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2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(7): 2379-2386, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011840

ABSTRACT

Resumo A tuberculose tem estreita relação com as condições de vida das pessoas. O presente estudo classifica os municípios brasileiros de acordo com a presença ou ausência de casos de tuberculose (TB) e sua forma drogarresistente (TB-DR), e os descreve quanto às condições de saúde da população, os indicadores de controle da tuberculose, perfil demográfico e socioeconômico. Em 2014, 327 municípios registraram casos de TB-DR. Regiões integradas de desenvolvimento ou regiões metropolitanas concentraram 80,1% dos casos de TB-DR do País. Os municípios com casos de TB-DR tiveram piores indicadores de desfecho da TB, mas maiores percentuais de realização de exame de cultura, além de mais habitantes e melhores indicadores socioeconômicos. Os 3.644 municípios com casos de TB, mas sem casos de TB-DR, tiveram os piores indicadores socioeconômicos entre os três grupos. Os 1.594 municípios sem casos de TB tiveram as menores taxas de desemprego e de detecção de AIDS, e maior cobertura de atenção básica. Os diferentes perfis encontrados no estudo podem dar suporte à lapidação de estratégias nacionais de controle da doença e sua forma drogarresistente no País.


Abstract Tuberculosis is closely related to living conditions. This study classifies Brazilian municipalities according to the occurrence of tuberculosis (TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) cases and describes them with regard to the population's health conditions, tuberculosis control indicators, demographic and socioeconomic profile. In 2014, 327 municipalities reported DR-TB cases. Integrated regions of development or metropolitan regions accounted for 80.1% of national DR-TB cases. Municipalities with DR-TB cases had worse TB outcome indicators, but higher culture test percentages, and more inhabitants and better socioeconomic indicators. The 3,644 municipalities with TB cases, but without DR-TB cases, had the worst socioeconomic indicators among the three groups. The 1,594 municipalities without TB cases had the lowest rates of unemployment and AIDS detection and greater coverage of primary healthcare. The different profiles found in the study can sustain improved national interventions for TB and drug-resistant TB control in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Cities , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 387-391, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974236

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-positive blood culture. Methods: Case-control study. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 2000 to 2015. Results: We reviewed medical records of 533 patients with culture-proven tuberculosis, of whom 27.2% (145/533) had blood culture available. Patients with mycobacteremia presented more frequently with abdominal tuberculosis, body mass index <18 kg/m2, and had lower hemoglobin and albumin levels. No differences were observed regarding HIV status. Conclusions: Few studies have reported on the characteristics associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteremia, especially among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative patients. Out of 145 tuberculosis-infected patients with blood culture results available, 21 turned out positive. Anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and a body mass index < 18 kg/m2 were associated with mycobacteremia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Tuberculosis/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers , Blood Culture , Mexico
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 641-646, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951817

ABSTRACT

Abstract DNA genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been widely applied in the understanding of disease transmission in many countries. The purpose of this study was to genotype the strains of M. tuberculosis isolated in patients with new tuberculosis (TB) cases in Minas Gerais, as well as to compare the similarity, discriminatory power, and agreement of the clusters between the IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorfism (RFLP) and 12 loci Variable Number Tandem Repeat - Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units (MIRU-VNTR) techniques. It was observed that 32% (66/204) of the isolated strains in the RFLP-IS6110 and 50.9% (104/204) of the isolated strains in the MIRU-VNTR presented a similarity of equal to or above 85%. The RFLP-IS6110 and MIRU-VNTR proved to contain a high discriminatory power. The similarity index resulting from the RFLP showed no recent transmission. Good agreement was observed between the techniques when clusters were detected; however, the best epidemiological relationship was found when using the RFLP-IS6110.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Minisatellite Repeats , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Brazil , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 112-117, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of the use of the molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF), under routine conditions, at a referral hospital in the Brazilian state of Bahia. Methods: This was a descriptive study using the database of the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of the Octávio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital, in the city of Salvador, and georeferencing software. We evaluated 3,877 sputum samples collected from symptomatic respiratory patients, under routine conditions, between June of 2014 and March of 2015. All of the samples were submitted to sputum smear microscopy and the Xpert MTB/RIF test. Patients were stratified by gender, age, and geolocation. Results: Among the 3,877 sputum samples evaluated, the Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 678 (17.5%), of which 60 (8.8%) showed resistance to rifampin. The Xpert MTB/RIF test detected M. tuberculosis in 254 patients who tested negative for sputum smear microscopy, thus increasing the diagnostic power by 59.9%. Conclusions: The use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, under routine conditions, significantly increased the detection of cases of tuberculosis among sputum smear-negative patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do teste rápido molecular automatizado Xpert MTB/RIF, utilizado para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis e sua resistência à rifampicina, em condições de rotina, em um hospital de referência no estado da Bahia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo utilizando o banco de dados do Laboratório de Micobacteriologia do Hospital Especializado Octávio Mangabeira, localizado na cidade de Salvador, e um programa de georreferenciamento. Entre junho de 2014 e março de 2015, foram incluídas no estudo 3.877 amostras de escarro coletadas de pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios em condições de rotina. Todas as amostras coletadas foram submetidas tanto à baciloscopia quanto a Xpert MTB/RIF. Os pacientes foram estratificados por sexo, idade e georreferenciamento. Resultados: Das 3.877 amostras de escarro analisadas, Xpert MTB/RIF detectou a presença de M. tuberculosis em 678 pacientes (17,5%). Desses, 60 (8,8%) apresentaram resistência à rifampicina. O Xpert MTB/RIF detectou 254 pacientes com baciloscopia negativa, representando um acréscimo diagnóstico de 59,9%. Conclusões: A implantação do Xpert MTB/RIF, sob condições de rotina, teve um impacto significativo no aumento da detecção de casos de tuberculose em pacientes com baciloscopia negativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Microscopy/methods , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 106-111, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The incidence of lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. In Brazil, there are few studies about nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD), and its prevalence is yet to be known. Our objective was to determine the specific etiology of the disease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as well as the frequency and diversity of NTM species in our sample of patients. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with NTMLD treated in a referral center located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 2003 and 2013. Results: Our sample comprised 100 patients. The most prevalent NTM species were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), in 35% of the cases; M. kansasii, in 17%; and M. abscessus, in 12%. A total of 85 patients had received previous treatment for tuberculosis. Associated conditions included structural abnormalities in the lungs, such as bronchiectasis, in 23% of the cases; COPD, in 17%; and immunosuppressive conditions, such as AIDS, in 24%. Conclusions: MAC and M. kansasii were the most prevalent species involved in NTMLD in the state, similarly to what occurs in other regions of Brazil. Data on regional epidemiology of NTMLD, its specific etiology, and associated conditions are essential to establish appropriate treatment, since each species requires specific regimens. Most patients with NTMLD had received previous tuberculosis treatment, which might lead to development of resistance and late diagnosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: A incidência de doença pulmonar causada por micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) tem aumentado em todo o mundo. No Brasil, há poucos estudos sobre doença pulmonar por MNT, e sua prevalência ainda não é conhecida. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a etiologia específica da doença no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, bem como a frequência e a diversidade das espécies de MNT em nossa amostra de pacientes. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados com doença pulmonar por MNT atendidos em um centro de referência localizado na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, entre 2003 e 2013. Resultados: Nossa amostra foi composta por 100 pacientes. As espécies de MNT mais prevalentes foram Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, complexo M. avium), em 35% dos casos; M. kansasii, em 17%; e M. abscessus, em 12%. Um total de 85 pacientes havia feito tratamento anterior para tuberculose. Condições associadas incluíram anormalidades estruturais nos pulmões, como bronquiectasias, em 23% dos casos; DPOC, em 17%; e condições imunossupressoras, como AIDS, em 24%. Conclusões: MAC e M. kansasii foram as espécies mais prevalentes envolvidas na doença pulmonar por MNT no estado, à semelhança do que ocorre em outras regiões do Brasil. Dados sobre a epidemiologia regional da doença pulmonar por MNT, sua etiologia específica e condições associadas são fundamentais para se estabelecer um tratamento adequado, já que cada espécie requer um esquema específico. A maioria dos pacientes com doença pulmonar por MNT havia feito tratamento anterior para tuberculose, o que pode levar a desenvolvimento de resistência e diagnóstico tardio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(8): e170445, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified human zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis as a neglected issue in the developing world. In a recent cross-sectional study in Brazil, three of 189 TB patients presented with a coinfection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and were selected as cases for this study. OBJECTIVE The aim was to evaluate risk factors (RF) for zoonotic TB in an urban area of Brazil in order to guide preventive programmes. METHODS A matched case-control study was carried out nested within a cross-sectional study. For each of the three cases, 14 age- and sex-matched controls (TB due to M. tuberculosis) were selected. FINDINGS Zoonotic potential exposures (ZE) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) were independently associated with zoonotic TB in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS ZE by occupation and consumption of raw milk and derivative products that place individuals in direct and indirect contact with animals and their excretions/secretions increase the risk for zoonotic TB in Brazil, especially among those with EPTB. Therefore, measures such as efficient control of bovine TB, distribution of pasteurised milk and its derivative products, and the diagnosis and monitoring of zoonotic TB in humans are essential steps, especially in developing countries where bovine TB is enzootic, and further studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Bovine/epidemiology , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 204-210, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782105

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates by DNA fingerprinting has contributed to tuberculosis (TB) control. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of MTB isolates from Tehran province in Iran. METHODS MTB isolates from 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan TB patients were fingerprinted by standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. RESULTS The copy number of IS6110 ranged from 10-24 per isolate. The isolates were classified into 22 clusters showing ≥ 80% similarity by RFLP analysis. Fourteen multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were grouped into 4 IS6110-RFLP clusters, with 10 isolates [71% (95% CI: 45-89%)] in 1 cluster, suggesting a possible epidemiological linkage. Eighteen Iranian isolates showed ≥ 80% similarity with Afghan isolates. There were no strains with identical fingerprints. Spoligotyping of 70 isolates produced 23 distinct patterns. Sixty (85.7%) isolates were grouped into 13 clusters, while the remaining 10 isolates (14.2%) were not clustered. Ural (formerly Haarlem4) (n = 22, 31.4%) was the most common family followed by Central Asian strain (CAS) (n = 18, 25.7%) and T (n = 9, 12.8%) families. Only 1strain was characterized as having the Beijing genotype. Among 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan MTB isolates, 25% (95% CI: 16-37) and 70% (95% CI: 39-89) were categorized as Ural lineage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A higher prevalence of Ural family MTB isolates among Afghan patients than among Iranian patients suggests the possible transmission of this lineage following the immigration of Afghans to Iran.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Cluster Analysis , DNA Fingerprinting , Molecular Epidemiology , Genotype , Iran , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 39(1): 44-50, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783028

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases) and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients) were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms), for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 385 (14%) were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10%) were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8%) previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms) varied by department from 2–68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Only 21 (5%) of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23%) had a culture and 47 (20%) had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital), culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32%) and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%). Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and only 20% of previously treated TB had a culture and DST. Several departments did not perform culture or DST. These short comings must be improved if Guatemala is to curtail the spread of drug resistant forms of TB, while striving to eliminate all TB.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la eficacia de la ejecución de las directrices del Programa Nacional contra la Tuberculosis sobre cultivo y antibiograma en Guatemala, sobre todo en los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia negativa o con antecedentes de tratamiento antituberculoso, mediante la investigación de las tasas de notificación por departamentos (o zonas geográficas), por tipos y categorías de la enfermedad y el examen de los resultados del cultivo y el antibiograma. Métodos Estudio transversal de investigación operativa en el cual se fusionaron y se vincularon todos los pacientes registrados en el Programa Nacional contra la Tuberculosis y el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia en el 2013, tras la eliminación de los duplicados. Se calculó la proporción de casos con cultivo (en los casos nuevos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia negativa) y de casos con cultivo y antibiograma (en los casos anteriormente tratados) y se analizaron por departamentos. Resultados Se registraron 3 074 pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis (de todas las formas), lo cual representa una tasa de notificación de 20 casos por 100 000 habitantes. De estos pacientes, 2 842 fueron casos nuevos de tuberculosis, de los cuales 2 167 (76%) con diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar y baciloscopia positiva, 385 (14%) con tuberculosis pulmonar y baciloscopia negativa y 290 casos (10%) con diagnóstico de tuberculosis extrapulmonar. Los casos con antecedentes de tratamiento antituberculoso fueron 232 (8%). Las tasas de notificación (de todas las formas) según el departamento oscilaron entre 2 y 68 casos por 100 000 habitantes y las tasas más altas se observaron en el suroeste y en parte del noreste de Guatemala. De los casos nuevos de tuberculosis, 136 contaban con cultivo y 55 con antibiograma; los resultados de estas pruebas revelaron 33 casos completamente sensibles, 9 casos monorresistentes, 3 casos polirresistentes y 10 casos de tuberculosis multirresistente (MR). Solo 21 (5%) de los casos nuevos de tuberculosis pulmonar y baciloscopia negativa contaban con cultivo. De los 232 pacientes anteriormente tratados, 54 (23%) contaban con cultivo y 47 (20%) con antibiograma, cuyos resultados fueron 29 casos completamente sensibles, 7 monorresistentes, 2 polirresistentes y 9 casos de tuberculosis MR. De 22 departamentos (incluida la capital), en 7 (32%) se efectuaba cultivo y antibiograma a los casos nuevos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia negativa y en 13 departamentos (59%) a los casos de tuberculosis anteriormente tratada. Conclusiones Pese a la existencia de directrices nacionales, solo 5% de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia negativa contaba con cultivo y solo 20% de los casos de tuberculosis anteriormente tratada contaba con cultivo y antibiograma. En varios departamentos no se llevaban a cabo cultivos ni antibiogramas. Es preciso que se corrijan estas deficiencias en Guatemala si el país busca limitar la diseminación de la farmacorresistencia en su progreso hacia la eliminación total de la tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/statistics & numerical data , Guatemala
10.
Radiol. bras ; 48(2): 111-120, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746615

ABSTRACT

Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.


A avaliação de corpo inteiro em crianças era classicamente realizada com radiografias simples, cintilografia e tomografia por emissão de pósitrons combinada ou não à tomografia computadorizada, estes com a desvantagem de exposição à radiação ionizante. A ressonância magnética de corpo inteiro (RMCI), associada ao desenvolvimento de técnicas metabólicas e funcionais como difusão, trouxe a vantagem de uma avaliação global do paciente pediátrico sem os riscos da radiação ionizante habitualmente presente nos métodos radiológicos convencionais. A RMCI é um método rápido e sensível, com aplicação especial na área de pediatria na detecção e no monitoramento de lesões multifocais no corpo como um todo. Em pediatria, esta técnica é utilizada tanto em oncologia - no diagnóstico e rastreamento de tumores em pacientes portadores de síndromes genéticas, na avaliação da extensão de doenças e estadiamento oncológico, na avaliação da resposta terapêutica e no seguimento pós-terapêutico - como em lesões não neoplásicas - osteomielite multifocal, malformações vasculares e síndromes que comprometam múltiplas regiões do corpo. Esta revisão tem como objetivo mostrar as principais indicações do exame na população pediátrica e técnica de realização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Phosphotransferases/chemistry , Phosphotransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Computer Simulation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Oxidative Stress , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Tuberculosis/microbiology
12.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 67(1): 41-49, ene.-abr. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-761012

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en las últimas décadas se han desarrollado nuevas herramientas para disminuir el tiempo de diagnóstico de las infecciones por Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Objetivo: introducir nuevas herramientas para la identificación de M. tuberculosis y comparar los resultados con el cultivo en Löwenstein Jensen. Métodos: se estudiaron 1 368 muestras recibidas en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Tuberculosis del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, de agosto 2010 - agosto 2014. Las muestras después de procesadas fueron inoculadas en paralelo en Löwenstein Jensen y en BacT ALERT. Los resultados se ana­lizaron y compararon con relación al total de aislamientos, tiempo de detección de crecimiento y tasa de contaminación, se calcularon además los indicadores de desempeño del BacT ALERT. Resultados: por Bact/ ALERT se identificó Mycobacterium tuberculosis en 126 (98,5 por ciento) muestras y 116 (88,5 por ciento) por el Löwenstein Jensen. El tiempo de detección de crecimiento de Mycobacterium tuberculosis por el BacT/ ALERT fue de 16,6 días, dos veces menor que el obtenido por el Löwenstein Jensen (35,5 días). La tasa de contaminación por el Bact/ ALERT y Löwenstein Jensen fue de 11 por ciento y 7,8 por ciento, respectivamente. La sensibilidad, especificidad e índice de Youden fue de 99,1 por ciento, 99,0 por ciento y 0,98, respectivamente; y el índice de validez del 99 por ciento. Conclusiones: el sistema Bact/ ALERT resultó un método útil porque acortó significativamente el tiempo de diagnóstico de la tuberculosis permitiendo comenzar el tratamiento de forma oportuna, sobre todo en pacientes con baciloscopia negativa. El uso combinado del Löwenstein Jensen y medio líquido aseguró la recuperación del total de cepas de M. tuberculosis(AU)


Background: in recent decades, new tools have been developed to decrease the time of diagnosis of infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Objective: to introduce the new tools for identification of M. tuberculosis and compare the results with culture in Löwenstein Jensen. Methods: 1 368 samples received at the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory of the IPK from August 2010 to August 2014. After samples processed were inoculated in parallel on Löwenstein Jensen and BacT ALERT. The results obtained are analyzed and compared with respect to the total isolates, time detection of growth and contamination rate, the performance indicators of BacT ALERT also calculated. Results: by Bact / ALERT were identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 126 (98.5 percent) samples and 116 (88.5 percent) by Löwenstein Jensen. The time detection of growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by BacT / ALERT was 16.6 days, two times lower than that obtained by the Löwenstein Jensen (35.5 days). The contamination rate by Bact / ALERT and Löwenstein Jensen was 11 percent and 7.8 percent, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and Youden index was 99.1 percent, 99.0 percent and 0.98, respectively; and the validity index was 99 percent. Conclusions: bact / ALERT system proved a useful method because it significantly shortened the time of tuberculosis diagnosis and start allowing treatment in a timely manner, especially in smear-negative patients. The combined use of liquid medium and Löwenstein Jensen assured recovery of all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/transmission , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Colomb. med ; 46(1): 26-32, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753532

ABSTRACT

Background: The hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma, an organized cellular accumulation playing a key role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These structures sequester and contain mycobacterial cells preventing active disease, while long term maintenance of granulomas leads to latent disease. Clear understanding on mechanisms involved in granuloma formation and maintenance is lacking. Objective: To monitor granuloma formation and to determine gene expression profiles induced during the granulomatous response to M. tuberculosis (H37Ra). Methods: We used a previously characterized in vitro human model. Cellular aggregation was followed daily with microscopy and Wright staining for 5 days. Granulomas were collected at 24h, RNA extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix human microarrays. Results: Daily microscopic examination revealed gradual formation of granulomas in response to mycobacterial infection. Granulomatous structures persisted for 96 h, and then began to disappear. Conclusions: Microarray analysis identified genes in the innate immune response and antigen presentation pathways activated during the in vitro granulomatous response to live mycobacterial cells, revealing very early changes in gene expression of the human granulomatous response.


Antecedentes: La marca histológica de la tuberculosis es el granuloma, una acumulación celular organizada que cumple funciones claves en la defensa del hospedero contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Estas estructuras secuestran y confinan a las micobacterias previniendo el desarrollo de enfermedad activa; el mantenimiento a largo plazo de los granulomas conlleva al establecimiento de latencia. Un mejor entendimiento de los mecanismos involucrados en la formación y mantenimiento del granuloma es necesario. Objetivo: Monitorear la formación del granuloma y determinar los patrones de expresión génica inducidos durante la respuesta granulomatosa a M. tuberculosis (H37Ra). Métodos: En este estudio se empleó un modelo in vitro humano previamente caracterizado. La agregación celular fue examinada diariamente mediante microscopia óptica y tinción de Wright por 5 días. Para analizar la expresión génica, los granulomas fueron colectados a las 24 h, se extrajo el RNA sometiéndolo a hibridación a micromatrices de Affymetrix. Resultados: Se observó la formación gradual de granulomas en respuesta a la infección. Los granulomas persistieron por 96 h, y luego se desvanecieron. Conclusiones: Se identificaron genes de la respuesta inmune innata y vías de presentación antigénica activadas durante la respuesta granulomatosa in vitro a células micobacteriales vivas, lo cual reveló alteraciones tempranas de la expresión génica en el inicio de la respuesta granulomatosa humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Granuloma/pathology , Microarray Analysis/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis/pathology , Cell Aggregation , Gene Expression Regulation , Granuloma/genetics , Granuloma/microbiology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/microbiology
14.
Invest. clín ; 55(4): 332-351, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783088

ABSTRACT

Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors.


El municipio Sucre es un área densamente poblada del este de Caracas, Venezuela, con más casos de tuberculosis que otros municipios del país. Para establecer las áreas en el municipio Sucre con la mas alta prevalencia de tuberculosis y determinar sí la distribución de cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis es diferente de las encontradas previamente en el Oeste de Caracas y el resto de Venezuela, se recolectaron los datos de todos los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en el municipio en el 2005-6. Además, se aplicaron dos estudios de epidemiología molecular, el primero con 44 aislados en 2006 y el segundo con 131 aislados del 2006 al 2011, todos caracterizados por spoligotyping. Fue aplicada la técnica MIRU VNTR15 sobre 21 aislados agrupados. Con spoligotyping, los patrones encontrados fueron SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), presentando una distribución similar en otras partes de Venezuela, con la diferencia de que el SIT42 y el SIT20 fueron comunes en el municipio. MIRU VNTR15 mostró que seis de las siete cepas SIT17 pertenecían a un gran grupo encontrado previamente en Venezuela, mientras las cepas SIT42, estaban relacionados a un grupo concentrado en los Barrios Unión y Maca, con un patrón MIRU VNTR no visto previamente en Venezuela. Los resultados indicarían que un gran porcentaje de tuberculosis en el municipio Sucre es causada por transmisión activa de dos familias, una reflejando comunicación con el resto del país, y otra sugiriendo que es un aislado propio de algunos Barrios del municipio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cluster Analysis , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Pilot Projects , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Species Specificity , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Urban Population , Venezuela/epidemiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 841-843, July-Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727011

ABSTRACT

We evaluated a multiplex-PCR to differentiate Mycobacterium bovis from M. tuberculosis Complex (MTC) by one step amplification based on simultaneous detection of pncA 169C > G change in M. bovis and the IS6110 present in MTC species. Our findings showed the proposed multiplex-PCR is a very useful tool for complementation in differentiating M. bovis from other cultured MTC species.


Subject(s)
Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Amidohydrolases/genetics , DNA Transposable Elements , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Mycobacterium bovis/classification , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 365-372, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723108

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium bovis is the main causative agent of animal tuberculosis (TB) and it may cause TB in humans. Molecular typing of M. bovis isolates provides precise epidemiological data on issues of inter- or intra-herd transmission and wildlife reservoirs. Techniques used for typing M. bovis have evolved over the last 2 decades, and PCR-based methods such as spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) have been extensively used. These techniques can provide epidemiological information about isolates of M. Bovis that may help control bovine TB by indicating possible links between diseased animals, detecting and sampling outbreaks, and even demonstrating cases of laboratory cross-contamination between samples. This review will focus on techniques used for the molecular typing of M. bovis and discuss their general aspects and applications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Molecular Typing/methods , Mycobacterium bovis/classification , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology/methods , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/veterinary
17.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 30(2): 103-110, jun. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-719131

ABSTRACT

Background: Smear forms (BK) should provide some crucial patient's information that permits the laboratory to select the appropriate bacteriological techniques for each case, a process that would fail if such information was inaccurate or omitted. Objective: To evaluate the quality of information contained in BK forms sent to laboratory for individual's diagnosis or treatment monitoring of tuberculosis (TB) in the Chilean Health Services. Methods: Descriptive study based on secondary data of all forms of smear-positive (BK+) in 2012 (n = 232) obtained from the population allocated to the South Metropolitan Health Service. BK+ forms were matched to BK+ cases handled in the TB program to assess the validity or omission of information on treatment situation (previous or current) and the current follow-up time. Results: Diagnostic BK were 62.9% (16.4% with previous treatment); of these 74.7% correctly reported a history of TB treatment but in patients previously treated the percentage falls to 66.7%. Among those under treatment control 26.7% were classified as previously treated and 43% did not recorded the follow-up time. Discussion: BK forms omit or incorrectly recorded fundamental information that should lead the laboratory procedures. As the finding of TB involves each and every one in the health personnel, we recommend continuous training stressing the inclusion of treatment's history and risk factors while the forms should avoid ambiguity.


Introducción: El formulario de baciloscopía (BK) debe aportar información esencial para que el laboratorio seleccione las técnicas bacteriológicas correspondientes, las cuales dejan de realizarse si ésta es incorrecta u omitida. Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de la información contenida en los formularios de BK enviados al laboratorio para diagnóstico o control de tratamiento de la tuberculosis (TB) en los servicios de salud en Chile. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con datos secundarios, de todos los formularios de BK con resultado positivo (BK+) en 2012 (n = 232), obtenidos de la población asignada al Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur. Los formularios de BK+ del laboratorio se cotejaron con los casos BK+ manejados en el programa-TB, para evaluar la validez u omisión de la situación de tratamiento (previo o actual) y el tiempo de tratamiento. Resultados: Las BK+ de diagnóstico fueron 62,9% (16,4% con tratamiento anterior); 74,7% reporta correctamente el antecedente de tratamiento antituberculoso, pero en los pacientes tratados anteriormente esa proporción baja a 66,7%. De las BK+ de control de tratamiento (37,1%), el 26,7% se catalogan como pacientes antes tratados y el 43% no registra el tiempo que está bajo tratamiento. Discusión: En los formularios de BK se omite o registra erróneamente información clave para el proceder del laboratorio. Puesto que la pesquisa de casos involucra a todo el personal de salud, se recomienda un entrenamiento constante que preconice la inclusión de antecedentes de tratamiento y de factores de riesgo en los formularios, al tiempo que estos deben evitar ambigüedades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Form , Quality Control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Chile , Clinical Laboratory Services/standards , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 108-113, abr. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712427

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La vigilancia de la resistencia a medicamentos antituberculosos permite alertar sobre el hallazgo de aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multirresistentes y extremadamente resistentes . Objetivo. Determinar los patrones de resistencia de los aislamientos de M. tuberculosis recuperados en Cuba entre los años 2010 y 2011 y demostrar el desempeño del Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia en la ejecución de las pruebas de sensibilidad. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal en el que se incluyeron 657 aislamientos de M. tuberculosis recibidos de todo el país. Se empleó el método de la nitrato reductasa para detectar resistencia a isoniacida y rifampicina, y el método de las proporciones para corroborar la resistencia a dichos medicamentos e investigar la sensibilidad a estreptomicina, etambutol, ofloxacina, kanamicina y capreomicina en aislamientos multirresistentes. Como parte del control de calidad externo de las pruebas de sensibilidad, se evaluaron dos paneles de cepas de M. tuberculosis . Resultados. En 95,69 % de los aislamientos recuperados de casos nuevos de tuberculosis y en 72,64 % de los recuperados de casos previamente tratados, se encontró sensibilidad a isoniacida y rifampicina, siendo la multirresistencia de 1,03 y 10,38 %, respectivamente. Se encontraron dos aislamientos extremadamente resistentes. Con la excepción del etambutol y la capreomicina, para todos los medicamentos la eficiencia fue de 100% en el control de calidad externo. Conclusiones. Se confirmó la baja prevalencia de aislamientos de M. tuberculosis multirresistentes en Cuba, resultado avalado por el excelente desempeño demostrado en el control de calidad externo de las pruebas de sensibilidad.


Introduction: Antituberculosis-drug resistance surveillance is very important to identify multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistance in M. tuberculosis strains isolated between 2010 and 2011, and to demonstrate the laboratory performance in the external quality control of drug susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out to determine antituberculosis-drug resistance in 657 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained throughout the country. The nitrate reductase assay was used to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampin. The proportion method was performed to confirm resistance to these drugs and to further investigate in multidrug-resistant isolates their susceptibility to streptomycin, ethambutol, ofloxacin, kanamycin and capreomycin. Additionally, as part of external quality control, susceptibility was evaluated in two M. tuberculosis strain panels. Results: In 95.69% of the isolates recovered from new tuberculosis cases, and in 72.64 % of isolates from previously treated patients we found susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin; multidrug resistance was 1,03 and 10.38%, respectively. We found two extensively resistant isolates. Except for ethambutol and capreomycin, the efficiency of all other drugs was 100% in the external quality control. Conclusion: The study confirmed the low prevalence of M. tuberculosis multidrug-resistant isolates in Cuba. This result was confirmed by the external quality control of drug susceptibility testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Clone Cells/drug effects , Cuba/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Rifampin/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(1): 21-27, feb. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-706542

ABSTRACT

Background: Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (cMtb) allows us to know geographically predominant lineages. Some lineages spread more rapidly and are associated with multidrug resistance, particularly Beijing, which has been reported in Latin America (Peru). There is little information about this topic in Chile and there are no reports of the presence of the Beijing genotype. Aim: To determine the most prevalent lineages in the Metropolitan Region of Chile with emphasis on the search for Beijing in two health centers. Methods: Two complementary molecular methods were used: spoligotyping, based on the variations of the direct repeat regions in the genome of cMtb and MIRU-VNTR, based in the variable number of tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units, and subsequent analysis in international databases. A designed lineage was assigned to 37 of the 43 strains studied (86%); 6 isolates could not be assigned to any genotype. LAM and T genotype were the most frequent (39.5 and 32.5%, respectively) followed by Haarlem (7.0%), Beijing (4.7%) and X (2.3%). Conclusion: We describe for the first time the presence of the Beijing genotype in Chile. cMtb molecular surveillance should be implemented in our country in order to know the dynamics of its transmission.


Introducción: La genotipificación del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cMtbc) permite conocer los genotipos geográficamente predominantes. Algunos genotipos se diseminan con mayor rapidez y se asocian a multi-resistencia, tal como Beijing, reportado en América Latina en Perú. Existe poca información al respecto en Chile, sin reportes de la presencia de Beijing. Objetivo: Conocer los genotipos prevalentes en dos centros de salud de la Región Metropolitana de Chile con énfasis en la búsqueda de Beijing. Métodos: Se utilizaron dos métodos moleculares complementarios basados en la variación de las regiones de repeticiones directa en el genoma de M. tuberculosis (espoligotipificación) y número variable de repeticiones en tandem de las unidades repetitivas de interespaciadores micobacterianos (MIRU-VNTRs) y posterior análisis en bases de datos internacionales. Resultados: Se asignó un genotipo conocido a 37 de las 43 cepas estudiadas (86%), mientras que en 14% no se asignó alguno. Los genotipos LAM y T fueron los más frecuentes (39,5 y 32,5%, respectivamente), seguidos por Haarlem (7,0%), Beijing (4,7%) y X (2,3%). Conclusión: Se describe por primera vez en Chile la presencia del genotipo Beijing en cepas de cMtb. Es necesario realizar una vigilancia epidemiológica molecular en el cMtb para conocer la dinámica de la transmisión en nuestro país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Chile , Genotype , Molecular Typing , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Species Specificity , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/transmission , Urban Population
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