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1.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 29(1): 38-42, 20230000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1428657

ABSTRACT

La ET es un trastorno multisistémico autosómico dominante que se caracteriza por displasia celular y tisular en varios órganos (cerebro, corazón, piel, ojos, riñones, pulmones) que constituyen una fuente importante de morbilidad y mortalidad. Las manifestaciones comunes incluyen tubérculos corticales, nódulos subependimarios, astrocitomas subependimarios de células gigantes, convulsiones, rabdomiomas cardíacos, AML renales, hamartomas retinianos, linfangioleiomiomatosis pulmonar, angiofibromas faciales, manchas de hojas de ceniza, parches de Shagreen, discapacidad intelectual y trastorno del espectro autista. Se presenta a continuación la resolución de un caso problema grave de una paciente que llega a la consulta al hospital público, con severa incapacidad para mantener la permeabilidad de la válvula nasal externa, a expensas de formación harmartomatosa grave, de años de evolución, fétida y sangrante, decidiéndose tomar conducta quirúrgica urgente y agresiva dada las condiciones de la lesión, la poca colaboración de la paciente y el contexto familiar de la misma que presenta además trastornos conductuales asociados a manifestaciones neurológicas de la enfermedad (retraso madurativo)


ET is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by cellular and tissue dysplasia in several organs (brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidneys, lungs) that constitute a major source of morbidity and mortality. Common manifestations include cortical tubercles, subependymal nodules, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, seizures, cardiac rhabdomyomas, renal AML, retinal hamartomas, pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, facial angiofibromas, ash leaf spots, shagreen patches, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. This paper presents the resolution of a serious problem case of a patient who attends the consultation of a public hospital, with severe inability to maintain the patency of the external nasal valve, at the expense of severe harmartomatous formation, of many years of evolution, fetid and bleeding, deciding to undertake urgent and aggressive surgical conduct given the conditions of the lesion, the lack of collaboration of the patient and the family context of the same, which also presents behavioral disorders associated with neurological manifestations of the disease (maturational delay).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tuberous Sclerosis/pathology , Angiofibroma/therapy , Hamartoma/pathology , Nasal Cavity/injuries
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1521-1525, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic variants in two children with Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).@*METHODS@#Two children who had presented at the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University respectively in June 2020 and July 2021 were selected as the study subjects. Clinical data of the children were collected, and potential pathogenic variants were screened by whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing of their family members.@*RESULTS@#Child 1 was a 7-month-and-29-day-old male, and child 2 was a 2-year-and-6-month-old male. Both children had shown symptoms of epileptic seizures and multiple hypomelanotic macules. Genetic testing revealed that both children had harbored de novo variants of the TSC2 gene, namely c.3239_3240insA and c.3330delC, which were unreported previously. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), both variants were rated as pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2_Supporting).@*CONCLUSION@#This study has uncovered the genetic etiology for two children with TSC. Above findings have also enriched the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of TSC in the Chinese population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Child, Preschool , Family , Genetic Testing , Genomics , Mutation , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , East Asian People
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 68-71, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze variants of TSC1 and TSC2 genes in a Chinese patient with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the patient and her parents with informed consent. Following extraction of genomic DNA, potential variants of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes was detected by using targeted capture next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor a de novo mosaicism variant c.3295_3298delG (Val1100CysfsTer3) of the TSC2 gene, with the proportion of the mutant allele determined as 13.4%, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the c.3295_3298delG (Val1100CysfsTer3) variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2).@*CONCLUSION@#The mosaicism heterozygous variant of c.3295_3298delG of the TSC2 gene, as detected by both NGS and Sanger sequencing, probably underlay the TSC2 in this patient.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Mosaicism , Mutation , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics
4.
Journal of the Philippine Dermatological Society ; : 42-45, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960024

ABSTRACT

@#<p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder causing a mutation in the tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 or TSC2. Loss of function of these genes leads to dysfunction of hamartin and tuberin, resulting in hamartoma formation. It usually manifests with cutaneous manifestations at childhood. However, it also affects other organ systems. Based on the Philippine Dermatological Society Health Information System census, there have been 104 cases of TSC from 2011-2018. Currently, limited data is available regarding the treatment options in the local setting.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>CASE REPORT:</strong> The case involves a 4 year-old boy, with a two year history of flesh-colored to dusky red fi rm papules on the centrofacial areas and neck. Lesions have been increasing in number since first appearance. He had a normal birth history. Family history was insignificant. However, delay in expressive speech development was noted. Physical examination revealed multiple well-defined angiofibromas on centrofacial areas and neck; fibrous cephalic plaque on the left temporal area, and several ash-leaf spots on the trunk. Periungual and subungual fibromas, confetti macules, shagreen patch and dental pits were absent. Based on the clinical manifestations, he was diagnosed with TSC. Histopathology of a papule on the chin was consistent with angiofibroma. Parents were concerned with the appearance of the lesions and preferred conservative management. Hence, topical sirolimus 0.2% ointment was applied once daily on the angiofibromas for 4 months. Monthly follow-up showed marked improvement, manifested by the decrease in number and by flattening of the lesions.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> To the best of our knowledge, this is the fi rst case report of successful treatment of topical sirolimus for TSC in the Philippines.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> tuberous sclerosis complex, topical, treatment success, conservative management, hematoma</p>


Subject(s)
Tuberous Sclerosis , Conservative Treatment , Hematoma
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402159

ABSTRACT

Introduccion: La esclerosis tuberosa en un trastorno raro con manifestaciones clínicas multisistémicas que puede comprometer órganos vitales como riñón pulmón y corazón por lo que requiere un diagnóstico precoz para brindar un tratamiento oportuno y dirigido mejorando el pronóstico y disminuyendo la morbimortalidad atribuida a esta patología. Objetivo: Establecer la importancia del uso de la genómica y la correlación fenotipo-genotipo para el diagnóstico, tratamiento, seguimiento, pronóstico, asesoramiento genético de la esclerosis tuberosa. Materiales y métodos: Reporte de caso de paciente 15 años con angiofibromas corporales, hamartoma retiniano, angiomiolipoma derecho y alteraciones de estudios de neuroimagen sin convulsiones ni trastornos neuroconductuales, se sospecho clínicamente de esclerosis tuberosa con confirmación genética al tener una variante patogénica en estado de heterocigosis en el gen TSC2. Resultados: Se encontró una deleción heterocigota patogénica que cambia una citosina en la posición 2.539 del ADNc del gen TSC2 (c.2539delC), que lleva a un codón de parada prematuro en el aminoácido 893 (p. Leu847Cysfs*47) en una proteína de 1.807 aminoácidos con significado clínico patogénico. Conclusiones: El complejo esclerosis tuberosa constituye una enfermedad huérfana para Colombia dada la baja prevalencia poblacional, con una alta carga en morbilidad y mortalidad debido al compromiso multisistémico. Su confirmación se realiza mediante métodos moleculares ­ genómicos que permiten establecer correlación fenotipo-genotipo dada la variabilidad en las variantes reportadas en este gen y los diferentes grados de expresión fenotípicos en los individuos, lo cual nos orienta a buscar signos y síntomas de compromiso de órganos o sistemas posiblemente afectados acercándonos a una medicina personalizada y de precisión.


Introduction: Tuberous sclerosis is a rare disorder with multisystemic clinical manifestations that can compromise vital organs such as the kidney, lung and heart, which requires early diagnosis to provide timely and targeted treatment, improving the prognosis and reducing the morbidity and mortality attributed to these pathologies. Objective: To establish the importance of the use of genomics and the phenotype-genotype correlation for the diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, prognosis, genetic counseling of tuberous sclerosis. Materials and methods : Case report of a 15 year old patient with body angiofibromas, retinal hamartoma, right angiomyolipoma and alterations in neuroimaging studies without seizures or neurobehavioral disorders, clinically suspected of tuberous sclerosis with genetic confirmation by having a pathogenic variant in heterozygosity in the TSC2 gene. Results: A pathogenic heterozygous deletion was found in which a cytosine is changed at position 2539 of the TSC2 gene cDNA (c.2539delC), leading to a premature stop codon at amino acid 893 ( p.Leu847Cysfs*47) into a protein of 1,807 amino acids with pathogenic clinical significance. Conclusions: Tuberous sclerosis complex is an orphan disease for Colombia given the low population prevalence, with a high burden of morbidity and mortality due to multisystem involvement. Its confirmation is performed by molecular-genomic methods that allow establishing phenotype-genotype correlation given the variability in the variants reported in this gene and the different degree of phenotypic expression in individuals, which guides us to look for signs and symptoms of involvement of organs or systems possibly affected, approaching a personalized and precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Tuberous Sclerosis , Genomics
6.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(5): 489-494, sep.-oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1357218

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los tumores cardiacos son inhabituales en la edad pediátrica; de ellos, el rabdomioma es el más prevalente. Su curso suele ser benigno. Los casos sintomáticos obedecen a su efecto mecánico obstructivo o a la presencia de arritmias. No es común su asociación con cardiopatías congénitas. Se presenta el caso de un lactante con rabdomiomas múltiples dentro del complejo de esclerosis tuberosa y portador de tetralogía de Fallot con estenosis infundibulovalvular grave, quien presentó crisis de hipoxia que requirió valvuloplastia pulmonar percutánea, la cual se complicó por arritmia supraventricular y tuvo un desenlace fatal.


Abstract Cardiac tumors are rare in pediatrics, and when they occur, rhabdomyomas are the most prevalent. They are generally benign; symptomatic cases are due to mechanical obstruction or arrhythmias. They are not commonly associated with congenital heart disease. We present the case of an infant with multiple rhabdomyomas as part of tuberous sclerosis complex, and tetralogy of Fallot with severe infundibular and valvular stenosis, who presented a hypoxic crisis requiring percutaneous pulmonary valvuloplasty which was complicated by supraventricular arrythmia and had a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhabdomyoma , Tetralogy of Fallot , Tuberous Sclerosis
7.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a rare disease with multi-systemic involvement, predominantly neurological. Little evidence exists about the anesthetic management of patients with this disorder, particularly in pregnant women. This article discusses a case of a patient with TSC admitted to our hospital for the delivery of a twin gestation. Twenty-four hours after surgery, the patient presented left-side facial-brachial hypoesthesia and headache. A brain CT revealed a right frontal cortical bleeding tumor, which was diagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. The patient was discharged 15 days after admission and a neurosurgical approach was suggested.


Resumen La esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad poco frecuente asociada con compromiso multisistémico, principalmente neurológico. Es poca la evidencia sobre el manejo anestésico de los pacientes con este trastorno, en particular las mujeres embarazadas. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una paciente con esclerosis tuberosa ingresada en nuestro hospital para el parto de una gestación gemelar. Veinticuatro horas después de la cirugía, la paciente presentó hipoestesia facial y braquial izquierda y cefalea. La tomografía cerebral mostró un tumor cortical sangrante en el lóbulo frontal derecho, diagnosticado como glioblastoma multiforme. La paciente fue dada de alta 15 días después de su ingreso y, con recomendación de manejo por neurocirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Glioblastoma , Headache , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthetics , Neurosurgery , Tuberous Sclerosis , Brain , Rare Diseases , Parturition , Hemorrhage , Hospitals , Hypesthesia , Neoplasms , Nervous System Diseases
8.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1156, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251708

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los síndromes neurocutáneos comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de trastornos hereditarios que comprometen principalmente la piel y el sistema nervioso central. Dentro de estos se incluye la neurofibromatosis, la esclerosis tuberosa y la enfermedad de Von-Hippel Lindau. Se caracterizan por presencia de displasia en distintos tejidos y formación de tumores en diversos órganos. Se ha descrito también un riesgo relativo aumentado para leucemia linfoblástica aguda, leucemia mielomonocítica crónica y linfoma no Hodgkin. Objetivo: Describir caso de paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome neurocutáneo (esclerosis tuberosa) que desarrolló a los 6 años una leucemia linfoide aguda. Caso clínico: Paciente femenina, seis años de edad, con antecedentes de síndrome neurocutáneo tipo esclerosis tuberosa diagnosticado a los dos años de edad- Comenzó con síndrome febril, adenopatías cervicales y hepatoesplenomegalia. El hemograma mostró anemia, trombocitopenia grave y leucocitosis con presencia de blastos. En el medulograma se observó una infiltración de 90 por ciento de blastos linfoides, por lo que se diagnosticó como una leucemia linfoide aguda. Conclusiones: La coexistencia de síndromes neurocutáneos y leucemia linfoide aguda no es frecuente. Se describe una paciente con ambas enfermedades, que fallece a pesar del tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Neurocutaneous syndromes comprise a heterogeneous set of hereditary disorders mainly affecting the skin and the central nervous system. Among the conditions included are neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis and von Hippel-Lindau disease, characterized by dysplasia in various tissues and the formation of tumors in various organs. Increased relative risk has also been described for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Objective: Describe the case of a patient diagnosed with neurocutaneous syndrome (tuberous sclerosis) who developed acute lymphoid leukemia at age six. Clinical case: A case is presented of a female six-year-old patient with a history of neurocutaneous syndrome, tuberous sclerosis type, diagnosed at age two. The patient started with febrile syndrome, cervical adenopathies and hepatosplenomegaly. The blood count revealed anemia, severe thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis with the presence of blasts, whereas the medullogram showed 90 percent infiltration by lymphoid blasts, leading to the diagnosis of acute lymphoid leukemia. Conclusions: Coexistence of neurocutaneous syndromes and acute lymphoid leukemia is not frequent. A case is described of a patient with both conditions who died despite the treatment indicated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Thrombocytopenia , Tuberous Sclerosis/diagnosis , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/complications , von Hippel-Lindau Disease , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 553-556, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from members of his family and 100 unrelated healthy controls. The proband was subjected to next-generation sequencing, and candidate variant was confirmed by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and Sanger sequencing. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was carried out to determine the relative mRNA expression in the proband.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor a c.2355+1G>C splicing variant of the TSC2 gene. Sequencing of cDNA confirmed that 62 bases have been inserted into the 3' end of exon 21, which has caused a frameshift producing a truncated protein.@*CONCLUSION@#The novel splicing variant c.2355+1G>C of the TSC2 gene probably underlay the TSC in the proband. Above finding has expanded the variant spectrum of TSC2 and provided a basis for preimplantation genetic testing and/or prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Mutation , RNA Splicing/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 435-438, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for 29 Chinese pedigrees affected with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and assess efficacy of combined next generation sequencing (NGS) and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for the diagnosis.@*METHODS@#NGS and MLPA were used in conjunct to detect variants of TSC1 and TSC2 genes among the probands of the pedigrees. Paternity test was carried out to exclude maternal DNA contamination. Prenatal diagnosis was provided to 14 couples based on the discoveries in the probands.@*RESULTS@#Twenty-seven variants were identified in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes among the 29 pedigrees, which yielded a detection rate of 93.1%. Respectively, 5 (18.5%) and 22 (81.5%) variants were identified in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Twelve variants were unreported previously. Prenatal diagnosis showed that five fetuses were affected with TSC, whilst the remaining nine were unaffected.@*CONCLUSION@#Above finding has expanded the spectrum of TSC1 and TSC2 gene variants. Combined NGS and MLPA has enabled diagnosis of TSC with efficiency and accuracy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genetic Testing , Mutation , Prenatal Diagnosis , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 363-365, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical features of a Chinese pedigree affected with tuberculosis sclerosis and explore its molecular pathogenesis.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the proband and members of his pedigree were collected. Whole exome sequencing was carried out to detect variants of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Candidate variants was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The proband and his mother, who also had mild features of tuberous sclerosis, were found to harbor a novel heterozygous c.4183C>T (p.Q1395X) variant of the TSC2 gene, which was absent in the 4 healthy relatives. Bioinformatic analysis suggested the variant to be likely pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.4183C>T (p.Q1395X) variant of the TSC2 gene probably underlay the disease in this pedigree. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of TSC2 gene variants. The more severe symptoms in the proband may be attributed to phenotypic heterogeneity of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Mutation , Pedigree , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 154-157, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for Chinese pedigree affected with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).@*METHODS@#The proband and his family members were subjected to Sanger sequencing for variants of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a c.2837+1dupG splicing variant at a donor site of the TSC2 gene. The same variant was not found among his family members and the fetus during his mother's subsequent pregnancy.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2837+1dupG splicing variant of the TSC2 gene has probably predisposed to the TSC in this pedigree. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of pathogenic variants associated with this disease.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Genetic Testing , Mutation , Pedigree , Prenatal Diagnosis , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 877-879, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of the patient and his parents were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to detect potential variant, and the result was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor a heterozygous c.1053delG (p.Glu352SerfsX10) frameshifting variant of the TSC2 gene. The same variant was not found in his unaffected parents and 100 unrelated healthy controls. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2).@*CONCLUSION@#The novel c.1053delG (p.Glu352SerfsX10) frameshifting variant of the TSC2 gene probably underlay the TSC in this patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genomics , Heterozygote , Mutation , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics
14.
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 32-36, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961160

ABSTRACT

@#Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the walls of the lateral ventricles, foramen of Monro, and less frequently, in the third ventricle. It is one of the intracranial lesions found in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) ─ a rare multisystem genetic disease. We present a rare case of an adult Filipino with cutaneous signs of TSC, who initially presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure. The patient underwent right frontal craniotomy, endoport-assisted excision of the tumor with insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Histopathology was consistent with a subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma WHO grade 1. The general status of the patient improved thereafter – there was the relief of headache and improvement in vision and gross hearing. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system especially in adults, whose diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological, and histological, and immunohistochemical stains. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass near the foramen of Monro. Given the hereditary nature of the disease, genetic counseling is essential when encountering patients with this condition.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Tuberous Sclerosis
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 219-230, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134817

ABSTRACT

Abstract There are more than 150 different rare genetic kidney diseases. They can be classified according to diagnostic findings as (i) disorders of growth and structure, (ii) glomerular diseases, (iii) tubular, and (iv) metabolic diseases. In recent years, there has been a shift of paradigm in this field. Molecular testing has become more accessible, our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of these diseases has evolved, and new therapeutic strategies have become more available. Therefore, the role of nephrologists has progressively shifted from a mere spectator to an active player, part of a multidisciplinary team in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in rare hereditary kidney disorders by discussing the genetic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches of some of these disorders, named familial focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, tuberous sclerosis complex, Fabry nephropathy, and MYH-9 related disorder.


Resumo As doenças renais genéticas raras compreendem mais de 150 desordens. Elas podem ser classificadas segundo achados diagnósticos como (i) distúrbios do crescimento e estrutura, (ii) doenças glomerulares, (iii) tubulares e (iv) metabólicas. Nos últimos anos, houve uma mudança de paradigma nesse campo. Os testes moleculares tornaram-se mais acessíveis, nossa compreensão sobre os mecanismos fisiopatológicos subjacentes a essas doenças evoluiu e novas estratégias terapêuticas foram propostas. Portanto, o papel do nefrologista mudou progressivamente de mero espectador a participante ativo, parte de uma equipe multidisciplinar, no diagnóstico e tratamento desses distúrbios. O presente artigo oferece um panorama geral dos recentes avanços a respeito dos distúrbios renais hereditários raros, discutindo aspectos genéticos, manifestações clínicas e abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas de alguns desses distúrbios, mais especificamente a glomeruloesclerose segmentar e focal familiar, complexo da esclerose tuberosa, nefropatia de Fabry e doença relacionada ao MYH9.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/congenital , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/congenital , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Tuberous Sclerosis/therapy , Genetic Testing/methods , Fabry Disease/diagnosis , Fabry Disease/genetics , Fabry Disease/therapy , Interdisciplinary Communication , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnosis , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/diagnosis , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Nephrology/standards
16.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(3): 255-262, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Síndrome de Down (SD) es una de las aneuploidías más frecuentes. En Chile, la incidencia es de 2.2 por 1000 nv. La esclerosis tuberosa (ET) es una enfermedad genética autosómica dominante con una prevalencia de 1:600 a 1:10.000 nacidos vivos (nv) que se sospecha prenatalmente por la presencia de rabdomiomas cardiacos. Los tumores cardiacos fetales tienen una prevalencia de 1:10000 nv, los más prevalentes son los Rabdomiomas. El hallazgo de tumores intracraneanos son infrecuentes, dentro del diagnóstico diferencial es necesario descartar la Hemorragia Intraventricular (HIV). CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 29 años, M2, Derivada a nuestro centro a las 27+4 semanas para evaluación ecográfica. Entre los hallazgos se encuentran tumores intracardiacos en ventrículo derecho y marcadores blandos para alto riesgo de aneuploidía, por lo que se realiza cariotipo (amniocentesis genética: 47, XX+21). A las 32+0 semanas en una nueva evaluación presenta imagen hiperecogénica sugerente de tumor intracerebral. Se solicita resonancia magnética fetal que informa hemorragia intraventricular (HIV). El parto ocurre con un recién nacido de término, fenotipo concordante con Trisomía 21, ecocardiograma confirma dos tumores intracardiacos (Rabdomiomas) y ecografía cerebral confirma el diagnóstico de HIV Grado III derecho. Ante el diagnóstico diferencial de ET, se realiza ANGIO-TAC que resulta negativo para ET. DISCUSIÓN: En la evaluación ecográfica antenatal, la presencia de tumores intracardiacos asociados a tumor cerebral hace plantear el diagnóstico de una ET. El diagnóstico antenatal de tumores cerebrales vs HIV por ultrasonido es difícil. La resonancia es un examen complementario de gran ayuda, permitiendo un diagnóstico de certeza. La HIV fetal es un diagnóstico poco frecuente de diagnostico prenatal asociado a feto con trisomia 21.


INTRODUCTION: Down Syndrome (DS) is one of the most frequent aneuploidies. In our country its incidence is 2.2 every 1000 newborns. Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a dominant autosomal genetic disease with a prevalence of 1:6000 to 1:10.000 newborns, this disease is suspected by the finding of cardiac rhabdomyomas. Rhabdomyomas are the most prevalent fetal heart tumors. Intracranial tumors are a rare prenatal finding in ultrasound the main differential diagnosis is Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH). The Objective of this paper is present a case report of a fetus with trisomy 21 plus rhabdomyomas and cranial tumors. CASE REPORT: 29 years old patient, referred for ultrasound at 27+4 week. Cardiac tumors and aneuploidy soft markers are found. Genetic amniocentesis is performed (Result: 47, XX+21). At 32+0 weeks ultrasound finding of intracranial tumor. Fetal MRI was performed which reports suspected IVH. Confirmed postnatally. Baby was delivered at term. Neonatal findings: Trisomy 21 phenotype, Echocardiogram with two cardiac tumors (Rhabdomyomas), neonatal brain ultrasound confirms Grade III - IVH. To rule out TS, an Angio-CT is performed which is negative for the disease. DISCUSSION: Cardiac Tumors associated to brain tumors in antenatal period make TS a possible diagnosis. Differentiate brain tumors and IVH by ultrasound is very difficult. MRI is a very helpful tool for an accurate diagnostic. IVH is a rare antenatal diagnosis. Not reported before in a baby with trisomy 21.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Rhabdomyoma/diagnostic imaging , Tuberous Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Down Syndrome , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prenatal Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Karyotype , Amniocentesis
17.
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 2(1): 98-115, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1391189

ABSTRACT

El Complejo de Esclerosis Tuberosa (CET) es un trastorno genético de heren-cia autosómica dominante causado por la mutación en uno de los genes TSC1 o TSC2. Los pacientes con una afectación CET grave de tipo neurológica posible-mente presentarán epilepsia, discapacidad intelectual, problemas específicos del aprendizaje y trastornos de la conducta, por lo que la evaluación neuropsicológica en individuos con esta patología cobra un carácter importante al proporcionar información sobre los déficits cognitivos que subyacen en la afectación cerebral, que alteran el funcionamiento intelectual y los aspectos adaptativos. El actual tra-bajo presenta el perfil de una paciente adulta femenina con antecedente de CET, epilepsia y discapacidad intelectual, así como la descripción de una propuesta de intervención neuropsicológica basada en el funcionamiento ejecutivo dorsolateral.


Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant inherited genetic disorder caused by mutation in one of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Patients with severe neurological-type CET involvement may have epilepsy, intellectual disability, specific learning problems, and behavioral disorders. For this reason, the neuropsychological evaluation in individuals with this pathology becomes an important character by providing information on the cognitive deficits that underlie brain involvement that alter intellectual functioning and adaptive aspects. The current work presents the cognitive profile of a female adult patient with a history of TSC, epilepsy and intellectual disability and the description of a proposed neuropsychological intervention based on dorsolateral executive functioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sclerosis , Tuberous Sclerosis , Mutation/genetics , Neuropsychology/methods , Epilepsy , Cognitive Dysfunction , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Memory Disorders , Intellectual Disability/physiopathology
18.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 586-590, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To perform gene mutation analysis in a patient with atypical clinical manifestations of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) for definite diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood DNA was obtained from a patient with clinically suspected TSC and her parents, and all exons and their flanking sequences of @*RESULTS@#A heterozygous nonsense mutation c.1096G>T (p.E366*) was identified in the exon 11 of the @*CONCLUSIONS@#The somatic mosaic mutation c.1096G>T (p.e366*) may be responsible for the phenotype of TSC in this patient. And the drop digital PCR is expected to be a diagnostic method for somatic cells mosaicism.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Mosaicism , Mutation , Tuberous Sclerosis/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics , Exome Sequencing
19.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019125, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024200

ABSTRACT

Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor which constitutes the most common cardiovascular feature of the tuberous sclerosis complex, a multisystem genetically determined neurocutaneous disorder. Cardiac rhabdomyomas can be detected in the prenatal ultrasound, are usually asymptomatic and spontaneously regress within the first three years of life. Less often, the tumors' size, number, and location can produce a mass effect that may lead to blood flow abnormalities or organ dysfunction (heart failure and arrhythmia). In this setting, severe morbidity, and eventually, a lethal outcome despite clinical and surgical treatment may ensue. We describe a fatal case of multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas in a newborn girl. One of the rhabdomyomas was large and unfavorably located, causing significant obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. The autopsy identified, in addition to cardiac rhabdomyomas, brain glioneuronal hamartomas (cortical tubers), subependymal nodules and subependymal giant cell tumors, characteristic of the tuberous sclerosis complex. The newborn's family was investigated for the presence of typical clinical symptoms of the complex and image findings showed significant phenotypical variations and a broad symptom spectrum among the family members. This interesting case underscores the variability of tuberous sclerosis complex and the importance of performing a comprehensive postmortem examination in the identification of the cause of death, especially in the setting of familial disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Rhabdomyoma/pathology , Tuberous Sclerosis/pathology , Heart Neoplasms , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Neurocutaneous Syndromes
20.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 42(1): 70-73, jun. 2019. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LIBOCS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1007024

ABSTRACT

El Complejo Esclerosis Tuberosa (CET) es una enfermedad de origen genético, multisistémica de transmisión autosómica dominante, se debe a la mutación de los genes TSC1 (Tuberose Sclerosis Complex 1) y TSC2 de los cromosomas 9 y 16 respectivamente. Las manifestaciones clínicas se deben a la presencia de lesiones tumorales benignas (harmatomas) en diferentes órganos lo que genera un amplio espectro de signos y síntomas. El caso que se presenta es de una adolescente de origen aymara con epilepsia, retraso mental y lesiones dérmicas típicas. Es una enfermedad poco frecuente en nuestro medio y rara en personas de origen indígena, no encontrándose ninguna descripción en la literatura nacional. Por la multiplicidad de las manifestaciones clínicas, se hace necesario divulgar la información para que que las diferentes especialidades médicas reconozcan y diagnostiquen esta patología tempranamente para un tratamiento adecuado, oportuno y interdisciplinar.


The Tuberose Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic, multisystemic disease of autosomal dominant transmission, due to the mutation of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes of chromosomes 9 and 16 respectively. The clinical manifestations are due to the presence of benign tumor lesions (harmatomas) in different organs, which generates a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms. The case presented is that of a teenager of Aymara origin with epilepsy, mental retardation and typical skin lesions. It is a rare disease in our environment and rare in people of indigenous origin, no description found in the national literature. Due to the multiplicity of the clinical manifestations, it is necessary to disseminate the information so that the different medical specialties recognize and diagnose this pathology early for an adequate, timely and interdisciplinary treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Tuberous Sclerosis , Valproic Acid/administration & dosage , Nasolabial Fold/diagnostic imaging , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage
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