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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 58-64, July. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053475

ABSTRACT

Background: Prodigiosin has been demonstrated to be an important candidate in investigating anticancer drugs and in many other applications in recent years. However, industrial production of prodigiosin has not been achieved. In this study, we found a prodigiosin-producing strain, Serratia marcescens FZSF02, and its fermentation strategies were studied to achieve the maximum yield of prodigiosin. Results: When the culture medium consisted of 16.97 g/L of peanut powder, 16.02 g/L of beef extract, and 11.29 mL/L of olive oil, prodigiosin reached a yield of 13.622 ± 236 mg/L after culturing at 26 °C for 72 h. Furthermore, when 10 mL/L olive oil was added to the fermentation broth at the 24th hour of fermentation, the maximum prodigiosin production of 15,420.9 mg/L was obtained, which was 9.3-fold higher than the initial level before medium optimization. More than 60% of the prodigiosin produced with this optimized fermentation strategy was in the form of pigment pellets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on this phenomenon of pigment pellet formation, which made it much easier to extract prodigiosin at low cost. Prodigiosin was then purified and identified by absorption spectroscopy, HPLC, and LCMS. Purified prodigiosin obtained in this study showed anticancer activity in separate experiments on several human cell cultures: A549, K562, HL60, HepG2, and HCT116. Conclusions: This is a promising strain for producing prodigiosin. The prodigiosin has potential in anticancer medicine studies.


Subject(s)
Prodigiosin/biosynthesis , Prodigiosin/pharmacology , Serratia marcescens/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Arachis/chemistry , Powders , Prodigiosin/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Cell Culture Techniques , Fermentation , Olive Oil/chemistry , Acetates , Nitrogen
2.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 64(1): 93-98, Jan/Fev/Mar 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969213

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Bisfosfonatos são fármacos utilizados para o tratamento de enfermidades ósseas, como a osteoporose e metástases ósseas, em razão do seu mecanismo de ação, que consiste na diminuição do processo de reabsorção do osso. Outros estudos verificaram que bisfosfonatos de alta potência, como o zoledronato, poderiam auxiliar no tratamento de outras enfermidades malignas por causa da promoção de um efeito antiproliferativo. Objetivo: Este estudo in vitro objetivou avaliar a atividade antiproliferativa de zoledronato em diferentes linhagens de células tumorais. Método: Nove linhagens humanas (U251; MCF7; NCI/ADR-RES; 786-0; NCI-H460; PC-3; OVCAR-3; HT29; K-562 e HaCaT) foram submetidas ao tratamento com as concentrações de 0,12; 1,2; 12 e 120 µM de zoledronato e tiveram sua atividade proliferativa avaliada após 48 horas, utilizando-se o corante sulforrodamina B. Resultados: Verificou-se que as concentrações de 12 µM e 120 µM de zoledronato foram eficazes para a redução em 50% e 100%, respectivamente, da proliferação das células 786-0 (carcinoma renal). A maior concentração de zoledronato (120 µM) promoveu um efeito citostático (redução da proliferação celular em 50%) para as células HaCaT (queratinócito humano não tumoral), HT-29 (carcinoma de cólon), NCI-ADR/ RES (adenocarcinoma de ovário com fenótipo de multirresistência) e NCI-H460 (carcinoma pulmonar). Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem um promissor efeito auxiliar do zoledronato para o tratamento de alguns tipos de tumores; estudos complementares in vitro e in vivo são necessários para a validação dessa hipótese.


Introduction: Bisphosphonates are used in the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis and bone metastases, because of their ability to inhibit bone resorption. There is evidence that high-potency bisphosphonates, such as zoledronate, are useful in the treatment of other malignancies because they have an antiproliferative effect. Objective:To evaluate the antiproliferative activity of zoledronate in different tumor cell lines. Method: This was an in vitro study in which nine human cell lines (U251, MCF7, NCI/ ADR-RES, 786-0, NCI-H460, PC-3, OVCAR-3, HT29, K-562, and HaCaT) were treated with of 0.12, 1.2, 12, and 120 µM of zoledronate, their proliferative activity being evaluated 48 h later with sulforhodamine B assay. Results: At the 12 µM and 120 µM doses, zoledronate effectively reduced the proliferation of 786-0 (renal carcinoma) cells by 50% and 100%, respectively. At the highest concentration (120 µM), zoledronate had a cytostatic effect (50% reduction in cell proliferation) on HaCaT (non-tumor human keratinocyte), HT-29 (colon carcinoma), NCI-ADR/ RES (multidrug-resistant ovarian adenocarcinoma), and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) cells. Conclusion: These results suggest a promising auxiliary effect of zoledronate for the treatment of some tumors. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed in order to test that hypothesis.


Introducción: Los bisfosfonatos son fármacos utilizados para el tratamiento de enfermedades óseas, como la osteoporosis y metástasis óseas debido a su mecanismo de acción, que consiste en la disminución del proceso de reabsorción del hueso. Otros estudios observaron que los bisfosfonatos de alta potencia, como el zoledronato, podrían ayudar en el tratamiento de otras enfermedades malignas debido a la promoción de un efecto antiproliferativo. Objetivo: Este estudio in vitro objetivó evaluar la actividad antiproliferativa de zoledronato en diferentes linajes de células tumorales. Método: Los nueve humano linajes (U251, MCF7, NCI / ADR-RES, 786-0, NCI-H460, PC-3, OVCAR-3, HT29, K-562 and HaCaT) se sometieron al tratamiento con las concentraciones de 0,12; 1,2; 12 y 120 µM de zoledronato y tuvieron su actividad proliferativa evaluada después de 48 horas utilizando el colorante sulforrodamina B. Resultados: Se comprobó que las concentraciones de 12 µM y 120 µM de zoledronato fueron efectivas para reducir en un 50% y un 100%, respectivamente, de la proliferación de las células 786-0 (carcinoma renal). La mayor concentración de zoledronato (120 µM) promovió un efecto citostático (reducción de la proliferación celular en un 50%) para las células HaCaT (queratinocito humano no tumoral), HT-29 (carcinoma de colon), NCI-ADR/RES (adenocarcinoma de ovário con fenótipo de multirresistencia) y NCI-H460 (carcinoma pulmonar). Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren un prometedor efecto auxiliar del zoledronato para el tratamiento de algunos tumores; se requieren más estudios in vitro e in vivo para validar esta hipótesis


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diphosphonates , In Vitro Techniques , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(11): e180267, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040585

ABSTRACT

The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine comprises a family of genetically different strains derived by the loss of genomic regions (RDs) and other mutations. In BCG Moreau, loss of RD16 inactivates rv3405c * , encoding a transcriptional repressor that negatively regulates the expression of Rv3406, an alkyl sulfatase. To evaluate the impact of this loss on the BCG and host cell viability and the cytokine profile, THP-1 cells were infected with BCG Moreau (harbouring the empty vector) and a complemented strain carrying a functional copy of rv3405c. Viability of the host cells and bacteria as well as the pattern of cytokine secretion were evaluated. Our results show that the viability of BCG Moreau is higher than that of the complemented strain in an axenic medium, suggesting a possible functional gain associated with the constitutive expression of Rv3406. Viability of the host cells did not vary significantly between recombinant strains, but differences in the profiles of the cytokine secretion (IL-1β and IL-6) were observed. Our results suggest an example of a functional gain due to gene loss contributing to the elucidation of the impact of RD16 on the physiology of BCG Moreau.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , Cell Survival/genetics , Cytokines/drug effects , Gain of Function Mutation/genetics , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Time Factors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/microbiology , BCG Vaccine/genetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/genetics , Gain of Function Mutation/drug effects , Mycobacterium bovis/physiology
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1179-1196, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732513

ABSTRACT

O artigo analisa o livro Boys in white: student culture in medical school, de Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, Everett C. Hughes e Anselm Strauss, considerado um dos modelos de pesquisa qualitativa em sociologia. A análise aborda as trajetórias dos autores, do livro, da pesquisa qualitativa e dos estudantes de medicina, enfatizando sua importância nas origens da sociologia médica e da sociologia da educação médica. Na trajetória dos autores são apresentados aspectos biobibliográficos; na da pesquisa qualitativa, o modo como essa metodologia de investigação atravessa a construção do trabalho de campo; e na dos estudantes, sua forma de atravessar os primeiros anos da escola médica e construir sua própria “cultura do estudante”.


This article analyzes Boys in white: student culture in medical schoolby Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, Everett C. Hughes and Anselm Strauss, considered a model of qualitative research in sociology. The analysis investigates the trajectories of the authors, the book, qualitative analysis, and the medical students, emphasizing their importance in the origins of medical sociology and the sociology of medical education. In the trajectory of the authors, bibliographical information is given. The trajectory of qualitative research focuses on how this methodology influences the construction of the field. The investigation of the students’ trajectory shows how they progress through their first years at medical school to build their own student culture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Estrogens , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/drug therapy , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , /biosynthesis , Tamoxifen/pharmacology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Genes, ras , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/pathology , /physiology , Phenylacetates/administration & dosage , /genetics , Transfection , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1397-1415, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-732516

ABSTRACT

Se analiza el significado del concepto de “obsesión” en el alienismo del siglo XIX. Desde el punto de vista clínico, la descripción de Esquirol fue completada por otros autores (Jules Falret, Legrand du Saulle). En el ámbito de la reflexión psicopatológica, el alienismo francés, con el delirio emotivo de Morel o la psicastenia de Janet, defendió la teoría emocional, frente al trastorno intelectual propuesto por los médicos alemanes. Finalmente, se insiste en la importancia del marco cultural en la aparición de los síntomas obsesivos y de su interpretación. En este sentido, se estudian las relaciones de los escrúpulos religiosos con la melancolía o la aparición de categorías diagnósticas sometidas a los códigos y mentalidades fin-de-siècle.


The article analyses the significance of the concept of “obsession” in nineteenth-century alienism. From a clinical point of view, Esquirol’s description was completed by other authors (Jules Falret, Legrand du Saulle). In the area of psychopathological studies, French alienism, with Morel’s emotional delirium or Janet’s psychasthenia, defended the emotional theory, as opposed to the intellectual disorder proposed by German doctors. Lastly, the importance of the cultural framework is stressed in the appearance of obsessive symptoms and their interpretation. Along these lines, the article discusses the relationship of religious scruples to melancholy or the appearance of diagnostic categories subject to fin de siècle codes and mentalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Floxuridine/pharmacology , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/genetics , Thymidine Phosphorylase/genetics , Cell Communication , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Transfection , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/enzymology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/pathology
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(6): 631-637, nov.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733342

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Analizar la percepción que el prestador de servicios de salud y el adulto mayor (AM) tienen sobre el maltrato al AM en los servicios públicos de salud, en ciudades seleccionadas de México. Material y métodos. De 2009 a 2012 se realizó un estudio con diseño cualitativo y estrategia de triangulación de fuentes de datos; se efectuaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 13 prestadores y a 12 ancianos para recuperar su experiencia en el tema. El análisis utilizó procedimientos de la Teoría Fundamentada. Resultados. El maltrato contra el AM es una práctica naturalizada por el personal y por el anciano, la cual se manifiesta de formas diversas. Conclusiones. La institucionalización, profesionalización histórica y falta de conciencia sobre las necesidades de los AM demandan cambios de planeación, organización y supervisión del Sistema de Salud. El personal requiere intervenciones de formación, capacitación y cambio de actitudes/comportamiento, para otorgar atención integral, digna, humana y de respeto a los Derechos Humanos de los AM.


Objective. To analyze the health care providers (HCP) and elderly patients' perceptions about abuse of the elderly by health personnel of public health services, in selected cities in Mexico. Materials and methods. A qualitative study and a strategy of data triangulation were performed during 2009 and 2012; 13 HCPs and 12 elders were interviewed, in order to obtain their experience regarding elder abuse. Grounded Theory proceedings were used for the analysis. Results. Elder abuse is a naturalized practice, from HCP and elderly people's point of view; these perceptions are showed in different ways. Conclusion. Institutionalization, historical professionalization and lack of consciousness about needs of the elderly (sociocultural and economic), require changes in planning, organization and monitoring process in the Health System; training and educational interventions on staff and exchange attitudes and behavior are necessary in order to offer a health care that is comprehensive, decent, human and with respect for the human rights.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Cyclins/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , Antisense Elements (Genetics) , Breast Neoplasms , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cell Division/drug effects , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Cyclins/genetics , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/enzymology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Phosphorylation , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Retinoblastoma Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/cytology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/enzymology , Up-Regulation/drug effects
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 420-424, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731056

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the following irrigating solutions on the microhardness of root canal dentin: 2% sodium hypochlorite (2NaOCl), 5% sodium hypochlorite (5NaOCl), super-oxidized water (400 ppm Sterilox - Sx) and 17% EDTA (E). Eighty roots from bovine incisors were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10): 2NaOCl, 5NaOCl, Sx, and 2NaOCl + E, 5NaOCl + E, Sx + E (associated with E as final irrigant for 5 min), E solely and distilled water (dH2O) as the negative control. Root canal preparation was performed by hand instruments, using one of the irrigation protocols for 30 min. Then, 5 mm of the cervical root third were cut out from each sample and subjected to the Vickers microhardness test, at two points, one at approximately 500-1000 µm from the root canal lumen (distance 1), and the other at approximately 500-1000 µm from the external root surface (distance 2). Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests at 5% significance level. Microhardness values at distance 1 were significantly lower than those at distance 2 for all groups, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E groups (p>0.05). EDTA showed the lowest microhardness values. However, no statistically significant difference was detected among groups at distance 1 and EDTA was significantly different only from Sx at distance 2. In conclusion, all tested solutions showed lower microhardness at the most superficial root canal dentin layer compared to the one found near the external root surface, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E; EDTA promoted lower microhardness values in comparison to Sterilox at this site.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência das seguintes soluções irrigadoras na microdureza da dentina do canal radicular: hipoclorito de sódio a 2% (NaOCl2), hipoclorito de sódio a 5% (NaOCl5), água superoxidada (Sterilox(r) 400 ppm - Sx) e EDTA a 17% (E). Oitenta raízes de incisivos bovinos foram divididas aleatoriamente em 8 grupos (n=10): NaOCl2, NaOCl5, Sx e NaOCl2 + E, NaOCl5 + E, Sx + E (associados ao E como irrigante final por 5 min), E isolado e água destilada (H2Od), como controle negativo. O preparo dos canais radiculares foi realizado com instrumentos manuais, usando um dos protocolos de irrigação por 30 min. A seguir, 5 mm do terço cervical de cada amostra foram cortados perpendicularmente e submetidos ao teste de microdureza de Vickers, em dois pontos, um aproximadamente 500-1000 µm da luz do canal radicular (distância 1), e o outro aproximadamente 500-1000 µm da superfície externa da raiz (distância 2). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Wilcoxon e Kruskal-Wallis com um nível de significância de 5%. Os valores de microdureza na distância 1 foram significativamente menores do que na distância 2 para todos os grupos, exceto NaOCl5 e NaOCl5 +E (p>0,05). O EDTA mostrou os menores valores de microdureza. No entanto, não foi detectada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos na distância 1 e o EDTA foi significativamente diferente apenas do Sx na distância 2. Pode-se concluir que todas as soluções testadas mostraram menor microdureza na camada de dentina mais superficial do canal radicular em comparação aos valores encontrados próximo à superfície radicular externa, exceto NaOCl5 e NaOCl5 + E; o EDTA promoveu menor microdureza em comparação ao Sterilox(r) neste ponto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Sulindac/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , DNA Primers/chemistry , Flow Cytometry , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Up-Regulation
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 435-441, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731060

ABSTRACT

This study compared the physicochemical properties and interfacial adaptation to canal walls of Endo-CPM-Sealer, Sealapex and Activ GP with the well-established AH Plus sealer. The following analyses were performed: radiopacity, pH variation and solubility using samples of each material and scanning electron microscopy of root-filled bovine incisors to evaluate the interfacial adaptation. Data were analyzed by the parametric and no-parametric tests (α=0.05). All materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity. Endo-CPM-Sealer presented the lowest radiopacity values and AH Plus was the most radiopaque sealer (p=0.0001). Except for ActiV GP, which was acidic, all other sealers had basic chemical nature and released hydroxyl ions. Regarding solubility, all materials met the ANSI/ADA recommendations, with no statistically significant difference between the sealers (p=0.0834). AH Plus presented the best adaptation to canal walls in the middle (p=0.0023) and apical (p=0.0012) thirds, while the sealers Activ GP and Endo-CPM-Sealer had poor adaptation to the canal walls. All sealers, except for ActiV GP, were alkaline and all of them fulfilled the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity and solubility. Regarding the interfacial adaptation, AH Plus was superior to the others considering the adaptation to the bovine root canal walls.


Este estudo comparou as propriedades físico-químicas e a adaptação interfacial às paredes do canal dos cimentos Endo-CPM-Sealer, Sealapex e Activ GP com o bem estabelecido cimento AH Plus. As seguintes análises foram realizadas: radiopacidade, variação de pH e de solubilidade utilizando amostras de cada material, e microscopia eletrônica de varredura utilizando incisivos bovinos obturados para avaliar a adaptação interfacial. Os dados foram analisados utilizando testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos (α=0,05). Todos os materiais estavam de acordo com os requerimentos da ANSI/ADA para radiopacidade, sendo que o Endo-CPM-Sealer apresentou os menores valores de radiopacidade e o AH Plus foi o cimento mais radiopaco (p=0,0001). Exceto o Activ GP, que foi ácido, todos os outros cimentos apresentaram natureza química básica e liberaram íons hidroxila. Com relação à solubilidade, todos os materiais estavam de acordo com as recomendações da ANSI /ADA, sem diferença significante entre os cimentos (p=0,0834). O AH Plus apresentou a melhor adaptação às paredes do canal nos terços médio (p=0,0023) e apical (p=0,0012), enquanto que os cimentos Activ GP e Endo-CPM-Sealer apresentaram uma pobre adaptação às paredes do canal. Em conclusão, todos os cimentos, exceto o Activ GP, foram alcalinos e todos preencheram os requerimentos da ANSI/ADA para radiopacidade e solubilidade. Com relação à adaptação interfacial, o AH Plus foi superior aos demais para adaptação às paredes do canal radicular de incisivos bovinos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Dextrans/pharmacology , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/pathology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dextrans/chemistry , Dextrans/therapeutic use , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Growth Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Necrosis , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , Phenylacetates/therapeutic use , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays/statistics & numerical data
9.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 542-550, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156581

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells and this effect is prominent and constant in 253J bladder cancer cells. We performed a microarray analysis to search for genes that were altered after TGF-beta1 treatment to understand the growth inhibitory action of TGF-beta1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 253J bladder cancer cells were exposed to TGF-beta1 and total RNA was extracted at 6, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. The RNA was hybridized onto a human 22K oligonucleotide microarray and the data were analyzed by using GeneSpring 7.1. RESULTS: In the microarray analysis, a total of 1,974 genes showing changes of more than 2.0 fold were selected. The selected genes were further subdivided into five highly cohesive clusters with high probability according to the time-dependent expression pattern. A total of 310 genes showing changes of more than 2.0 fold in repeated arrays were identified by use of simple t-tests. Of these genes, those having a known function were listed according to clusters. Microarray analysis showed increased expression of molecules known to be related to Smad-dependent signal transduction, such as SARA and Smad4, and also those known to be related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, such as MAPKK1 and MAPKK4. CONCLUSIONS: A list of genes showing significantly altered expression profiles after TGF-beta1 treatment was made according to five highly cohesive clusters. The data suggest that the growth inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 in bladder cancer may occur through the Smad-dependent pathway, possibly via activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and Jun amino-terminal kinases Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genes, Neoplasm , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smad Proteins/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
10.
Clinics ; 68(5): 694-701, maio 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether curcumin reverses the multidrug resistance of human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In a vincristine-resistant cell line of human colon cancer, the cell viability of curcumin-treated cells was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Rhodamine123 efflux was evaluated to detect P-glycoprotein transporter activity, and expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 and survivin genes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In addition, xenograft mouse tumors were grown and treated with curcumin. The morphology of the xenografts was investigated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The in vivo expression of the multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein and survivin genes and proteins was observed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: Curcumin was not obviously toxic to the vincristine-resistant human colon cancer cells at concentrations less than 25 μM, but the growth of cells was significantly inhibited. At concentrations greater than 25 μM, curcumin was toxic in a concentration-dependent manner. The sensitivity of cells to vincristine, cisplatin, fluorouracil, and hydroxycamptothecin was enhanced, intracellular Rhodamine123 accumulation was increased (p<0.05), and the expression of the multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein were significantly suppressed (p<0.05). The combination of curcumin and vincristine significantly inhibited xenograft growth. The expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 and survivin genes was significantly reduced in xenografts of curcumin-treated mice and mice treated with both curcumin and vincristine relative to control mice. CONCLUSION: Curcumin has strong reversal effects on the multidrug resistance of human colon carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(8): 701-710, Aug. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643655

ABSTRACT

Apatone™, a combination of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK3) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) is a new strategy for cancer treatment. Part of its effect on tumor cells is related to the cellular pro-oxidative imbalance provoked by the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through naphthoquinone redox cycling. In this study, we attempted to find new naphthoquinone derivatives that would increase the efficiency of H2O2 production, thereby potentially increasing its efficacy for cancer treatment. The presence of an electron-withdrawing group in the naphthoquinone moiety had a direct effect on the efficiency of H2O2 production. The compound 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (BrQ), in which the bromine atom substituted the methyl group in VK3, was approximately 10- and 19-fold more efficient than VK3 in terms of oxygen consumption and H2O2 production, respectively. The ratio [H2O2]produced / [naphthoquinone]consumed was 68 ± 11 and 5.8 ± 0.2 (µM/µM) for BrQ and VK3, respectively, indicating a higher efficacy of BrQ as a catalyst for the autoxidation of ascorbic acid. Both VK3 and BrQ reacted with glutathione (GSH), but BrQ was the more effective substrate. Part of GSH was incorporated into the naphthoquinone, producing a nucleophilic substitution product (Q-SG). The depletion of BrQ by GSH did not prevent its redox capacity since Q-SG was also able to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species. VK3/VC has already been submitted to clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and has demonstrated promising results. However, replacement of VK3 with BrQ will open new lines of investigation regarding this approach to cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/chemistry , Drug Combinations , Drug Substitution , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , /chemistry , /pharmacology
12.
West Indian med. j ; 60(6): 608-614, Dec. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a hexane extract of Cassia alata leaves in A549 lung cancer cells. METHOD: Parental A549 lung cancer cells were exposed to various concentrations (100"180 µg/ml) of Cassia alata leaf extract for 24 hours. Following treatment, the cells were evaluated using the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine the cytotoxic effect of the extract. Caspase 8, 3 and 9 negative A549 cells were also prepared using lentiviral based shRNA knockdown of the caspase 8, 3 and 9 genes, respectively. The cytotoxic effect of Cassia alata leaf extract was then evaluated in these knockdown cells using the MTT assay. Chemical analysis was performed on the extract using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Cassia alata extract was cytotoxic in parental and caspase-9 negative, but not caspase 3 and 8 negative A549 cells. The IC50 values were 143 µg/ml and 145 µg/ml in parental and caspase 9 negative A549 cells respectively. The flavanoid kaempferol was identified as a constituent of Cassia alata leaf extract. CONCLUSIONS: Cassia alata produces cytotoxicity in A549 cancer cells that is mediated by caspase 8 activation. This effect may be attributable to kaempferol.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto citotóxico de un extracto de hexano de hojas de Cassia alata en las células A549 del cáncer pulmonar. MÉTODO: Células A549 parentales del cáncer pulmonar fueron expuestas a varias concentraciones (100-180 µg/ml) de un extracto de la hoja de Cassia alatadurante 24 horas. Tras el tratamiento, las células fueron evaluadas usando el ensayo de bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolio (MTT) a fin de determinar el efecto citotóxico del extracto. También se prepararon células A549 negativas caspasa 8, 3 y 9 mediante silenciamiento génico vía ARN (shRNA knockdown) de los genes de las caspasas 8, 3 y 9 respectivamente, sobre la base de la inserción de vectores lentivirales. Entonces, usando un ensayo MTT se procedió a evaluar el efecto citotóxico del extracto de hojas de Cassia alataen éstas células genéticamente modificadas. Se realizó un análisis químico del extracto utilizando cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia. (HPLC). RESULTADOS: El extracto de Cassia alata resultó ser citotóxico en las células A549 negativas parentales y caspasa 9, pero no en las negativas caspasa 3 y 8. Los valores de IC50 fueron 143 µg/ml y 145 µg/ml en las células A549 negativas parentales y caspasa 9 respectivamente. El flavonol kaempferol fue identificado como un constituyente del extracto de las hojas de Cassia alata. CONCLUSIONES: La Cassia alata produce citotoxicidad en las células cancerosas A549, mediada por la activación de la caspasa 8. Este efecto puede ser atribuido al kaempferol.


Subject(s)
Humans , /metabolism , Cassia/chemistry , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/enzymology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Feb; 48(1): 59-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135302

ABSTRACT

The in vitro study was carried out for detection of the cisplatin in free form and in culture medium, depending on various conditions of sonodynamic human ovarian cancer cells A2780 treatment by differential pulse polarography (DPP). For sonodynamic treatment, we used cisplatin alone and combined cisplatin/ultrasound treatments. The ultrasound exposure intensity of 1.0 and 2.0 W∙cm-2 in far field for incubation periods 1, 24 and 48 h was used. The parameters of DPP measurements were - 1 s drop time, 5 mV.s-1 voltage scan rate, 50 mV modulation amplitude and negative scanning direction; platinum wire served as counter electrode and Ag|AgCl|3 M KCl as reference electrode. The results showed the dependence of free platinum quantities in culture medium on incubation time and treatment protocol. We found difference in concentration of free cisplatin between conventional application of cisplatin and sonodynamic treatment. The sonodynamic combined treatment of cisplatin and ultrasound field showed a higher cisplatin content in the culture medium than cisplatin treatment alone; a difference of 20% was observed for incubation time 48 h. The results also showed the influence of a time sequence of ultrasound and cytostatics in the sonodynamic treatment. The highest amount of free cisplatin in the solution was found for primary application of cisplatin and the subsequent ultrasound exposure. The quantity of free cisplatin increased with time, namely for time intervals 1-24 h. There was no difference between the DPP signal of cisplatin in reaction mixture containing cells in small quantities and micro-filtered mixture without cells. Thus, the DPP method is suitable for the detection and quantification of free cisplatin in the culture medium of cell suspension. Ultrasound field can be important factor during cytostatic therapy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cisplatin/analysis , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Culture Media/analysis , Female , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy , Polarography/methods , Time Factors , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Ultrasonic Therapy
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135524

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as fenugreek, has been widely cultivated in Asia, Africa and Mediterranean countries for the edible and medicinal values of its seeds. Earlier reports show that fenugreek seeds provide a mastogenic effect resulting in enhanced breast size. However, very little is known about its estrogenic effect. The present study investigated the effect of chloroform extracts of fenugreek seeds (FCE) in breast cancer cells for its estrogenic effect, and to assess its capacity as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Methods: The effect of FCE on cell proliferation of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 was studied by MTT assay at a concentration range of 20 to 320 μg/ml. The competitive ER binding assay (HAP assay) was done to find out the ER binding capacity of the extract. Transfection and reporter assay (DLR assay), and RT- PCR with an estrogen responsive gene pS2 were done to find out the transcriptional regulatory activity of FCE. Results: FCE stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, showed binding to ER (IC50 = 185.6 ± 32.8 μg/ml) and acted as an agonist for ER mediated transcription via ERE. It also induced the expression of estrogen responsive gene pS2 in MCF-7 cells. Interpretation & conclusion: Our study provided the evidence for estrogenic activities of fenugreek seeds. Further in vitro and in vivo studies could demonstrate its suitability as an alternative to HRT.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Female , Humans , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Seeds/chemistry , Trigonella/chemistry , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
15.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2007 Oct-Dec; 3(4): 198-206
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111538

ABSTRACT

The development of anticancer metal-based drugs was attempted by reacting dodecyl amine with selenious acid to produce a quaternary ammonium salt which was then converted to copper and cobalt cationic complexes via complexing the first compounds with copper (II) or cobalt (II) ions. The surface properties of these surfactants were investigated. The surface properties studied included critical micelle concentration (CMC), maximum surface excess (Gamma max ), and minimum surface area (A min ). Free energy of micellization (Delta G degree mic ) and adsorption (Delta G degree ads ) were calculated. Antitumor activity was tested by using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) as a model system of mice cell tumor. The compounds were also tested in vitro on five human monolayer tumor cell lines: MCF 7 (breast carcinoma), HEPG 2 (liver carcinoma), U 251 (brain tumor), HCT 116 (colon carcinoma), and H 460 (lung carcinoma). FTIR spectra, elemental analysis, and H 1 NMR spectra were performed to insure the purity of the prepared compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Cobalt/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Humans , Mice , Micelles , Organometallic Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Surface Properties , Surface Tension , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
16.
Biol. Res ; 40(2): 173-183, 2007. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-468188

ABSTRACT

Hybrid molecules obtained through conjugation of monoclonal antibodies and toxins constitute an approach under exploration to generate potential agents for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. A frequently employed toxic component in the construction of such immunotoxins is ricin, a plant toxin which inhibits protein synthesis at ribosomal level and so requires to be internalized by the cell. A hemolytic toxin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, which is active at the cell membrane level, was linked through a disulfide bond to the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3. The resulting immunotoxin did not exhibit hemolytic activity except under reducing conditions. It was toxic for H125 cells that express the human epidermal growth factor receptor, but non-toxic for U1906 cells that do not express this receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Hemolysis/drug effects , Immunotoxins/chemistry , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Sea Anemones/chemistry , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotoxins/pharmacology , ErbB Receptors/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/cytology
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37856

ABSTRACT

An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/drug therapy , Female , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Hydroxyl Radical , Lipid Peroxidation , Lymphoma/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ruta/chemistry , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
18.
Maroc Medical. 2004; 26 (2): 89-93
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-67390

ABSTRACT

In order to seak natural molecules with antiviral properties, we have evaluated the effect of 15 extracts of Moroccan plants used in traditional medicine on the proliferation of a cell line cancer cervix carrier of papillovirus type 16 [SiHa]. Evaluation of the resultes obtained which are due to inhibition of cellular growth was expressed in terms of variation of 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] depending on the concentration of the product in correlation with its time of contact with the cells. Among the 15 tested extracts only the oily extracted Origanum compactum showed a significant decrease of the IC50 compared to the results of cidofovir used as a positive control. These results suggested the presence of one or more products responsible for the antiproliferative activity in the oily extract of Origanum compactum


Subject(s)
Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts
19.
Arab Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2003; 2 (5): 47-51
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-61566

ABSTRACT

A number of aziridine and bromomethyl acyclic phosphonates were prepared [7, 9] and studied for their cytotoxic effects on different tumor cell lines in vitro. All compounds have shown no cytotoxic activity in all the tumor cell lines utilized


Subject(s)
Aziridines , Antineoplastic Agents , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
20.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2002 Sep; 20(3): 167-73
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37005

ABSTRACT

Cholangiocarcinoma is known to be relatively resistant to chemotherapy. One alternative approach is to use a combination of an immunomodulating agent with an anticancer drug. Here we studied the synergistic actions of TNF-alpha and triptolide (a diterpene epoxide prepared from Tripterygium wilfordii), previously shown to have antitumor activity against hamster cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. Three human CCA cell lines (HuCCA-1, HubCCA-1, KKU-100 cell lines) were subjected to a combined treatment of TNF-alpha (0.1-10 ng/ml) and triptolide (5-50 ng/ml) for 24 hours in microculture plates. The combination of TNF-alpha and triptolide had a significantly increased cytotoxic activity over that of triptolide alone (p < 0.05). Under the same conditions, TNF-alpha by itself was not cytotoxic to these cell lines. Similarly, the combined treatment could also accelerate apoptotic cell death in all three human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. The combined treatment of TNF-alpha at 10 ng/ml and triptolide at 50 ng/ml for 6-10 hours achieved a percentage of apoptotic cells shown by DAPI staining of 18-65%, compared to only 6-20% apoptotic cells for triptolide alone. Analyzing the possible mechanisms of the combined treatment, we found by Western blot that at 6 hours, there was a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage which was not detectable by the treatment of either TNF-alpha or triptolide alone. The cleavage of PARP was inhibited when the cells were pretreated with the enzyme inhibitor AC-DEVD-CMK, suggesting that apoptosis induced by the combination of TNF-alpha and triptolide involved activation of caspase 3. These results indicate that apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines as induced by a combination of TNF-alpha and triptolide is mediated through caspase 3 activation.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/immunology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bile Duct Neoplasms/drug therapy , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/cytology , Cholangiocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects , Diterpenes/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Synergism , Epoxy Compounds , Humans , Immunoblotting , Phenanthrenes , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
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