Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 61
Filter
1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 144-149, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130851

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Anogenital warts are the leading sexually transmitted infection in patients seeking care at specialized clinics. They may display a vast array of forms, according to the interaction of the virus with the host's immunity. Cellular immunity is the epithelium's main form of defense against the virus, involving an active participation of the Langerhans cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α. Objective: To assess the epithelial immune response of anogenital warts in males, according to the number of lesions presented. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out at the dermatology outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital. We included male patients over 18 years of age without comorbidities who had anogenital condylomata and no previous treatments.In order to evaluate the local epithelial immunity, the lesions were quantified, then removed and employed in CD1a immunohistochemistry assays for assessing the morphometry and morphology of Langerhans cells; TNF-α; reaction was used for determining cytokine positivity in the epithelium. Results: 48 patients were included in the study. There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of Langerhans cells, in their morphology, or the presence of TNF-α. However, patients presenting with more Langerhans cells in the lesions had cells with a star-like and dendritic morphology, whereas in those with a lower cell count had cells with a rounded morphology and no dendrites (p < 0.001). Study limitations: Small number of patients analyzed. Conclusion: There was no difference in epithelial immunity between patients having few or many anogenital condyloma lesions as measured by the morphology and morphometry of Langerhans cells and TNF-α; positivity. Such an assessment employing immunity markers differing from the usual ones is expected to yield useful results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anus Diseases/immunology , Condylomata Acuminata/immunology , Langerhans Cells/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Genital Diseases, Male/immunology , Anus Diseases/pathology , Reference Values , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Condylomata Acuminata/pathology , Langerhans Cells/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Genital Diseases, Male/pathology
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 829-835, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973620

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Allergic contact dermatitis to ion nickel (Ni+2) is an inflammatory dermatosis, common in industrialized countries. It involves the activation of nickel-specific T-cells, followed by proliferation and induction of a mixed profile of both proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, suggesting that several T-cell subtypes (helper - Th and cytotoxic - Tc) are involved. A broader understanding of the cytokine profile may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the cytokines TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17 and IL-23 using the immunohistochemistry technique in order to try to identify their prevalence in chronic and acute eczema of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to Ni+2. Methods: We performed an immunohistochemical study for eight cytokines in 20 patients with Ni+2 allergic contact dermatitis, biopsied at the site of chronic eczema, triggered by the patient's daily contact with Ni+2, and at the site of acute eczema caused by nickel sulfate, 48 hours after applying the contact test. Results: The stained samples showed positive results for the eight cytokines studied. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-17 had a higher prevalence in chronic eczema, IL-2 and IL-23 in acute eczema, and IL-10 presented a similar prevalence in both acute and chronic eczema. However, these prevalences were statistically significant only for IL-4 and IL-13. Study Limitations: Small sample size. Conclusions: In chronic and acute eczema, we observed the presence of a mixed cytokine profile of the T cell subtypes (Th/Tc), suggesting that the responses are expressed at the same time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukins/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/immunology , Nickel/adverse effects , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/pathology , Nickel/immunology
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(5): 517-524, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. Methods: The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child-Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. Results: IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (p < 0.001), 0.21 vs. 0.14 (p = 0.007), and 0.65 vs. 0.36 (p = 0.004), respectively. IL-6 and IL-10 were positively correlated with disease severity (0.450 [p = 0.001] and 0.410; [p = 0.002], respectively). TNF-α did not show a significant correlation with disease severity (0.100; p = 0.478). Regarding nutritional evaluation, IL-6 was negatively correlated with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.493; p < 0.001) and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.503; p < 0.001), respectively. IL-10 exhibited a negative correlation with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.476; p < 0.001) and the standard deviation score of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.388; p = 0.004). TNF-α did not show any significance in both anthropometric parameters (−0.083 (p = 0.555) and −0.161 (p = 0.253). Conclusion: The authors suggest that, in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status.


Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar se há associações entre a IL-6, o TNF-α, a IL-10 e a estado nutricional em pacientes com cirrose secundária a atresia biliar e comparar com controles saudáveis. Métodos: Os parâmetros usados na avaliação nutricional foram desvio padrão de estatura para a idade e espessura da prega cutânea do tríceps para a idade. A gravidade da cirrose foi avaliada por meio da classificação de Child-Pugh e do PELD/MELD. As citocinas no soro foram medidas por citometria de fluxo - técnica de Cytometric Bead Array. Resultados: A IL-6, o TNF-α e a IL-10 foram significativamente maiores no grupo de cirrose em comparação com o grupo de controle [2,4 em comparação com 0,24 (p < 0,001)], [0,21 em comparação com 0,14 (p = 0,007)] e [0,65 em comparação com 0,36 (p = 0,004)], respectivamente. A IL-6 e a IL-10 demonstraram correlação positiva com a gravidade da doença (0,450; p = 0,001) e (0,410; p = 0,002), respectivamente. O TNF-α não mostrou relevância na gravidade da doença (0,100; p = 0,478). Com relação à avaliação nutricional, a IL-6 demonstrou correlação negativa com o desvio padrão de estatura para a idade (−0,493; p < 0,001) e o desvio padrão de espessura da prega cutânea do tríceps para a idade (−0,503; p < 0,001), respectivamente. A IL-10 demonstrou correlação negativa com o desvio padrão de estatura para a idade (−0,476; p < 0,001) e o desvio padrão de espessura da prega cutânea do tríceps para a idade (−0,388; p = 0,004), respectivamente. O TNF-α não mostrou relevância em ambos os parâmetros antropométricos [(−0,083; p = 0,555); (−0,161; p = 0,253)]. Conclusão: Assim, sugerimos que, em pacientes com cirrose secundária a atresia biliar, IL-6 pode ser usado como um possível biomarcador de suporte do estado nutricional deficiente e níveis aumentados de IL-10 podem ser usados como um possível biomarcador de suporte, em fase inicial, de deterioração do estado nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Biliary Atresia/blood , Nutritional Status , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Biliary Atresia/complications , Biliary Atresia/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Nutrition Assessment , Interleukin-6/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/immunology
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204982

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation and blood-mixed diarrhea. The main treatment has been 5-aminosalicylic acid, steroid, thiopurine, and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antibodies including infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. Golimumab, a new anti-TNF-alpha agent has been recently approved for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. Its efficacy and safety has been demonstrated in line with infliximab and adalimumab in preclinical and clinical studies. This review will focus on golimumab therapy in ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Drug Administration Schedule , Humans , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 23(4): 587-594, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-761693

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: to relate complaints presented by emergency room patients, classified using the Manchester Triage System, with the final outcome (discharge/death/transfer).Methods: prospective cohort study, involving 509 patients who were admitted to the emergency room and remained there for more than 24 hours after admission, being monitored to the final outcome. Data were analyzed with a statistical program using descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: the mean age of the patients was 59.1 years and 59.3% were male. The main complaints were unwell adult (130 - 22.5%), shortness of breath in adults (81 - 14.0%), abdominal pain in adults (58 - 10.0%) and behaving strangely (34 - 5.9%), with 87% of the patients being discharged. More deaths were found in the patients classified in the severe colors, with 42.8% classified as red, 17.0% as orange and 8.9% as yellow. Among the patients classified as green, 9.6% died.Conclusion: in the various colors of the Manchester Triage System, death prevailed in patients that presented the complaints of unwell adult, shortness of breath, head injury, major trauma, diarrhea and vomiting. The higher the clinical priority the greater the prevalence of death.


ResumoObjetivo:relacionar queixas apresentadas pelos pacientes classificados pelo Sistema de Triagem de Manchester em um pronto-socorro com o desfecho final (alta/óbito/transferência).Métodos:estudo de coorte prospectivo, realizado com 509 pacientes que deram entrada no pronto-socorro e que nele permaneceram por mais de 24 horas após a admissão, sendo acompanhados até o desfecho final. Os dados foram digitados e analisados com estatística descritiva e analítica em um pacote estatístico.Resultados:entre os pacientes, 59,3% eram do sexo masculino, com idade média de 59,1 anos. As queixas principais eram de mal-estar no adulto (130-22,5%), dispneia em adulto (81-14,0%), dor abdominal em adulto (58-10,0%), alterações de comportamento (34-5,9%), sendo que, desses, 87% recebeu alta. Foram encontrados mais óbitos nos pacientes classificados nas cores mais graves, sendo 42,8% classificados como vermelho, 17,0% laranja e 8,9% como amarelo. Entre os pacientes classificados como verde, 9,6% evoluiu para óbito.Conclusão:nas diversas cores do Sistema de Triagem Manchester, o óbito prevaleceu nos pacientes que apresentaram a queixa de mal-estar no adulto, dispneia, sofreram trauma craniano, trauma maior, diarreia e vômito. Quanto maior a prioridade clínica maior a prevalência de óbito.


ResumenObjetivo:relacionar las quejas presentadas por los pacientes clasificados por el Sistema de Clasificación de Manchester, en un servicio de urgencia, con el desenlace final (alta/muerte/ transferencia).Métodos:estudio de cohorte prospectiva, realizado con 509 pacientes que dieron entrada en el servicio de urgencia y que en él permanecieron por más de 24 horas después de la admisión, siendo seguidos hasta el desenlace final. Los datos fueron introducidos y analizados con estadística descriptiva y analítica, en un programa estadístico.Resultados:entre los pacientes, 59,3% eran del sexo masculino, con edad promedio de 59,1 años. Las quejas principales eran de malestar en adulto (130-22,5%), disnea en adulto (81-14,0%), dolor abdominal en adulto (58- 10,0%), alteraciones de comportamiento (34-5,9%), siendo que, de estos, 87% recibió alta. Fueron encontradas más muertes entre los pacientes clasificados con los colores más graves, siendo 42,8% clasificados como rojo, 17,0% naranja y 8,9% como amarillo. Entre los pacientes clasificados como verde, 9,6% evolucionó para la muerte.Conclusión:en los diversos colores del Sistema de Clasificación Manchester, la muerte prevaleció en los pacientes que presentaron la queja de malestar en adulto, disnea, sufrieron trauma craniano, trauma mayor, diarrea y vómito. Cuanto mayor es la prioridad clínica mayor es la prevalencia de la muerte.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HLA-B Antigens , Haplotypes/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Allografts , Disease-Free Survival , Graft vs Host Disease/genetics , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/mortality , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/immunology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/mortality , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Siblings , Survival Rate , Tissue Donors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 304-309, mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745627

ABSTRACT

Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is the third most common muscular dystrophy with an estimated prevalence of 1 per 20.000 and a normal life expectancy in the majority of patients. However, approximately 15% of patients become wheelchair bound in the course of their life. It is a hereditary autosomal dominant disease with high (95%) penetrance by the age of 20, but with variable degree of phenotypic expression even in the same family group. Symptoms frequently start in the second decade of life, with facial and scapular weakness. Aim: To report the clinical features of seven patients with the disease, seen at a public hospital. Material and Methods: Analysis of seven patients with genetic study seen in a public Hospital in Santiago. Results: The age of patients fluctuated from 18 to 61 years and four were females. The mean age at onset of symptoms was 29 years and four had a family history of the disease. The usual presenting complaint was arm or shoulder asymmetric weakness. Four patients had bone pain. Facial involvement was present in four. A genetic study was done in five patients, the other two patients were relatives, confirming the contraction or lower number of repetitions in D4Z4 region. After 12 years of follow up only 2 patients older than 60 years cannot work and one female patients is in a semi dependent state at the age of 30. Conclusions: The clinical workup in the diagnosis and the timely indication of genetic studies are highlighted, to avoid unnecessary and invasive procedures. The variability in the phenotypic expression in a similar genetic defect is discussed and the genetic or epigenetic mechanisms of this muscular dystrophy are described.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/immunology , Lipoproteins/immunology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/immunology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , /immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/pathology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/immunology , Lipoproteins/genetics , Mice, Knockout , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/genetics , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/pathology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , /genetics , /immunology , /genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 310-319, mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745628

ABSTRACT

Background: In Chile, colorectal cancer (CRC) is often diagnosed in late stages. Thus, surgical treatment must be complemented with chemotherapy. KRAS mutations and microsatellite instability have been detected in these tumors. However, the response to treatment in patients without KRAS mutations varies and requires a better understanding. Aim: To determine the frequency and distribution of somatic point mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and microsatellite instability status (MSI) in patients with colon cancer (CC). Material and Methods: A prospective observational study of patients undergoing surgery for colon cancer. Tumor-derived DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the most frequent mutations of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA. PCR was also used to analyze MSI. Results: Fifty-eight patients with sporadic CC were analyzed, 16 showed KRAS mutations (G12R, G12D, G12V, G13D) and out of the 42 patients that did not show any mutation, 10 had mutations in BRAF (V600E) and PIK3CA (E542K, E545D, E545K, Q546E, H1047R). BRAF mutations alone or in combination with PIK3CA mutations were observed in 27% of high MSI tumors and in 2% of tumors without instability (p < 0.049). A higher percentage of high MSI tumors were located in the right colon (p < 0.001), and showed BRAF mutation (p < 0.020). Conclusions: The highest percentage of high MSI and BRAF mutations was observed in the right colon. Therefore, this study suggests the presence of different molecular features between right and left colon tumors that should be considered when defining the therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , /genetics , /genetics , Interleukins/genetics , Mice, Knockout , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Macrophages/pathology , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153826

ABSTRACT

Thanks to the introduction of immumomodulators and biologics, therapeutic approaches in Crohn's disease have changed significantly during the past decade. Although new biologic therapy has dramatically improved the treatment of Crohn's disease, a substantial number of patients are refractory to these therapies or lose their initial response. Methotrexate (MTX) is a structural analogue of folic acid that can competitively inhibit the binding of dihydrofolic acid to the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase and has been widely used as immunomodulator in rheumatology area for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Although MTX has also been shown to be an effective agent for remission induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease, the use of MTX in Crohn's disease has not yet been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of Crohn's disease patient who was successfully treated with MTX after treatment failure with thiopurine and anti-tumor necrosis factor.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Colonoscopy , Crohn Disease/diagnosis , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Remission Induction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142453

ABSTRACT

Abnormal levels of microRNA (miR)-155, which regulate inflammation and immune responses, have been demonstrated in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), although its role in disease pathophysiology is unknown. We investigated the role of miR-155 in the acquisition and maintenance of an activated phenotype by intestinal myofibroblasts (IMF), a key cell population contributing to mucosal damage in IBD. IMF were isolated from colonic biopsies of healthy controls, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. MiR-155 in IMF was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in basal condition and following exposure to TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or TGF-beta1. The effects of miR-155 mimic or inhibitor transfection on cytokine release and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) expression were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot, respectively. Regulation of the target gene SOCS1 expression by miR-155 was assessed using luciferase reporter construct. We found that miR-155 was significantly upregulated in UC as compared with control- and CD-derived IMF. Moreover, TNF-alpha and LPS, but not TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta, significantly increased miR-155 expression in IMF. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in control IMF augmented cytokines release, whereas it downregulated SOCS1 expression. MiR-155 knockdown in UC-IMF reduced cytokine production and enhanced SOCS1 expression. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-155 directly targets SOCS1. Moreover, silencing of SOCS1 in control IMF significantly increased IL-6 and IL-8 release. In all, our data suggest that inflammatory mediators induce miR-155 expression in IMF of patients with UC. By downregulating the expression of SOCS1, miR-155 wires IMF inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Myofibroblasts/immunology , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142452

ABSTRACT

Abnormal levels of microRNA (miR)-155, which regulate inflammation and immune responses, have been demonstrated in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), although its role in disease pathophysiology is unknown. We investigated the role of miR-155 in the acquisition and maintenance of an activated phenotype by intestinal myofibroblasts (IMF), a key cell population contributing to mucosal damage in IBD. IMF were isolated from colonic biopsies of healthy controls, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. MiR-155 in IMF was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in basal condition and following exposure to TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or TGF-beta1. The effects of miR-155 mimic or inhibitor transfection on cytokine release and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) expression were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot, respectively. Regulation of the target gene SOCS1 expression by miR-155 was assessed using luciferase reporter construct. We found that miR-155 was significantly upregulated in UC as compared with control- and CD-derived IMF. Moreover, TNF-alpha and LPS, but not TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta, significantly increased miR-155 expression in IMF. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in control IMF augmented cytokines release, whereas it downregulated SOCS1 expression. MiR-155 knockdown in UC-IMF reduced cytokine production and enhanced SOCS1 expression. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-155 directly targets SOCS1. Moreover, silencing of SOCS1 in control IMF significantly increased IL-6 and IL-8 release. In all, our data suggest that inflammatory mediators induce miR-155 expression in IMF of patients with UC. By downregulating the expression of SOCS1, miR-155 wires IMF inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Myofibroblasts/immunology , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62585

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic progressive idiopathic inflammatory disorder that involves the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus. Over the past decades, many therapeutic strategies have been developed to manage IBD, but therapeutic strategies based only on relief of clinical symptoms have not changed the natural history of this disease entity. This underlines the importance of understanding the natural history of IBD itself. When we look at the natural history of Crohn's disease (CD), it first begins with inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and this inflammatory reaction proceeds to stenosing or penetrating reaction if not adequately controlled. However, it takes a considerable amount of time before mucosal inflammation proceeds to stenosis of the intestinal lumen or penetration into the adjacent bowel. Therefore, it can be expected that if proper care is given during that period, progression of CD to such a complicated disease could be prevented. Even though the concept of mucosal healing was introduced in the early 1990s, no correlation could be observed between healing of mucosal lesions and relief of clinical symptoms. However, the introduction of biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor has changed the way to treat IBD that is refractory to standard medications and has allowed us to aim for a new therapeutic goal, 'deep remission'. Further advances in biologic agents have provided highly effective treatments for IBD, making deep remission a realistic goal. Whether IBD patients may benefit by experiencing a 'deep' remission beyond the control of clinical symptoms need to be evaluated in further investigation. Nevertheless, it can be anticipated that attaining deep remission might ultimately have an impact on important outcomes such as the need for surgery and the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 29-37, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703641

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterised by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone damage. The chronic treatment of RA patients causes a higher susceptibility to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB); one-third of the world’s population is latently infected (LTBI) with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The tuberculin skin test is used to identify individuals LTBI, but many studies have shown that this test is not suitable for RA patients. The goal of this work was to test the specific cellular immune responses to the Mtb malate synthase (GlcB) and heat shock protein X (HspX) antigens of RA patients and to correlate those responses with LTBI status. The T-helper (Th)1, Th17 and Treg-specific immune responses to the GlcB and HspX Mtb antigens were analysed in RA patients candidates for tumour necrosis factor-α blocker treatment. Our results demonstrated that LTBI RA patients had Th1-specific immune responses to GlcB and HspX. Patients were followed up over two years and 14.3% developed active TB. After the development of active TB, RA patients had increased numbers of Th17 and Treg cells, similar to TB patients. These results demonstrate that a GlcB and HspX antigen assay can be used as a diagnostic test to identify LTBI RA patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Malate Synthase/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , /blood , Longitudinal Studies , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , /immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
13.
Recife; s.n; 2014. 84 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720604

ABSTRACT

Fatores genéticos e imunológicos foram associados à patogenese da doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), ela inclui Retocolite Ulcerativa Idiopática (RCUI) e doença de Crohn (CD). A hiperresponsividade de celulas B e a autoreatividade de células T contribuem para a polarização da resposta imune Th1 em CD e Th2 em RCUI. Sítios polimórficos na região 3'não traduzida do gene HLA-G (completa) e região promotora dos genes IL-10 ( - 1082A/G e - 819C/T) e TNF (completa) foram associados a susceptibilidade a diversas doenças. Estudamos 217 portadores de DII e 249 doadores saudáveis, pareados por sexo e idade. A ascendência africana foi maior em RCUI e caucasiana em DC (p =0,005). Comparados aos controles, o genótipo HLA - G 14bpINS - INS (associado com baixa expressão de HLA - G) (p =0,006) e IL - 10 - 1082G - G (associado com alta expressão de IL - 10) (p =0,030) foram menos frequentes em pacientes com DC, possivelmente contribuindo para a polarização Th1, mas não foram encontradas diferenças nas frequências de TNF. Em RCUI, as frequências do alelo HLA-G +3003C (p =0,015) e genótipo +3003C-T (p =0,003) estavam aumentadas. Apesar da alta frequência do alelo T em africanos, após estratifica rmos por ascendência, o genótipo +3003C - T ainda estava mais frequente em pacientes com ascendência africana (p =0,012)...


Genetic and immunological factors have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, encompassing ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD).B cell hyperresponsiveness and T cell auto-reactivity have contributedto a Th1 polarization immune response in CD and a Th2 polarization in UC. Sincepolymorphic sites at the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR)...


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/genetics , Crohn Disease/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/genetics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , /genetics , /immunology
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(1): 20-26, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a systemic inflammation associated with infection caused by pathogenic micro-organisms with high mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Propionibacterium acnes-killed against polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. METHODS: The mice were treated by intramuscular route in 1, 3, 5, and 7 days before the cecal ligation and puncture induction. The control group animals received vehicle (saline solution 0.9%) and the animals of the treated group received the P. acnes-killed (0.4 mg/animal). After anesthesia, midline laparotomy was performed with exposure of cecum followed by ligature and one transverse perforation of the same, with a 18 G needle, for induction of lethal sepsis. After surgery, the cecum of the animals was replaced into the peritoneal cavity, and it was closed with a 4.0 nylon suture. The survival of animals subjected to lethal sepsis was evaluated after cecal ligation and puncture induction. Six hours after the induction of sepsis, neutrophil migration, the number of bacteria, TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 were performed in the peritoneal lavage. RESULTS: Prophylactic treatment with P. acnes-killed increased the survival of the animals, followed by a significant decrease in the TNF-α, IL-10, and MCP-1 levels, 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture. Furthermore, P. acnes-killed administration reduced the number of bacteria in the peritoneal cavity with increased migration of leukocytes, especially neutrophils. CONCLUSION: P. acnes-killed promoted increased survival rate of animals with sepsis, in part attributed to its immunomodulatory properties against pathogenic microorganisms, as well as better control of infection by reducing bacterial counts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cecum/microbiology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Propionibacterium acnes , Sepsis/immunology , Colony Count, Microbial , Cecum/surgery , /immunology , Disease Models, Animal , /immunology , /immunology , Ligation , Punctures , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
15.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2013; 34 (5): 490-496
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127413

ABSTRACT

To investigate the potential role of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha] antibodies on some renal functions and release of vasoregulatory peptides using nitric oxide synthase deprived pregnant rats. This study was carried out at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to November 2012. Forty female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups [10 rats each]; Group I - included virgin non-pregnant rats. Group II - included pregnant rats that received saline, Group III - received N[G]-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME], and Group IV -received both L-NAME and anti TNF- alpha antibodies. Mean arterial blood pressure, urine volume, creatinine clearance and 24 hours urinary albumin excretion were measured on day 20 of gestation. Blood samples were taken on day 20 of gestation for measurement of plasma endothelin-1 [ET-1], angiotensin II [Ag II] and serum levels of total nitric oxide [NO] products, interleukin-6 [IL-6] and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule [sVCAM-1]. Viable pups were also weighed. Anti TNF- alpha antibodies reversed hypertension, improved renal function, decreased release of vasoactive substances and increased pup weight. Preeclampsia is associated with disturbed renal function, overproduction of cytokines and vasoregulatory factors, and fetal growth restriction. Treatment of pregnant rats with anti TNF- alpha antibodies, restored urine volume, creatinine clearance, plasma ET-1, serum IL-6 and sVCAM-1 to normal levels. Hence, anti TNF- alpha antibodies may have beneficial effects in preeclampsia. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these results


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Rats, Wistar , Pregnancy, Animal , Kidney/physiology , Antibodies
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(5): 673-683, Sept-Oct. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-651557

ABSTRACT

New molecular methods of research have greatly expanded the knowledge about the role of cytokines in several diseases, including psoriasis. The work orchestrated by these peptides is essential for the communication between resident inflammatory cells (keratinocytes and endothelial cells) and infiltrating cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, Langerhans cells). This is a complex network due to redundancy, synergism and, sometimes, the antagonism of cytokines, which prevents full understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. Currently, it seems premature to try to establish a main actor, but TNFalpha participates in all stages of psoriatic plaque development, as we shall see.


A introdução de novos métodos moleculares de investigação ampliou muito o conhecimento sobre o papel das citocinas em diversas doenças, entre elas a psoríase. O trabalho orquestrado desses polipeptídeos é fundamental na comunicação entre as células inflamatórias residentes (queratinócitos e células endoteliais) e infiltrantes (neutrófilos, linfócitos, células de Langerhans). Trata-se de uma rede complexa devido à redundância, ao sinergismo e, por vezes, ao antagonismo das citocinas, o que dificulta a compreensão da fisiopatogenia da doença a partir de um mecanismo linear. No momento atual, parece precoce tentar estabelecer um regente, mas o TNF-alfa se destaca em todos os passos do desenvolvimento da placa psoriásica, como veremos a seguir.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Communication/immunology , Psoriasis/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Cytokines/physiology , Keratinocytes/immunology
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(10): 968-976, Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647749

ABSTRACT

Psychological factors can be correlated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), but the mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we examined the microstructural changes and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mandibular condylar cartilage of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a psychological stress animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, 210 ± 10 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups: psychological stress (PS, N = 48), foot shock (FS, N = 24), and control (N = 48). After inducing psychological stress using a communication box with the FS rats for 1, 3, or 5 weeks, PS rats were sacrificed and compared to their matched control littermates, which received no stress and were killed at the same times as the PS rats. Body and adrenal gland weight were measured and corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. After hematoxylin-eosin staining for histological observation, the ultrastructure of the TMJ was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Transcription and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated by ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The PS group showed a significantly higher adrenal gland weight after 3 weeks of stress and higher hormone levels at weeks 1, 3, and 5. Histopathological changes and thinning cartilage were apparent at weeks 3 and 5. In the PS group, TNF-α increased at 1, 3, and 5 weeks and IL-1β increased significantly after 1 and 3 weeks of stress, and then decreased to normal levels by 5 weeks. Psychological stress increased plasma hormone levels and RT-PCR indicated increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression in the TMJ in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest that cytokine up-regulation was accompanied by stress-induced cartilage degeneration in the mandibular condyle. The proinflammatory cytokines play a potential role in initiating the cartilage destruction that eventually leads to the TMDs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Mandibular Condyle/immunology , Mandibular Condyle/ultrastructure , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Cartilage , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(3): 159-164, May-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in skin biopsies of patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. METHODS: This prospective study evaluated 12 patients with ATL caused by Leishmania braziliensis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of TLR2 and TLR4. The number of NK cells, dendritic cells and macrophages in the tissue were calculated. The cytokine expression was determined using the anti-TNF-α, anti-IFN-Γ, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6. Double immunostaining reactions were used to determine the cell expressing TLR2 and TLR4. RESULTS: The numbers of cells expressing TLR2 and TLR4 were 145.48 ± 82.46 cell/mm² and 3.26 ± 4.11 cell/mm² respectively (p < 0.05). There was no correlation of TLR2 and TLR4 with the amount of cytokines and the number of NK cells, dendritic cells or macrophages. The double immunostaining revealed that TLR2 was expressed by macrophages. CONCLUSION: In human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis, TLR2 is the most common TLR expressed during active disease, mainly by macrophages although without correlation with the amount of cytokines and number of cells.


OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o padrão de expressão dos receptores toll-like 2 e 4 (TLR2 e TLR4) em biópsias de pele de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA). MÉTODOS: Este estudo prospectivo avaliou 12 pacientes com LTA causada por Leishmania braziliensis confirmada por reação em cadeia da polimerase. Imunohistoquímica foi realizada para determinar a expressão de TLR2 e TLR4. O número de células NK, células dendríticas e macrófagos foi calculado no tecido. A expressão de citocinas foi determinada usando anti-TNF-α, anti-IFN-Γ, anti-IL-1 e anti-IL-6. Dupla marcação foi usada para determinar a célula responsável pela expressão de TLR2 e TLR4. RESULTADOS: O número de células expressando TLR2 e TLR4 foi 145.48±82.46 cell/mm² e 3.26 ± 4.11 cell/mm² respectivamente (p < 0.05). Não houve correlação entre a quantidade de expressão de TLR2 e TLR4 com a quantidade de citocinas e o número de células NK, macrófagos e células dendríticas. A dupla marcação revelou que o TLR2 é expresso por macrófagos. CONCLUSÃO: Na LTA causada por Leishmania braziliensis, TLR2 é o TLR mais comum na doença ativa, principalmente por macrófagos sem correlação com a quantidade de citocinas e outras células.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/analysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/metabolism , /metabolism , /metabolism , Cell Count , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Interferon Type I/analysis , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interleukin-1/analysis , Interleukin-1/immunology , /analysis , /immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , /immunology , /immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(2): 95-102, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625262

ABSTRACT

This study examined the susceptibility of peritoneal macrophage (PM) from the Neotropical primates: Callithrix jacchus, Callithrix penicillata, Saimiri sciureus, Aotus azarae infulatus and Callimico goeldii to ex vivo Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection, the etiological agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), as a screening assay for evaluating the potential of these non-human primates as experimental models for studying AVL. The PM-susceptibility to infection was accessed by the PM-infection index (PMI) at 24, 72 h and by the mean of these rates (FPMI), as well as by the TNF-α, IL-12 (Capture ELISA) and Nitric oxide (NO) responses (Griess method). At 24h, the PMI of A. azarae infulatus (128) was higher than those of C. penicillata (83), C. goeldii (78), S. sciureus (77) and C. jacchus (55). At 72h, there was a significant PMI decrease in four monkeys: A. azarae infulatus (128/37), C. penicillata (83/38), S. sciureus (77/38) and C. jacchus (55/12), with exception of C. goeldii (78/54). The FPMI of A. azarae infulatus (82.5) and C. goeldii (66) were higher than C. jacchus (33.5), but not higher than those of C. penicillata (60.5) and S. sciureus (57.5). The TNF-a response was more regular in those four primates which decreased their PMI at 24/72 h: C. jacchus (145/122 pg/mL), C. penicillata (154/130 pg/mL), S. sciureus (164/104 pg/mL) and A. azarae infulatus (154/104 pg/mL), with exception of C. goeldii (38/83 pg/mL). The IL-12 response was mainly prominent in A. infulatus and C. goeldii which presented the highest FPMI and, the NO response was higher in C. goeldii, mainly at 72 h. These findings strongly suggest that these New World primates have developed a resistant innate immune response mechanism capable of controlling the macrophage intracellular growth of L. (L.) i. chagasi-infection, which do not encourage their use as animal model for studying AVL.


Este estudo examinou a susceptibilidade do macrófago peritoneal (PM) dos primatas neotropicais: Callithrix jacchus, Callithrix penicillata, Saimiri sciureus, Aotus azarae infulatus e Callimico goeldii para a infecção ex vivo por Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, o agente etiológico da leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA), como método de triagem para avaliar o potencial desses primatas como modelo de estudo da LVA. A susceptibilidade do PM para a infecção foi investigada através do índice de infecção do PM (PMI) a intervalos de 24, 72 horas e, ainda, pela média dessas taxas (FPMI), assim como, pelas respostas do TNF-α, IL-2 (ELISA de captura) e óxido nítrico (NO) (método de Griess). Às 24hs da infecção experimental, o PMI do primata A. azarae infulatus (128) foi maior que aqueles de C. penicillata (83), C. goeldii (78), S. sciureus (77) e C. jacchus (55). Às 72hs, houve uma redução significativa do PMI de quatro primatas: A. azarae infulatus (128/37), C. penicillata (83/38), S. sciureus (77/38) e C. jacchus (55/12), com exceção de C. goeldii (78/54). O FPMI dos primatas A. azarae infulatus (82.5) e C. goeldii (66) foi maior que do primata C. jacchus (33.5), porém, não foi maior que dos primatas C. penicillata (60.5) e S. sciureus (57.5). A resposta do TNF-α foi mais regular nos quatro primatas que reduziram o PMI no intervalo de 24-72hs: C. jacchus (145/122 pg/µL), C. penicillata (154/130 pg/µL), S. sciureus (164/104 pg/µL) e A. azarae infulatus (154/104 pg/µL), com exceção de C. goeldii (38/83 pg/µL). A resposta de IL-12 foi, principalmente, marcante nos primatas A. azarae infulatus e C. goeldii, os quais apresentaram as maiores taxas do FPMI, e a resposta do NO foi maior no primata C. goeldii, em especial no intervalo de 72hs. Estes achados sugerem, fortemente, que estes primatas neotropicais parecem ter desenvolvido mecanismos resistentes de resposta imune inata capaz de controlar o crescimento intracelular da infecção por L. (L.) i. chagasi no macrófago, o que não encoraja o uso destes primatas como modelo de estudo da LVA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , /blood , Leishmania infantum/pathogenicity , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , /immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Primates/parasitology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
20.
Biol. Res ; 45(1): 33-43, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626745

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to initiate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-α/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-γ. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , /analysis , /immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Immunophenotyping , Immunotherapy , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL