts are 29% of the cases and foreigners are 17%, both percentages are increasing in the last years. CONCLUSION: Childhood tuberculosis remains a low frequency health problem in Chile. However, its increase in recent years implies an increase in the community transmission. Active case finding, contact tracing and preventive treatment should be reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants , Tuberculosis/transmission , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Risk Factors , Contact Tracing
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2727-2738, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156770

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: hace más de un siglo, Robert Koch identificó el microorganismo que causa la tuberculosis en el hombre, el Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sin embargo, aún constituye un grave problema epidemiológico a nivel mundial. Se presentó un estudio realizado en los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Infeccioso del Hospital Regional de Malabo. Objetivo: caracterizar los pacientes con tuberculosis ingresados en la primera fase de tratamiento antituberculoso. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Tratamiento de Infecciosos del Hospital Regional de Malabo. Periodo correspondiente a los meses de enero a julio del 2016. El universo fue 172 pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis en todas sus formas clínicas. Los datos se obtuvieron en las historias clínicas. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en el 57,5 % de los pacientes y el grupo etáreo de 25 a 34 años con el 33,7 %. La baciloscopia negativa representó el 67,9 % de los casos y el estado nutricional más frecuente fue el bajo peso con 50,09 %. La tuberculosis en su forma pulmonar predominó en el 95,9 % de los pacientes. El 65,6 % de los pacientes fueron VIH negativos. La mejoría clínico radiológica al terminar el tratamiento fue de un 87,7 %. Conclusiones: el 57,5 % de los pacientes fueron masculinos entre 25 y 34 años de edad. Predominó la Baciloscopia negativa y la tuberculosis en su forma pulmonar. La mejoría clínica radiológica fue superior al terminar el tratamiento (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: More than a century ago, Robert Koch identified the microorganism causing tuberculosis in people: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But it is still a serious epidemiologic problem around the world. The authors presented a study carried out in patients admitted in the Infectious Service of the Regional Hospital of Malabo. Objective: to characterize the patients with tuberculosis admitted in the first stage of the anti-tuberculosis treatment. Materials and methods: a descriptive, retrospective study was carried out on the patients who were admitted in the Infectious Service of the Regional Hospital of Malabo in the period from January to July 2016. The universe were 172 patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis in all its clinical forms. Data were gathered from the clinical records. Results: male sex predominated in 57.5 % of the patients as it also did the 25-34 years-old age group with 33.7 %. Negative sputum smear represented 67.9 % of the cases and the most frequent nutritional status was the low weight with 50.9 %. Tuberculosis in its pulmonary form predominated in 95.9 % of the patients. 65.6 % of the patients were HIV negative. The clinical radiological improvement at the end of the treatment was 87.7 %. Conclusions: 57.5 % of the patients were male aged 25-34 years old. Negative sputum smear and the pulmonary form of tuberculosis predominated. The clinical radiological improvement was higher at the end of the treatment (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Comprehensive Health Care , Hospital Care , Health Policy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 130-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878330

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Prior pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) on chest X-ray (CXR) was commonly found in infertile patients receiving examinations before @*Method@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 14,254 infertile patients who had received IVF-ET at Peking University Third Hospital in 2017. Prior PTB was defined as the presence of signs suggestive of old or inactive PTB on CXR, with or without a clinical TB history. Patients who had prior PTB on CXR but had not received a clinical diagnosis and anti-TB therapy were included for analysis. Live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates were compared between the untreated PTB and non-PTB groups.@*Results@#The untreated PTB group had significantly lower clinical pregnancy (31.7% @*Conclusions@#Untreated PTB was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes after IVF-ET, especially in patients with unexplained infertility, highlighting the clinical significance of PTB in this specific patient population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Embryo Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Fertilization in Vitro/statistics & numerical data , Infertility, Female/etiology , Live Birth/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
13.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1127516

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud en el año 2018 reportó alrededor de 10 millones de enfermos y 1,5 millones de muertes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis es un patógeno intracelular y el agente causal de la enfermedad. Estudios experimentales de virulencia han permitido determinar un conjunto de genes de virulencia, que le confieren la capacidad de resistir el ambiente hostil en el macrófago, superar la actividad de la respuesta inmune y persistir en el hospedero. El objetivo de la publicación es presentar una revisión de las investigaciones de los últimos 20 años que han demostrado los genes o factores de virulencia de M. tuberculosis que contribuyen a la evasión de la respuesta inmune. Según los resultados de las investigaciones, existen múltiples factores y genes de virulencia que participan en la evasión de la respuesta inmune innata como ESAT-6, PknG, PhoP, ManLAM, SapM, katG, tpx, nuoG, sodA/secA2, pknE y Rv3654c/Rv3655c, mientras existen elementos capaces de modular la respuesta inmune adaptativa. La comprensión de la interacción entre los genes de virulencia y la actividad del sistema inmune, son importantes para estudiar nuevos métodos de diagnóstico, el diseño de nuevas vacunas y por ende, mejorar las medidas de control, prevención y tratamiento de la tuberculosis(AU)


Pulmonary tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization in 2018 reported about 10 million patients and 1.5 million deaths. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of the disease. Experimental virulence studies have allowed to determine a set of virulence genes that confer the ability to resist the hostile environment in the macrophage, overcome the activity of the immune response and persist in the host. The objective of the publication is to present a review of the last 20 years investigations that have shown the genes or virulence factors of M. tuberculosis that contribute to the evasion of the immune response. According to the results of the investigations, there are multiple virulence factors and genes that participate in the evasion of the innate immune response such as ESAT-6, PknG, PhoP, ManLAM, SapM, katG, tpx, nuoG, sodA/secA2, pknE and Rv3654c/Rv3655c, while there are elements capable of modulating the adaptive immune response. The understanding of the interaction between the virulence genes and the activity of the immune system, are important to study new diagnostic methods, the design of new vaccines and therefore, to improve the control, prevention and treatment measures of tuberculosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Virulence Factors , Tuberculosis Vaccines/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity
14.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 60(1): 84-90, jul 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1509503

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar constituye una enfermedad de salud pública en el territorio ecuatoriano en expansión que provoca muerte y sufrimiento para la población. El objetivo del estudio es caracterizar la tuberculosis pulmonar en individuos mayores de 15 años que asisten al Hospital de Día "Dr. Efrén Jurado López" de la ciudad de Guayaquil. Se realizó una investigación cuantitativa, descriptiva, retrospectiva. La muestra de estudio quedó conformada por 58 pacientes de ambos géneros mayores de 15 años, diagnosticados con tuberculosis en todas sus formas, atendidos en el contexto de estudio entre enero 2017 y enero de 2018. En la recolección de la información se aplicó una ficha de observación validada por expertos con previo consentimiento informado de los pacientes estudiados. Como resultados se obtuvo que el 72,4% eran del sexo masculino y el 27,6% femenino. El predominio de diagnóstico presentado fue sintomático TBP BK+ en un 100%. Por otra parte para el diagnóstico por TBP cultivo + fue 87,9% (51/58) y TBP cultivo- de 12,1% (7/58). Por otra parte la TB EP fue de 25,9% (15/58) con predominio en el sexo masculino 80%, las formas de tuberculosis y la comorbilidad asociada al al Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH), se observó una frecuencia de 6,9% (4/58) de personas con TB que tenían VIH, de las cuales el 5,2% correspondían a casos de VIH con tuberculosis extra pulmonar y 1,7% a casos de TBP BK+/VIH. Se debe continuar trabajando en la búsqueda de TB en pacientes sintomáticos respiratorios para un diagnóstico oportuno(AU)


Characterization of pulmonary tuberculosis in teenagers older than 15 years in thedr.Efrénjuradolópez day time hospital. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a public health disease in the expanding Ecuadorian territory that causes death and suffering for the population. The objective of the study is to characterize pulmonary tuberculosis in individuals over 15 years of age attending the "Dr. Efrén Jurado López" Day Hospital in the city of Guayaquil. A quantitative, descriptive, retrospective investigation was carried out. The study sample consisted of 58 patients of both genders over 15 years of age, diagnosed with tuberculosis in all its forms, treated in the context of the study between January 2017 and January 2018. A data sheet was applied in the collection of information observation validated by experts with prior informed consent of the patients studied. As a result, it was obtained that 72.4% were male and 27.6% female. The prevalence of diagnosis presented was symptomatic TBP BK + in 100%. On the other hand for the diagnosis by TBP culture + it was 87.9% (51/58) and TBP culture- of 12.1% (7/58). On the other hand, the TB TB was 25.9% (15/58) with a predominance in the male sex 80%, the forms of tuberculosis and the comorbidity associated with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), a frequency of 6 was observed, 9% (4/58) of people with TB who had HIV, of which 5.2% corresponded to HIV cases with extra pulmonary tuberculosis and 1.7% to cases of BK + / HIV TBP. Work should continue in the search for TB in symptomatic respiratory patients for a timely diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Ecuador/epidemiology
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 151-159, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115771

ABSTRACT

Background: Contact investigation is cardinal in the control of tuberculosis (TB) since it helps to stop its transmission. In Chile, the National TB Program strategy does not include latent TB infection testing, regular chemoprophylaxis or follow-up in adults. Active TB was found in only 1.2% of contacts at country-level during 2018. Aim: To evaluate the performance of a systematic screening of adult household contacts with targeted chemoprophylaxis and prolonged active follow-up. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort of household contacts in Santiago. Two face-to-face visits (at 0 and 12 weeks) that included QuantiFERON TB-Gold plus tests (QFT), chest radiography (CXR) at 0 and 24 weeks and, periodic text messaging or phone call follow-up for up to 48 weeks were implemented. Contacts with positive QFT were referred for TB chemoprophylaxis. Results: A total of 200 contacts were enrolled, 69% were migrants. At baseline evaluation, 45% had a positive QFT result and 1.6% had co-prevalent active TB. At follow-up, 13% contacts further converted to QFT (+), and 5.1% more were diagnosed with active TB (mean follow-up time 32 weeks). Of these 10 further active TB cases, 6 (60%) had a negative QFT and all (100%) had normal CXR at baseline; while three cases occurred in QFT converters. Conclusions: In this cohort of household contacts, 6.7 % were diagnosed with active TB (more than 2/3 at follow-up) and 13% had a late QFT (+) conversion. Active and prolonged contacts' follow-up are essential to detect new infections and tackle the TB epidemic in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Contact Tracing , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculin Test , Family Characteristics , Family Health , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies
16.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057197

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the most effective form of contact, as a possible intervention to reduce absenteeism in consultations of children with suspected or confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with prospective data collection, between March 2017 and February 2018. Patients were randomized into three groups to be reminded about the appointment: telephone contact, SMS or WhatsApp, or no intervention. A convenience sample was obtained, with a significance level of 5%. Results: 78 children were included, with a median age of four years old (zero to 14); 59.0% of them were in treatment for a latent infection and 6.4% had active tuberculosis. Among the 78 children, 74.4% lived in Curitiba (Sourhern Brazil); 62.8% lived with both parents; 38.5% of the parents had formal employment and 47.4% of the mothers were housewives; 50.8% of the fathers and 55.7% of the mothers had more than nine years of schooling. In 78.2% of the families, per capita income was up to 0.5 minimum wages; 27.3% were enrolled in social programs; 28.2% lived in homes provided by the government. There was a total of 238 interventions made: 85 (35.7%) by telephone contact, 78 (32.8%) by text message (WhatsApp was 97.2% of these) and 75 (31.5%) had no further contact. There was no statistical difference among the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics studied. The absenteeism rate was 24.0% and the abandonment rate was 16.7%. Giving a reminder to the patient's guardian prior to the consultation, regardless of the intervention (p=0.021) and specifically by WhatsApp message (p=0.032) was associated with no absenteeism, though it was not associated with abandonment of the treatment. Conclusions: Using new tools, such as WhatsApp, to remind guardians of appointments reduces absenteeism. Consequently, it may lead to a reduction in abandoning treatment and it may improvetreatment outcome of children with a tuberculosis infection or disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a forma mais efetiva de contato, como possibilidade de intervenção, para diminuir o absenteísmo em consultas de crianças com suspeita ou com tuberculose pulmonar. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado com coleta de dados prospectiva, entre março de 2017 e fevereiro de 2018. Os pacientes foram aleatorizados em três grupos para relembrar a consulta: contato telefônico; mensagens curtas (SMS) ou WhatsApp; e nenhuma intervenção. Amostra de conveniência, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Incluídas 78 crianças, mediana de idade quatro anos (zero a 14); 59,0% em tratamento para infecção latente e 6,4% com tuberculose ativa; 74,4% moravam em Curitiba, Paraná; 62,8% residiam com ambos os pais; 38,5% dos pais possuíam emprego formal e 47,4% das mães eram do lar; 50,8% dos pais e 55,7% das mães possuíam mais de nove anos de estudo; em 78,2% das famílias a renda per capita foi de até 0,5 salário mínimo; 27,3% estavam inscritas em programas sociais; e 28,2% residiam em casa cedida. Foram 238 intervenções: 85 (35,7%) por contato telefônico, 78 (32,8%) por mensagem de texto (WhatsApp 97,2%) e 75 (31,5%) sem nenhum contato adicional. Nas características sociodemográficas e culturais estudadas não houve diferença estatística. O absenteísmo foi de 24,0% e o abandono, de 16,7%. Lembrar o responsável previamente à consulta, independente da intervenção (p=0,021) e especificamente por mensagem por WhatsApp (p=0,032) foi associado ao não absenteísmo, porém não associado ao abandono. Conclusões: O uso de novas ferramentas, como o aplicativo WhatsApp, pode reduzir o absenteísmo, diminuir a possibilidade de abandono no seguimento e melhorar o desfecho do tratamento de crianças com tuberculose, seja a infecção ou a doença.


Subject(s)
Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Technology/instrumentation , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Parents , Appointments and Schedules , Referral and Consultation/trends , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Treatment Refusal/psychology , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Absenteeism , Mobile Applications/standards
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(5): e00075720, 20202. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100965

ABSTRACT

Diante da pandemia de COVID-19 e da escassez de ferramentas para orientar as ações de vigilância, controle e assistência de pessoas infectadas, o presente artigo tem por objetivo evidenciar áreas de maior vulnerabilidade aos casos graves da doença na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, caracterizada por grande heterogeneidade socioespacial. Para o estabelecimento dessas áreas foi elaborado um índice de vulnerabilidade aos casos graves de COVID-19 com base na construção, ponderação e integração de três planos de informação: a densidade intradomiciliar média, a densidade de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais (ambas por setor censitário) e a incidência de tuberculose por bairros no ano de 2018. Os dados referentes à densidade intradomiciliar e de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais provêm do Censo Demográfico de 2010 e os de incidência de tuberculose do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). A ponderação dos indicadores que compuseram o índice foi realizada por meio da Análise Hierárquica de Processos (AHP), e os planos de informação foram integrados pela Combinação Linear Ponderada por álgebra de mapas. A espacialização do índice de vulnerabilidade aos casos graves na cidade do Rio de Janeiro evidencia a existência de áreas mais vulneráveis em diferentes porções do território, refletindo a sua complexidade urbana. Contudo, é possível observar que as áreas de maior vulnerabilidade estão nas regiões Norte e Oeste da cidade e em comunidades carentes encrustadas nas áreas nobres como as zonas Sul e Oeste. A compreensão dessas condições de vulnerabilidade pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de estratégias de monitoramento da evolução da doença, bem como para o direcionamento das ações de prevenção e promoção da saúde.


Ante la pandemia de COVID-19, y la escasez de instrumentos para orientar las acciones de vigilancia, control y asistencia a las personas infectadas, el objetivo de este artículo persigue resaltar las áreas de mayor vulnerabilidad, donde se producen los casos graves de la enfermedad en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, caracterizada por una gran heterogeneidad socioespacial. Para el establecimiento de esas áreas se elaboró un índice de vulnerabilidad con los casos graves de COVID-19, a partir de la creación, ponderación e integración de tres planos de información: el de densidad intradomiciliaria media, el de densidad de personas con 60 años o más (ambas por sector de censo), y la incidencia de tuberculosis por barrios en el año 2018. Los datos referentes a la densidad intradomiciliaria y de personas con 60 años o más proceden del Censo Demográfico de 2010 y los de incidencia de tuberculosis del Sistema de Información para Enfermedades de Notificación (SINAN). La ponderación de los indicadores que formaron parte del índice se realizó mediante el Proceso Analítico Jerárquico (AHP por sus siglas en inglés) y los planos de información se integraron a través de la Combinación Lineal Ponderada por álgebra de mapas. La espacialización del índice de vulnerabilidad en lo que se refiere a los casos graves, en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, pone en evidencia la existencia de áreas más vulnerables en diferentes áreas del territorio, reflejando su complejidad urbana. Por ello, es posible observar que las áreas de mayor vulnerabilidad se encuentran en las Regiones Norte y Oeste de la ciudad, así como en comunidades sin recursos insertadas en áreas pudientes como las Zonas Sur y Oeste. La comprensión de estas condiciones de vulnerabilidad puede apoyar el desarrollo de estrategias de supervisión de la evolución de la enfermedad, así como la dirección de acciones de prevención y promoción de la salud.


Given the characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic and the limited tools for orienting interventions in surveillance, control, and clinical care, the current article aims to identify areas with greater vulnerability to severe cases of the disease in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a city characterized by huge social and spatial heterogeneity. In order to identify these areas, the authors prepared an index of vulnerability to severe cases of COVID-19 based on the construction, weighting, and integration of three levels of information: mean number of residents per household and density of persons 60 years or older (both per census tract) and neighborhood tuberculosis incidence rate in the year 2018. The data on residents per household and density of persons 60 years or older were obtained from the 2010 Population Census, and data on tuberculosis incidence were taken from the Brazilian Information System for Notificable Diseases (SINAN). Weighting of the indicators comprising the index used analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and the levels of information were integrated via weighted linear combination with map algebra. Spatialization of the index of vulnerability to severe COVID-19 in the city of Rio de Janeiro reveals the existence of more vulnerable areas in different parts of the city's territory, reflecting its urban complexity. The areas with greatest vulnerability are located in the North and West Zones of the city and in poor neighborhoods nested within upper-income parts of the South and West Zones. Understanding these conditions of vulnerability can facilitate the development of strategies to monitor the evolution of COVID-19 and orient measures for prevention and health promotion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Comorbidity , Incidence , Risk Factors , Epidemiological Monitoring , Spatial Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180386, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for the development of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from patients treated at the Júlia Kubitschek Hospital, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between October of 2012 and October of 2014. We evaluated sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and radiological variables. The outcome considered to identify associations between tuberculosis and the explanatory variables was the treatment prescribed. To evaluate the associations between MDR-TB and the same explanatory variables, the change in MDR-TB treatment was considered. Results: The factors associated with tuberculosis were alcoholism, comorbidities, pulmonary cavitations, and a radiological pattern suggestive of tuberculosis. Cavitation and previous treatment for tuberculosis were associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: Despite the significant progress made in the fight against tuberculosis, there is a need for coordinated actions that include social protection measures and patient support.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco de pacientes atendidos em um hospital de referência terciária para o desenvolvimento de tuberculose e tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR). Métodos: Estudo transversal baseado em dados obtidos de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Júlia Kubitschek, na cidade de Belo Horizonte (MG), entre outubro de 2012 e outubro de 2014. As variáveis utilizadas foram agrupadas em características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, clínicas e radiológicas. O desfecho considerado para verificar associações entre tuberculose e variáveis explicativas foi o tratamento prescrito para tuberculose. Para avaliar a associação entre a tuberculose resistente e as mesmas variáveis explicativas considerou-se a mudança de tratamento para TBMR. Resultados: Alcoolismo, padrão radiológico sugestivo de tuberculose, presença de comorbidades e presença de cavitações pulmonares foram fatores associados à tuberculose. A TBMR foi associada a tratamento prévio para tuberculose e presença de cavitações. Conclusões: Apesar dos importantes progressos na luta contra a tuberculose, é necessário um conjunto de ações articuladas que incluam medidas de proteção social e suporte aos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200205, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136899

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is lower than in adults. In Brazil, the diagnosis of PTB is based on a diagnostic score system (DSS). This study aims to study the role of Xpert in children and adolescents with PTB symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 referral centers to TB. Children and adolescents (0-19 years old) whose respiratory samples were submitted to Xpert were included. Statistical analysis (bivariate and logistic regression) to assess the simultaneous influence of TB-related variables on the occurrence of Xpert detectable in TB cases was done. To evaluate the agreement or disagreement between Xpert results with acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and cultures, κ method was used (significancy level of 5%). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were included in the study and PTB occurred in 43 patients (49%) and Xpert was detectable in 21 patients (24%). Adolescents and positive culture results were independent predictive variables of Xpert positivity. DSS sensitivity compared with the final diagnosis of TB was 100% (95% CI, 88.1-100%), specificity was 97.2% (95% CI, 85.5-99.9%). The accuracy of the method was 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Xpert contributed to diagnosis in 9% of patients with AFB and in culture negative cases. DSS indicated relevance for this diagnostic approach of intrathoracic TB (ITB) in reference centers for presenting data both with high sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Referral and Consultation , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
20.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(3)sept.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094633

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar (TB) es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud estimó para el año 2017 alrededor de 10 millones de personas enfermas y 1,3 millones de muertes. La facultad que posee MTB para modular la respuesta inmune, sobrevivir y persistir bajo el ambiente hostil en el hospedero y en la TB latente ha sido ampliamente investigada, y requiere de regulación y control de la expresión genética. El objetivo es presentar una revisión de las investigaciones relacionadas con los reguladores de la expresión de genes de MTB que están asociados con la virulencia, persistencia y supervivencia en la TB latente. Se hizo una revisión de las investigaciones de los últimos 20 años. Se concluye que MTB posee una maquinaria genética que controla la expresión de genes que participan en virulencia y persistencia, en respuesta a la hipoxia, estrés oxidativo, falta de nutrientes y pH ácido. Entre ellos, participan los sistemas de dos componentes, factores sigma y reguladores transcripcionales. En algunos casos se ha comprobado que funcionan interconectados como una red. Los hallazgos de las investigaciones aportan conocimientos para el descubrimiento de nuevos blancos para el desarrollo de drogas antituberculosas, nuevas vacunas y métodos de diagnóstico de la TB, con el propósito de proveer nuevas estrategias para el control de la enfermedad(AU)


Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization estimated about 10 million sick people and 1.3 million deaths in 2017. The ability of MTB to modulate the immune response, survive and persist under the hostile environment in the host and in latent TB has been extensively investigated, and requires regulation and control of genetic expression. The objective is to present a review of research related to regulators of MTB gene expression that are associated with virulence, persistence and survival in latent TB. A review of the investigations of the last 20 years was made. Finally, it is concluded that MTB has a genetic machinery that controls the expression of genes that participate in virulence and persistence in response to hypoxia, oxidative stress, lack of nutrients and acidic pH. Among them, two-component systems, sigma factors and transcriptional regulators participate. It has been proven that they work interconnected as a network in some cases. The research findings provide insights for the discovery of new targets for the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs, new vaccines and methods for diagnosis of TB, with the purpose of providing new strategies for disease control(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Virulence Factors
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