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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 151-159, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019551


ABSTRACT Background: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL) and 20 healthy adolescents. Methods: We evaluated CD8 and γδ T-cell degranulation by measurement of CD107a membrane expression after stimulation with lysates from BCG (10 µg/mL) and H37RA Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, 10 µg/mL). Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. Results: TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. Higher baseline HLA-DR expression and lower mycobacterial-stimulated expression was found within the HIV-infected group. Conclusions: Similar degranulation in stimulated CD8+ and TCR γδ T-cells from HIV-infected adolescents, when compared to healthy controls suggests long-term immunological preservation with immune reconstitution under successful cART. However, differences in HLA-DR expression may represent ongoing inflammation and lower specific responses in HIV-infected youth. These features may be relevant in the context of the precocity and severity of vertically acquired HIV infection.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Immunophenotyping , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Antigens, Bacterial/drug effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(6): 462-471, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984018


ABSTRACT The Region of D eletion 2 (RD2) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes reserved antigens that contribute to bacterial virulence. Among these antigens, Rv1983, Rv1986, Rv1987, and Rv1989c have been shown to be immunodominant in infected cattle; however, their diagnostic utility has not been evaluated in humans.In this study, we screened 87 overlapping synthetic peptides encoded by five RD2 proteins for diagnosing tuberculosis epitopes in 50 active tuberculosis (TB) cases, 31 non-tuberculosis patients and 36 healthy individuals. A pool of promising epitopes was then assessed for their diagnostic value in 233 suspected TB patients using a whole blood IFN-γ release assay.Only 10 peptides were recognized by more than 10% of active tuberculosis patients. The IFN-γ release responses to Rv1986-P9, P15, P16, Rv1988-P4, P11, and Rv1987-P11 were significantly higher in the active TB group than in the control groups (p < 0.05). The whole blood IFN-γ release assay based on these epitopes yielded a sensitivity of 51% and a specificity of 85% in diagnosing active tuberculosis, and the corresponding results using the T-SPOT.TB assay were 76% and 75%, respectively.In conclusion, these results suggest that the six epitopes from the RD2 of M. tuberculosis have potential diagnostic value in TB.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/blood , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/blood
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 475-478, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957442


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Based on reports, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is believed to induce the development of antibodies that are considered to be biological indicators for the diagnosis of some other diseases. However, conflicting results have been published regarding the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) in patients with tuberculosis. We aim to study the seroprevalence of ANCA in a population of Chinese patients with tuberculosis, which may lead to the misdiagnosis of vasculitic disorders. METHODS: The study was conducted from January 2016 to May 2017 to evaluate the presence of ANCA in 103 Chinese patients using indirect immunofluorescent assay. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) and anti-proteinase 3 (PR3) detection. RESULTS: Perinuclear ANCA (p-ANCA) was detected in 4.8% (5/103) of patients, whereas cytoplasmic ANCA (c-ANCA) was not detected; 1.9% (2/103) of patients with tuberculosis was positive for anti-MPO antibodies, and none had anti-PR3 antibodies. Both anti-MPO-positive patients were diagnosed with ANCA-associated vasculitides. CONCLUSIONS: ANCA positivity may be more related to vasculitis and immunological disorders than to a M. tuberculosis infection. Therefore, to improve diagnostic accuracy, patients with M. tuberculosis who are ANCA positive should be investigated for concurrent diseases, including the effects of drugs. Therefore, even in tuberculosis epidemic area, ANCA seropositivity, detected by ELISA, is still more suggestive of ANCA-associated vasculitides.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Tuberculosis/blood , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , China/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 34(4): 226-235, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990841


Resumen La tuberculosis es un problema de salud mundial exacerbado por la ausencia de una vacuna eficaz y la emergencia de cepas multidrogo resistentes. La inmunidad innata, clave en la susceptibilidad a tuberculosis, está asociada a polimorfismos genéticos en TLRs (Toll Like Receptors), VDR (Vitamin D Receptor), INF-γ, TNF-α, entre otros. Recientemente, también a nueve genes causantes de susceptibilidad mendeliana a enfermedades micobacterianas (MSMD), incluyendo genes autosómicos y ligados al cromosoma X. Después de décadas de exitoso manejo, Chile reportó mantención de la mortalidad, aumento en la incidencia de tuberculosis en todas sus formas y casos multidrogo resistentes. La incidencia es mayor en Norte y Centro, donde la Región Metropolitana mostró incremento de población migrante latinoamericana. Consecuentemente, la alta persistencia de la incidencia en tales zonas geográficas, podría asociarse a poblaciones portadoras de polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido (SNP)s y/o MSMD, confiriendo susceptibilidad genética a tuberculosis y/o a BCG diseminada y otros patógenos intramacrofágicos, similar a lo descrito en poblaciones de Europa, Asia, África y América. En conclusión, proponemos considerar la predisposición genética de la población actual, al momento de diseñar políticas nacionales de salud pública para erradicar la tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis is a global health problem exacerbated by the absence of an effective vaccine and emergence of extensive antibiotic-resistant strains. Innate immunity is key to tuberculosis susceptibility, since it is associated with genetic polymorphisms in TLRs (Toll Like Receptors), VDR (Vitamin D Receptor), INF-γ, TNF-α, among others. Recently, also to nine Mendelian Susceptibility Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD) -causing genes, including autosomal and X-linked genes. After decades of successful management, Chile reported maintenance of mortality and increase in tuberculosis under 15 years and multidrug resistant cases incidence. Moreover, incidence is higher in the North and the Center, where Metropolitan Region showed a sustained increment of the Latin American migrant population. Consequently, the high incidence persistence in such geographic areas could be associated with populations carrying SNPs genetic polymorphisms types and/or MSMD that confer genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis and/or BCG dissemination and other intramacrophagic pathogens, similar to that described in certain populations in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. Corollary, we propose to consider genetic predisposition of the current population, at the time of designing national public health policies to eradicate tuberculosis.

Humans , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/immunology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Immunity, Innate
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(2): 155-161, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839201


Abstract Objective: Maintaining a right balance between Th17 and Treg might be critical to the immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to assess whether the Th17/Treg balance is altered in active TB patients. Methods: 250 study subjects (90 active TB patients, 80 latent TB subjects, and 80 healthy controls) were recruited for the study. The expression of Th17 and Treg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the 250 subjects was investigated by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of cytokines IL-17 and IL-10, which are related to Th17 and Treg, respectively, were determined by ELISA. Results: The percentages of Th17 and Treg in PBMCs from active TB patients were significantly higher than those from latent TB or control groups (Th17: 4.31 ± 1.35% vs. 1.58 ± 0.71% or 1.15 ± 0.49%, p < 0.05; Treg: 11.44 ± 2.69% vs. 7.54 ± 1.56% or 4.10 ± 0.99%, p < 0.05). The expression of IL-17 and IL-10 was significantly increased in active TB patients in comparison to that in latent TB or control groups (IL-17: 16.85 ± 9.68 vs. 7.23 ± 5.19 or 8.21 ± 5.51 pg/mL, p < 0.05; IL-10: 28.70 ± 11.27 vs. 20.25 ± 8.57 or 13.94 ± 9.00 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an altered balance of Treg/Th17 in active TB patients, with higher percentages of Th17 and Treg in PBMCs. Further research on this imbalance may offer a new direction for TB treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-17/blood , Flow Cytometry
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 310-319, mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745628


Background: In Chile, colorectal cancer (CRC) is often diagnosed in late stages. Thus, surgical treatment must be complemented with chemotherapy. KRAS mutations and microsatellite instability have been detected in these tumors. However, the response to treatment in patients without KRAS mutations varies and requires a better understanding. Aim: To determine the frequency and distribution of somatic point mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and microsatellite instability status (MSI) in patients with colon cancer (CC). Material and Methods: A prospective observational study of patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer. Tumor-derived DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the most frequent mutations of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA. PCR was also used to analyze MSI. Results: Fifty-eight patients with sporadic CC were analyzed, 16 showed KRAS mutations (G12R, G12D, G12V, G13D) and out of the 42 patients that did not show any mutation, 10 had mutations in BRAF (V600E) and PIK3CA (E542K, E545D, E545K, Q546E, H1047R). BRAF mutations alone or in combination with PIK3CA mutations were observed in 27% of high MSI tumors and in 2% of tumors without instability (p < 0.049). A higher percentage of high MSI tumors were located in the right colon (p < 0.001), and showed BRAF mutation (p < 0.020). Conclusions: The highest percentage of high MSI and BRAF mutations was observed in the right colon. Therefore, this study suggests the presence of different molecular features between right and left colon tumors that should be considered when defining the therapeutic management.

Animals , Mice , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , /genetics , /genetics , Interleukins/genetics , Mice, Knockout , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Macrophages/pathology , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 117 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000991


INTRODUÇÃO: A tuberculose (TB), doença crônica infecciosa causada por Mycobacterium tuberculosis, é considerada um grave problema de saúde pública no país. A caracterização de antígenos protéicos e/ou lipídios que induzem uma resposta imunológica no hospedeiro, torna-se um importante passo para o desenvolvimento de novas ferramentas de diagnóstico e resposta terapêutica. Dentre os diferentes antígenos, em especial a mammalian cell entry protein 1A (proteína Mce1A), e os fosfolipídios da parede celular do bacilo como a cardiolipina (CL), os fosfatidilinositol (FI), fosfatidilcolina (FC), fosfatidiletanolamina (FE) e o sulfatide (SL), são, em sua maioria altamente imunogênicos, podendo então ser úteis no sorodiagnóstico. Portanto, o objetivo do estudo é avaliar a produção de anticorpos anti- Mce1A...

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB), chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is still a serious public health problem in the country. The characterization of protein and/or lipids antigens that induce an immune response in the host, it is an important step in the development of new diagnostic tools and monitoring TB treatment response. Among the different antigens, particularly mammalian cell entry protein 1A (Mce1A protein), and phospholipids from the cell wall of bacillus such as cardiolipin (CL), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PTC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sulfatide (SL), are highly immunogenic and can be used for improvement of the serodiagnosis. Therefore, the aim of the study is to evaluate the production of anti-Mce1A...

Humans , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/pathology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 25(3): 259-269, jul.-set. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715499


La relación de la tuberculosis, el Bacillus Calmette-Guérin y las vacunas de tuberculosis como dominio bajo estudio, parte del hecho de que la única vacuna disponible hoy para prevenir la tuberculosis en humanos es la BCG, y el mejoramiento de ella o el desarrollo de nuevas vacunas es estratégico para el control de esta enfermedad. Este estudio pretende contribuir con estas importantes investigaciones a partir de los estudios patentométricos, y tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis métrico que permita describir la productividad de patentes sobre tuberculosis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin y vacunas de tuberculosis en un determinado periodo de tiempo. Para el estudio de la productividad se analizó el comportamiento de indicadores temporales y geográficos en el dominio, en el que se utilizaron técnicas y herramientas apropiadas para los documentos de patentes. A la investigación de la tuberculosis como enfermedad infecciosa transmisible se le han dedicado grandes esfuerzos. La tuberculosis fue considerada hasta hace poco un problema de salud de los países en desarrollo, mientras hoy, con la reemergencia de la enfermedad, los países desarrollados han acaparado su investigación; sin embargo, estos esfuerzos no han sido proporcionales con la investigación dedicada a una nueva generación de vacunas contra esta enfermedad y no existen nuevas patentes que lo demuestren...

As an object of study, the relationship between tuberculosis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and tuberculosis vaccines starts from the fact that the only vaccine currently available to prevent tuberculosis in humans is BCG, and its improvement or the development of new vaccines is a key strategy to control the disease. The present study intends to make a contribution to such important research from a patent metrics perspective. Its purpose is to conduct a metric analysis allowing to describe the productivity of patents for tuberculosis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and tuberculosis vaccines in a given time period. For the productivity study, an analysis was carried out of the behavior of temporal and geographic indicators in the domain, using techniques and tools suitable for patent documents. Research into tuberculosis as an infectious communicable disease has received great attention. Until recently, tuberculosis was considered to be a health problem in the developing world. However, after its re-emergence, research has been mainly conducted in developed countries. But such efforts have not been in proportion to research aimed at developing a new generation of vaccines against the disease, and there are no new patents supporting them...

Humans , Patent Indicators , Tuberculosis/immunology , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis Vaccines/therapeutic use
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(3): 363-368, May-June 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676874


We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1-or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-a, IL-12p40 and IFN-I production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease.

Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Population Groups/genetics , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , /immunology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 131-139, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670411


The goal of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). This assay used 20 amino acid-long, non-overlapped synthetic peptides that spanned the complete Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 and Ag85A sequences. The validation cohort consisted of 1,102 individuals who were grouped into the following five diagnostic groups: 455 patients with PTB, 60 patients with EPTB, 40 individuals with non-EPTB, 33 individuals with leprosy and 514 healthy controls. For the PTB group, two ESAT-6 peptides (12033 and 12034) had the highest sensitivity levels of 96.9% and 96.2%, respectively, and an Ag85A-peptide (29878) was the most specific (97.4%) in the PTB groups. For the EPTB group, two Ag85A peptides (11005 and 11006) were observed to have a sensitivity of 98.3% and an Ag85A-peptide (29878) was also the most specific (96.4%). When combinations of peptides were used, such as 12033 and 12034 or 11005 and 11006, 99.5% and 100% sensitivities in the PTB and EPTB groups were observed, respectively. In conclusion, for a cohort that consists entirely of individuals from Venezuela, a multi-antigen immunoassay using highly sensitive ESAT-6 and Ag85A peptides alone and in combination could be used to more rapidly diagnose PTB and EPTB infection.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antigens, Bacterial , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Peptides , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Peptides/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 11(2)abr.-jun. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-676606


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Tuberculose (TB) ainda é uma das principais infecções oportunistas em pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de tuberculose em pacientes portadores do HIV e estudar os fatores de risco associados.MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo do tipo descritivo e analítico.Pacientes atendidos entre janeiro de 2010 e abril de 2011no Serviço de HIV-AIDS da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória tiveram registrados dados demográficos, tabagismo,epidemiologia, contagem de células T CD4/CD8, carga viral HIV, terapia em uso e associação com TB.RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 715 pacientes. Destes,58,9% eram brancos, 59,9% homens, 59,3% heterossexuais,31,6% homo/bissexuais, 6,9% usuários de drogas injetáveis.A mediana de idade foi 44 anos e a do tempo de acompanhamento prévio de 5,7 anos. Havia 87% dos pacientes em uso de terapia antirretroviral e 32,7% eram tabagistas ou ex-tabagistas. Foi realizada quimioprofilaxia para TB em 6,7%dos pacientes. A mediana dos valores mais baixos da contagem de células CD4 foi de 191 células/mL. Foram relatados 80 casos de TB, prévios ou durante este período. Destes, 36casos foram de TB extrapulmonar, sendo 14 de forma miliar,12 ganglionar, cinco pleural, duas meníngea, duas óssea, uma pericárdica. Observou-se uma forte associação entre TB e o valor da contagem de células CD4 abaixo de 200 células/mL. Não foram observadas associações com escolaridade, idade,epidemiologia, cor ou carga viral HIV. Dois óbitos foram registrados em decorrência da TB. CONCLUSÃO: Constatou-se elevada a prevalência de TB entre pacientes HIV positivos, com nítida associação com o valor da contagem de células T CD4 abaixo de 200 células/mL.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of this disease in HIV-infected patients, its clinical presentation, and associated risk factors.METHOD: Retrospective cohort of HIV-infected patients attendedat the outpatient's clinic at Santa casa de Misericórdia de Vitoria between January 2010 and April 2011. Data were abstracted from medical records with demographics, smoking habits, epidemiology, T CD4/CD8 cells count, HIV viral load, therapy used and TB-associated disease. RESULTS: Seven hundred fifteen patients were studied. From these, 58.9% were white, 59.9% men, 59.3% with transmission by heterosexual intercourse, 31.6% bisexual men or men who had sex with men, 6.9% intravenous drug users. Median age was 44 years and median time since HIV diagnosis was 5.7 years. There were 87% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and 32.7% were current or past smokers. Treatment for latent TB was prescribed for 6.7% of the patients. Median CD4 cells nadir was 191 cells/mL. Eighty cases of TB were recorded, previous or during the study period. Thirty-six cases were extrapulmonary TB, with14 being miliary, 12 ganglionary, five pleural, two meningitides, two bone, and one pericardial TB. There was a strong association between tuberculosis and CD4 cells bellow 200cells/mL. No association was observed with school years,age, epidemiology, race or HIV-1 viral load. Two death events were recorded as a consequence of TB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TB among HIV-infected patients remains high with a strong association with CD4cells count bellow 200 cells/mL.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Prevalence , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/immunology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 234-238, Mar.-Apr. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673203


The formula proposed by Rich in 1951 explained the formation in a tuberculous lesion in a period that was unknown cellular functions, cytokines and other immunological aspects involved in granuloma formation by tuberculosis; its components are assembled conceptually to explain the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the granulomatous lesion in tuberculosis. In this manuscript, we report an update of Rich's formula based on the new and old concepts about pathogenic mechanisms involved in the granulomatous lesion in tuberculosis. Current knowledge allows us to conclude that the balance between the characteristics of the bacillus and host protective response is necessary to indicate the outcome of pathogenesis, infection or active disease and the necrosis degree of the tuberculosis lesion.

Humans , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/pathology , Adaptive Immunity , Bacterial Load , Granuloma/immunology , Granuloma/microbiology , Granuloma/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Models, Biological , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Virulence
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1183-1194, Dec. 2012. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659642


In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

Animals , Male , Mice , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/adverse effects , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , /adverse effects , /immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger/adverse effects , Spleen/immunology , Transfection , Tuberculosis Vaccines/adverse effects , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jul-Sept; 30(3): 323-331
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143978


Background: Culture filtrate proteins (CFPs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are potential vaccine candidates. Objective: The aim was to study the influence of iron levels on CFPs and assess the immuno-protective potential of defined antigenic fractions from high (8 μg Fe/mL) and low iron (0.02 μg Fe / mL) cultures of M. tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The CFPs of M. tuberculosis from high (CFP-high) and low (CFP-low) iron conditions were first compared to identify iron-regulated proteins and then fractionated to obtain ten antigen pools (CF-Ags H1- H5 and L1-L5) that were used to assess the immune response of TB patients and normal healthy controls. Results: Iron limitation resulted in the up-regulation of two novel iron-regulated low-molecular-weight proteins Irp-1 (in CF-Ag L4) and Irp-2 (in CF-Ag L5) and repression of two ESAT proteins (identified with monoclonal antibody HYB 76.8). The median stimulation indices (SIs) against most of the CF-Ags were high in pulmonary TB patients. The CF-Ags L1 and L2 showed statistically significant SI (P values of 0.0027 and 0.0029 respectively); the % case recognition was high with these antigens as well as with L4 ( P = 0.0275). IFN-γ in response to these CF-Ags was significantly high in the endemic normals; maximal expression was seen with CF-Ag L5 (median value of 233 pg mL -1 ) that was higher than the corresponding H5 (140 pg mL -1 ) and H3 and L3 (205 and 206 pg mL -1 respectively). Conclusions: CF-Ags L5, H3 and L3 showed immuno-protective potential in this geographical location.

Adult , Antigens, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Male , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/microbiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(1): 134-137, Jan.-Feb. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614927


Interleukin 8 (CXCL8) is an autocrine chemokine specific for the chemoattraction and activation of granulocytes, NKT cells and T lymphocytes. Patients with tuberculosis and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection were assessed for the spontaneous expression of CXCR1 (CD128) and CXCR2 on lymphocytes and monocytes. Compared with ex vivo profiles, increased spontaneous CXCR2 expression and normal CXCR1 expression were found on lymphocytes in two out of 59 individuals. Monocytes showed normal ex vivo profiles for both receptors. After stimulation with purified protein derivative, the in vitro levels of CXCL8 were below the median levels of all patients with prior tuberculosis. Spontaneous CXCR2 modulation did not cause notable variation in the in vitro levels of CXCL8.

Interleucina 8 (CXCL8) é quimiocina autócrina específica para atração e ativação de granulócitos, assim como NKT e linfócitos T. Pacientes com infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e latentes foram recrutados para comparar expressão espontânea dos receptores CXCR1 (CD128) e CXCR2 nos mononucleares. Comparado com perfis ex vivo dos linfócitos, observou-se aumento em CXCR2; porém, expressão normal de CXCR1 em dois dos 59 indivíduos. Monócitos mostraram perfis ex vivo normais; após estimulação específica in vitro das citocinas estudadas com extrato bruto total, não se encontrou correspondência na anomalia observada ex vivo. Modulação espontânea de CXCR2 não causou grande variação in vitro nos níveis de CXCL8.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Tuberculosis/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Flow Cytometry , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(1): 68-73, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614553


The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092)were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092) gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Computational Biology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/analysis , Gene Knockout Techniques , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
Salvador; s.n; 2012. 86 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000893


Introdução: As doenças respiratórias alérgicas, tais como rinite e asma, afetam elevada proporção da população brasileira. Estima-se que mais de 58 mil pessoas foram afetadas por alguma destas condições no Brasil em 2002-2003. Estudos realizados em humanos e animais sugerem que a exposição ambiental ao Mycobacterium tuberculosis ou imunização com o M. bovis (vacina BCG), podem estar relacionadas à proteção contra doenças alérgicas. Objetivo: Investigar a influência da resposta Th1 a antígenos micobacterianos sobre a modulação da resposta do tipo Th2 ao ácaro Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Derp). Métodos: O estudo compreendeu duas fases. Para avaliar o efeito da resposta à revacinação com o BCG sobre a modulação de uma resposta do tipo Th2 ao Derp, foi realizado um estudo de intervenção randomizado com coorte prospectiva, e os voluntários que participaram compuseram a Amostra 1. Para avaliar o efeito da resposta à infecção latente com M. tuberculosis sobre a modulação de uma resposta do tipo Th2 ao Derp, foi feito um estudo de caso-controle e os voluntários que participaram compuseram a Amostra 2. A população foi composta por adultos jovens com idade entre 19 a 33 anos. Todos responderam ao questionáro ISAAC...

Introduction: Allergic respiratory diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, affecting a high proportion of the Brazilian population. More than 58.000 people have been affected by some of these conditions in Brazil in 2002-2003. Studies in humans and animals suggest that environmental exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or immunization with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG), may be related to protection against allergic diseases. Objective: To investigate the influence of Th1 response to mycobacterial antigens on the modulation of Th2-type response to aeroallergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Derp). Methods: The study comprised two phases. To evaluate the effect of the response to revaccination with BCG on the modulation of a Th2-type response to Derp, we conducted a randomized intervention study with prospective cohort, and the volunteers composed the Sample 1. To evaluate the effect of latent response to infection with M. tuberculosis on the modulation of a Th2-type response to Derp, a study was made of case-control and the volunteers composed the Sample 2. The population consisted of young adults aged 19 to 33 years. All responded to questionnaire ISAAC...

Humans , Hypersensitivity/microbiology , Hypersensitivity/pathology , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/pathology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , BCG Vaccine/analysis , BCG Vaccine/immunology , BCG Vaccine/isolation & purification
JMB-Journal of Medical Bacteriology. 2012; 1 (2): 37-43
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-139764


Tuberculosis is a crucial health problem. Establishing a rapid, reliable and still inexpensive diagnostic method for tuberculosis seems to be substantial in developing countries where TB has very high incidence rate. An Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay [ELISA] was established to detect serum antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Three kinds of antigens were used to prepare the solid phase for antibody assay including: purified protein derivative [PPD], M. tuberculosis Bacilli, and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin [BCG]. Sera of two main following groups were investigated in this study: sera samples from smear-positive, culture-positive and Tuberculin Skin Test-positive TB patients and sera samples from smear-negative, culture negative and TST-negative healthy individuals. Among the antigens used, BCG produced higher sensitivity and specificity in the assay. With PPD as the solid phase, higher sensitivity, but lower specificity was observed in comparison with BCG. Both, low response and noise [non-specific binding] were observed with TB bacilli as the solid phase in the assay. Using BCG solid phase system in this method resulted in higher sensitivity in comparison to single antigen solid phase systems. In addition, we were able to circumvent the problem of non-specific bindings in more popular multi-antigenic solid systems such as PPD. By using this new indirect ELISA, a rapid, reliable and still inexpensive diagnosis of tuberculosis might be possible. Although, further investigations are required to our result

Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/genetics , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood