Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 251
Filter
1.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 74-81, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of VX765 on osteoarthritis (OA) and chondrocytes inflammation in rats.@*METHODS@#Chondrocytes were isolated from the knee joints of 4-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The third-generation cells were subjected to cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) analysis to assess the impact of various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 μmol/L) of VX765 on rat chondrocyte activity. An in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cell inflammation model was employed, dividing cells into control group, LPS group, VX765 concentration 1 group and VX765 concentration 2 group without obvious cytotoxicity. Western blot, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and ELISA were conducted to measure the expression levels of inflammatory factors-transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Additionally, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were employed to assess the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Thirty-two SD rats were randomly assigned to sham surgery group (group A), OA group (group B), OA+VX765 (50 mg/kg) group (group C), and OA+VX765 (100 mg/kg) group (group D), with 8 rats in each group. Group A underwent a sham operation with a medial incision, while groups B to D underwent additional transverse incisions to the medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament, with removal of the medial meniscus. One week post-surgery, groups C and D were orally administered 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg VX765, respectively, while groups A and B received an equivalent volume of saline. Histopathological examination using HE and safranin-fast green staining was performed, and Mankin scoring was utilized for evaluation. Immunohistochemical staining technique was employed to analyze the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and collagen type Ⅱ.@*RESULTS@#The CCK-8 assay indicated a significant decrease in cell viability at VX765 concentrations exceeding 10 μmol/L ( P<0.05), so 4 μmol/L and 8 μmol/L VX765 without obvious cytotoxicity were selected for subsequent experiments. Following LPS induction, the expressions of TGF-β 1, IL-6, and TNF-α in cells significantly increased when compared with the control group ( P<0.05). However, intervention with 4 μmol/L and 8 μmol/L VX765 led to a significant decrease in expression compared to the LPS group ( P<0.05). Western blot and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated a significant upregulation of Nrf2 pathway-related molecules Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions by VX765 ( P<0.05), indicating Nrf2 pathway activation. Histopathological examination of rat knee joint tissues and immunohistochemical staining revealed that, compared to group B, treatment with VX765 in groups C and D improved joint structural damage in rat OA, alleviated inflammatory reactions, downregulated MMP-13 expression, and increased collagen type Ⅱ expression.@*CONCLUSION@#VX765 can improve rat OA and reduce chondrocyte inflammation, possibly through the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Collagen Type II/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Dipeptides , para-Aminobenzoates
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 243-250, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Danmu Extract Syrup (DMS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and explore the mechanism.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Balb/C mice were randomly divided into 6 groups according to a random number table (n=12), including control (normal saline), LPS (5 mg/kg), LPS+DMS 2.5 mL/kg, LPS+DMS 5 mL/kg, LPS+DMS 10 mL/kg, and LPS+Dexamethasone (DXM, 5 mg/kg) groups. After pretreatment with DMS and DXM, the ALI mice model was induced by LPS, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to determine protein concentration, cell counts and inflammatory cytokines. The lung tissues of mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of lung tissue was calculated. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 β in BALF of mice were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of Claudin-5, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt) and Akt were detected by Western blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#DMS pre-treatment significantly ameliorated lung histopathological changes. Compared with the LPS group, the W/D ratio and protein contents in BALF were obviously reduced after DMS pretreatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The number of cells in BALF and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity decreased significantly after DMS pretreatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). DMS pre-treatment decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1 β (P<0.01). Meanwhile, DMS activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway and reversed the expressions of Claudin-5, VE-cadherin and VEGF (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#DMS attenuated LPS-induced ALI in mice through repairing endothelial barrier. It might be a potential therapeutic drug for LPS-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Claudin-5/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1523-1530, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with ectopic high OCT4 expression on T-cell proliferation, activation and secretion in vitro.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy children. Anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies were used to activate T lymphocytes, which were stimulated by interleukin (IL)-2 for one week in vitro. Then MSCs with ectopic high OCT4 expression (MSC-OCT4) were co-cultured with activated T lymphocytes. After one week of co-culture, the supernatant was collected and the levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines [IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ] were determined by flow cytometry. The lymphocytes after one week of co-culture were collected and counted by Countstar software. After the proportions of activated/inactivated T cell subsets were determined by flow cytometry, the absolute lymphocyte counts were calculated and expressed as mean ± standard deviation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control T cell alone culture group, the proliferation of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, and CD3+CD8+ T cells were significantly inhibited in MSC group and MSC-OCT4 group. Compared with MSC, MSC-OCT4 could inhibit CD3+CD8+ T cell proliferation better (P =0.049), and mainly inhibited early T cell activation. Compared with control T cell alone culture group, the levels of IL-2 and INF-γ were significantly down-regulated both in MSC group and MSC-OCT4 group.After co-culture with T cells for one week, the level of IL-6 significantly increased in MSC group and MSC-OCT4 group compared with that before co-culture. Compared with control MSC group, MSC-OCT4 group had higher viable cell numbers after 1 week of co-culture (P =0.019), and could resist the inhibition of proliferation by higher concentration of mitomycin C.@*CONCLUSION@#Both MSC and MSC-OCT4 can inhibit the proliferation and activation of IL-2-stimulated T cells in vitro. After overexpression of OCT4, MSC has better proliferation ability in vitro and can inhibit the proliferation of CD3+CD8+ T cells more effectively, which may have a better and more lasting immunosuppressive ability to regulate the balance of Th1/Th2.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Bone Marrow Cells , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 708-713, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009421

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect and mechanism of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHCD) on vascular endothelial injury in septic rats. Methods Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis group (model group), low dose PHCD (0.3 mg/kg) group, medium dose PHCD (1.0 mg/kg) group and high dose PHCD (3.0 mg/kg) groups, ten mice for each group. Normal saline was injected into the tail vein of the control group, and 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the tail vein of the rats in other groups to prepare the sepsis rat models. After the models were successfully established, low, medium and high doses (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) of PHCD solution were injected into the tail vein of the rats of corresponding groups. Wet/dry mass ratio (W/D) of lung tissue of rats in each group was measured, and ELISA was used to assay interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 content and rat plasma angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the expression of Ang2 in the right lung tissues. Western blot analysis was performed to detect Ang2 and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) protein in lung tissues. Results Compared with the control group, the W/D ratio of the lung tissues of rats in the model group and the contents of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in BALF were significantly increased; the lung tissues showed obvious pathological damage, with up-regulation of Ang2 expression and down-regulation of VE-Cadherin expression. Compared with the model group, the W/D ratio of the lung tissues of rats in three PHCD treatment groups and the contents of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in BALF were significantly reduced; the pathological damage of lung tissue was significantly reduced, with down-regulation of Ang2 expression and up-regulation of VE-cadherin expression. Conclusion PHCD can reduce LPS-induced lung inflammation in rats with sepsis by regulating the Ang2/VE-Cadherin pathway, thereby improving vascular endothelial injury.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Male , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Angiopoietin-2/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6483-6491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008847

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of preventive administration of Yigong Powder on the learning and memory abilities of the mouse model of aging induced by D-galactose and decipher the underlying mechanism, so as to provide a basis for the application of Yigong Powder in the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline. Forty KM mice were randomized into control, model, donepezil(1.5 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(7.5 g·kg~(-1)) and low-dose(3.75 g·kg~(-1)) Yigong Powder groups. The mice in other groups except the control group were injected with D-galactose(200 g·kg~(-1)) at the back of the neck for the modeling of aging. At the same time, the mice were administrated with corresponding drugs by gavage for one month. Morris water maze was used to examine the learning and memory abilities of the mice. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was employed to observe the pathological and morphological changes of the hippocampus. The immunofluorescence assay was employed to detect the expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1(IBA1), glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP), chemokine C-X-C-motif ligand 12(CXCL12), chemokine C-X-C-motif receptor 4(CXCR4) in the hippocampus and observe the positional relationship between IBA1, GFAP, and CXCR4. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of extracellular regulated kinase(ERK), p-ERK, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1(TNFR1). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure the levels of glutamate and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α) in the brain tissue and the level of TNF-α in the serum and spleen. Yigong Powder significantly shortened the escape latency, increased the times crossing platforms, and prolonged the cumulative time in quadrants of the aging mice. It alleviated the nerve cell disarrangement, increased intercellular space, and cell degeneration or death in the hippocampus and reduced the pathology score of the damaged nerve. Moreover, Yigong Powder reduced the positive area of IBA1 and GFAP, reduced the levels of TNF-α in the brain tissue, serum, and spleen, and decreased spleen index. Furthermore, Yigong Powder decreased the average fluorescence intensity of CXCL12 and CXCR4, reduced CXCR4-positive astrocytes and microglia, down-regulated the protein levels of p-ERK/ERK and TNFR1, and lowered the level of glutamate in the brain tissue. This study showed that the preventive administration of Yigong Powder can ameliorate the learning and memory decline of the D-galactose-induced aging mice by regulating the immune function of the spleen and the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in the brain to reduce glutamate release. However, the mechanism of Yigong San in preventing and treating dementia via regulating spleen and stomach function remains to be studied.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Powders , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I , Glutamic Acid , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Galactose/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Chemokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6423-6433, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008842

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of tanshinone Ⅱ_(A )(TaⅡ_A) combined with endothelial progenitor cells-derived exosomes(EPCs-exos) in protecting the aortic vascular endothelial cells(AVECs) from oxidative damage via the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) pathway. The AVECs induced by 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(POVPC) were randomly divided into model, TaⅡ_A, EPCs-exos, and TaⅡ_A+EPCs-exos groups, and the normal cells were taken as the control group. The cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) was used to examine the cell proliferation. The lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) cytotoxicity assay kit, Matrigel assay, DCFH-DA fluorescent probe, and laser confocal microscopy were employed to examine the LDH release, tube-forming ability, cellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) level, and endothelial cell skeleton morphology, respectively. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure the expression of interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) and Western blot were employed to determine the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, of PI3K and Akt. Compared with the control group, the model group showed decreased cell proliferation and tube-forming ability, increased LDH release, elevated ROS level, obvious cytoskeletal disruption, increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of PI3K and Akt. Compared with the model group, TaⅡ_A or EPCs-exos alone increased the cell proliferation and tube-forming ability, reduced LDH release, lowered the ROS level, repaired the damaged skeleton, decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of PI3K and Akt. TaⅡ_A+EPCs-exos outperformed TaⅡ_A or EPCs-exos alone in regulating the above indexes. The results demonstrated that TaⅡ_A and EPCs-exos exerted a protective effect on POVPC-induced AVECs by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, and the combination of the two had stronger therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Oxidative Stress , Endothelial Progenitor Cells , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Abietanes
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6107-6114, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008810

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of acacetin in protecting rats from cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via the Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3) signaling pathway. Wistar rats were randomized into sham, model, low-and high-dose acacetin, and nimodipine groups, with 10 rats in each group. The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) was established with the improved suture method in other groups except the sham group. The neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume of each group were evaluated 24 h after modeling. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to measure the levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), malondialdehyde(MDA), supe-roxide dismutase(SOD), and glutathione(GSH). Western blot was employed to determine the expression levels of B-cell lymphonoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax), and TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway-related proteins(TLR4, p-NF-κB/NF-κB, NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and cleaved IL-1β) in the rat brain tissue. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to reveal the histopathological changes in the ischemic area. Compared with the sham group, the modeling of MCAO increased the neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume, elevated the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA levels and lowered the SOD and GSH levels in the brain tissue(P<0.05). Compared with the MCAO model group, low-and high-dose acacetin and nimodipine decreased the neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction volume, lowered the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA levels and elevated the SOD and GSH levels in the brain tissue(P<0.05). Compared with the sham group, the model group showed up-regulated protein levels of Bax, TLR4, p-NF-κB/NF-κB, NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and cleaved IL-1β and down-regulated protein level of Bcl-2 in the brain tissue(P<0.05). Compared with the MCAO model group, the acacetin and nimodipine groups showed down-regulated protein levels of Bax, TLR4, p-NF-κB/NF-κB, NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, and cleaved IL-1β and up-regulated protein level of Bcl-2 in the brain tissue(P<0.05). In conclusion, acacetin regulates the TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway to inhibit neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress, thus exerting the protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 1/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5863-5870, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008784

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effects of baicalein(BAI) on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced human microglial clone 3(HMC3) cells, with a focus on suppressing inflammatory responses and elucidating the potential mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of BAI on ischemic stroke via modulating the cAMP-PKA-NF-κB/CREB pathway. The findings have significant implications for the application of traditional Chinese medicine in treating cerebral ischemic diseases. First, the safe dosage of BAI was screened, and then an inflammation model was established with HMC3 cells by induction with LPS for 24 h. The cells were assigned into a control group, a model group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose(5, 2.5, and 1.25 μmol·L~(-1), respectively) BAI groups. The levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and malondialdehyde(MDA) in cell extracts, as well as the levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) in the cell supernatant, were measured. Western blot was performed to determine the expression of protein kinase A(PKA), phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein(p-CREB), and nuclear factor-kappa B p65(NF-κB p65). Hoechst 33342/PI staining was employed to assess cell apoptosis. High and low doses of BAI were used for treatment in the research on the mechanism. The results revealed that BAI at the concentrations of 10 μmol·L~(-1) and below had no impact on normally cultured HMC3 cells. LPS induction at 200 ng·mL~(-1) for 24 h reduced the SOD activity and increased the MDA content in HMC3 cells. However, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 μmol·L~(-1) BAI significantly increased the SOD activity and 5 μmol·L~(-1) BAI significantly decreased the MDA content. In addition, BAI ameliorated the M1 polarization of HMC3 cells induced by LPS, as indicated by cellular morphology. The results of ELISA demonstrated that BAI significantly lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and cAMP in the cell supernatant. Western blot revealed that BAI up-regulated the protein levels of PKA and p-CREB while down-regulating the expression of NF-κB p65. Hoechst 33342/PI staining results indicated that BAI mitigated the apoptosis of HMC3 cells. Overall, the results indicated that BAI had protective effects on the HMC3 cells induced by LPS, and could inhi-bit inflammatory response and improve cell apoptosis, which might be related to the regulation of the cAMP-PKA-NF-κB/CREB pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Microglia , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5822-5829, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008780

ABSTRACT

Based on the CX3C chemokine ligand 1(CX3CL1)-CX3C chemokine receptor 1(CX3CR1) axis, this study explored the potential mechanism by which Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu Formula(ZGJTJY) improved neuroinflammation and enhanced neuroprotective effect in a rat model of diabetes mellitus complicated with depression(DD). The DD rat model was established by feeding a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin(STZ) intraperitoneal injection for four weeks and chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) combined with isolated cage rearing for five weeks. The rats were divided into a control group, a model group, a positive control group, an inhibitor group, and a ZGJTJY group. The open field test and forced swimming test were used to assess the depression-like behaviors of the rats. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was performed to measure the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in plasma. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1(Iba1), postsynaptic density protein-95(PSD95), and synapsin-1(SYN1) in the hippocampus. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, Nissl staining, and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) fluorescence staining were performed to assess hippocampal neuronal damage. Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of CX3CL1, CX3CR1, A2A adenosine receptor(A2AR), glutamate receptor 2A(NR2A), glutamate receptor 2B(NR2B), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in the hippocampus. Compared with the model group, the ZGJTJY group showed improved depression-like behaviors in DD rats, enhanced neuroprotective effect, increased expression of PSD95, SYN1, and BDNF(P<0.01), and decreased expression of Iba1, IL-1β, and TNF-α(P<0.01), as well as the expression of CX3CL1, CX3CR1, A2AR, NR2A, and NR2B(P<0.01). These results suggest that ZGJTJY may exert its neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis and activation of hippocampal microglia, thereby improving neuroinflammation and abnormal activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor(NMDAR) subunits, and ultimately enhancing the expression of synaptic-related proteins PSD95, SYN1, and BDNF in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Depression/drug therapy , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Neuroprotective Agents , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Receptors, Glutamate , CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1/genetics
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5294-5303, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008727

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of adipose-derived stem cells-exosomes(ADSCs-exos) toge-ther with aucubin in protecting human-derived nucleus pulposus cells(NPCs) from inflammatory injury, senescence, and apoptosis. The tert-butyl hydroperoxide(TBHP)-induced NPCs were assigned into normal, model, aucubin, ADSCs-exos, and aucubin+ADSCs-exos groups. The cell viability was examined by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8), cell proliferation by EdU staining, cell senescence by senescence-associated-β-galactosidase(SA-β-Gal), and cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to examine the expression of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot were employed to determine the mRNA and protein levels of aggregated proteoglycan(aggrecan), type Ⅱ collagen alpha 1(COL2A1), Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), and nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB). The results showed that compared with the model group, the aucubin or ADSCs-exos group showed enhanced viability and proliferation of NPCs, decreased proportion of G_0/G_1 phase cells, increased proportion of S phase cells, reduced apoptosis and proportion of cells in senescence, lowered IL-1β and TNF-α levels, elevated IL-10 level, down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 and NF-κB, and up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of aggrecan and COL2A1. Compared with the aucubin or ADSCs-exos group, the aucubin+ADSCs-exos combination further increased the viability and proliferation of NPCs, decreased the proportion of G_0/G_1 phase cells, increased the proportion of S phase cells, reduced the apoptosis and proportion of cells in senescence, lowered the IL-1β and TNF-α levels, elevated the IL-10 level, down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 and NF-κB, and up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of aggrecan and COL2A1. In summary, both aucubin and ADSCs-exos could exert protective effects by inhibiting inflammatory responses, reducing apoptosis and senescence of NPCs, improving cell viability and proliferation as well as extracellular matrix synthesis, which may be associated with the inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation. The combination of both plays a synergistic role in the protective effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Aggrecans/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5235-5243, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008720

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum dried with two different methods(air drying and heating) on inflammation in acute lung injury(ALI) mice in vivo and in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was sprayed into the airway of wild type C57BL/6J male mice to establish the model, and the drug was injected into the tail vein 24 h after modeling. Lung function, lung tissue wet/dry weight(W/D) ratio, the total protein concentration, interleukin 6(IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF), and pathological changes of the lung tissue were used to evaluate the effects of different gypenosides on ALI mice. The results showed that total gypenosides(YGGPs) and the gypenosides substituted with one or two glycosyl(GPs_(1-2)) in the air-dried sample improved the lung function, significantly lowered the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in BALF, and alleviated the lung inflammation of ALI mice. Moreover, GPs_(1-2) had a more significant effect on inhibiting NO release in RAW264.7 cells. This study showed that different drying methods affected the anti-inflammatory activity of G. pentaphyllum, and the rare saponins in the air-dried sample without heating had better anti-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Gynostemma , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Lung , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5041-5048, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008674

ABSTRACT

To investigate the intervention effect and mechanism of Zhenwu Decoction on diabetic nephropathy(DN) mice of spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome based on the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase(ROCK)/IκB kinase(IKK)/nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) pathway. Ninety-five 7-week-old db/db male mice and 25 7-week-old db/m male mice were fed adaptively for one week. The DN model of spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was induced by Dahuang Decoction combined with hydrocortisone by gavage, and then the model was evaluated. After modeling, they were randomly divided into a model group, high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose Zhenwu Decoction groups(33.8, 16.9, and 8.45 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and an irbesartan group(25 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with at least 15 animals in each group. The intervention lasted for eight weeks. After the intervention, body weight and food intake were measured. Serum crea-tinine(Scr), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), fasting blood glucose(FBG), urinary albumin(uALb), and urine creatinine(Ucr) were determined. The uALb/Ucr ratio(ACR) and 24 h urinary protein(UTP) were calculated. Renal pathological morphology was evaluated by HE staining and Masson staining. The levels of key molecular proteins in the ROCK/IKK/NF-κB pathway were detected by Western blot. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-8(IL-8), interleukin-10(IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Compared with the blank group, the model group showed increased content of BUN, uALb, and SCr, increased values of 24 h UTP and ACR, decreased content of Ucr(P<0.05), enlarged glomeruli, thickened basement membrane, mesangial matrix proliferation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen fiber deposition. The protein expression of ROCK1, ROCK2, IKK, NF-κB, phosphorylated IKK(p-IKK), phosphorylated NF-κB(p-NF-κB), and phosphorylated inhibitor of NF-κB(p-IκB) increased(P<0.05), while the protein expression of inhibitor of NF-κB(IκB) decreased(P<0.05). The levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α increased(P<0.05), while the level of IL-10 decreased(P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the groups with drug treatment showed decreased levels of BUN, uALb, SCr, 24 h UTP, and ACR, increased level of Ucr(P<0.05), and improved renal pathological status to varying degrees. The high-and medium-dose Zhenwu Decoction groups and the irbesartan group showed reduced protein expression of ROCK1, ROCK2, IKK, NF-κB, p-IKK, p-NF-κB, and p-IκB in the kidneys(P<0.05), increased protein expression of IκB(P<0.05), decreased levels of serum inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α(P<0.05), and increased level of IL-10(P<0.05). Zhenwu Decoction can significantly improve renal function and renal pathological damage in DN mice of spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome, and its specific mechanism may be related to the inhibition of inflammatory response by down-regulating the expression of key molecules in the ROCK/IKK/NF-κB pathway in the kidney.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Interleukin-10 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , I-kappa B Kinase , Spleen , Irbesartan , Uridine Triphosphate , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy , Kidney/pathology
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5032-5040, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008673

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the possible effect of Xixin Decoction(XXD) on the learning and memory ability of Alzheimer's disease(AD) model senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8(SAMP8) and the related mechanism in enhancing neuroprotective effect and reducing neuroinflammation. Forty SAMP8 were randomly divided into a model group(10 mL·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a probiotics group(0.39 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a high-dose group of XXD granules(H-XXD, 5.07 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a medium-dose group of XXD granules(M-XXD, 2.535 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and a low-dose group of XXD granules(L-XXD, 1.267 5 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). Eight senescence-accelerated mouse-resistant 1(SAMR1) of the same age and strain were assigned to the control group(10 mL·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). After ten weeks of intragastric administration, the Morris water maze was used to test the changes in spatial learning and memory ability of mice after treatment. Meanwhile, immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the positive expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products(AGER), Toll-like receptor 1(TLR1), and Toll-like receptor 2(TLR2) in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice. Western blot was employed to test the protein expression levels of silencing information regulator 2 related enzyme 1(SIRT1), AGER, TLR1, and TLR2 in the hippocampus of mice. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was applied to assess the levels of Aβ_(1-42) in the hippocampus of mice and the levels of nuclear factor κB p65(NF-κB p65), NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in the serum and hippocampus of mice. Compared with the model group, XXD significantly improved the spatial learning and memory ability of SAMP8, increased the expression of neuroprotective factors in the hippocampus, decreased the levels of neuroinflammatory factors, and inhibited the expression of Aβ_(1-42). In particular, H-XXD significantly increased the expression of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of mice, reduced the expression levels of NF-κB p65, NLRP3, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the serum and hippocampus of mice, and decreased the expression of AGER, TLR1, and TLR2 in the hippocampus of mice(P<0.05 or P<0.01). XXD may improve the spatial learning and memory ability of AD model SAMP8 by enhancing the neuroprotective effect and inhibiting neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 1/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Hippocampus
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4731-4737, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008640

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of matrine on tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) and explore whether the underlying mechanism was related to the miR-25-3p-mediated Krüppel-like factor 4(Klf4) pathway. The HUVEC cell inflammation model was induced by TNF-α stimulation. After 24 or 48 hours of incubation with different concentrations of matrine(0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mmol·L~(-1)), CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. After treatment with 2.5 mmol·L~(-1) matrine for 48 h, the expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and Klf4 mRNA and miR-25-3p was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR, and the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4 was detected by Western blot. The anti-miR-25-3p was transfected into HUVECs, and the effect of anti-miR-25-3p on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and inflammatory factors was detected by the above method. The cells were further transfected with miR-25-3p and incubated with matrine to detect the changes in proliferation and expression of related inflammatory factors, miR-25-3p, and Klf4. The targeting relationship between miR-25-3p and Klf4 was verified by bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The results displayed that matrine could inhibit TNF-α-induced HUVEC proliferation, decrease the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, increase the mRNA and protein expression of Klf4, and reduce the expression of miR-25-3p. Bioinformatics analysis showed that there were specific complementary binding sites between miR-25-3p and Klf4 sequences. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that miR-25-3p negatively regulated Klf4 expression in HUVECs by targeting. The inhibition of miR-25-3p expression can reduce TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. MiR-25-3p overexpression could reverse the effect of matrine on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4. This study shows that matrine inhibits the inflammatory response induced by TNF-α in HUVECs through miR-25-3p-mediated Klf4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Matrines , Interleukin-6/genetics , Signal Transduction , Antagomirs , Inflammation/metabolism , Luciferases/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Apoptosis
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4711-4721, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008638

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of Mailuo Shutong Pills(MLST) on posterior limb swelling caused by femur fracture in rats. The rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a low-dose MLST group(1.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a high-dose MLST group(3.6 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and a positive drug group(60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) Maizhiling Tablets). The femur in the sham operation group was exposed and the wound was sutured, while the other four groups underwent mechanical damage to cause femur fracture. The rats were treated with corresponding drugs by gavage 7 days before modeling and 5 days after modeling, while those in the sham operation group and the model group were given an equivalent dose of distilled water by gavage. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to detect the pathological injury of the posterior limb muscle tissues in rats, and the degree of hind limb swelling was measured. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kit was used to detect the expression levels of interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the serum of rats in each group. The activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) in rat serum was also measured. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), and nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) in rat posterior limb muscle tissues. The changes in the intestinal flora and intestinal metabolites in rats were detected by 16S rDNA sequencing and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS), respectively, to explore the underlying mechanism of MLST in treating posterior limb swelling caused by femur fracture in rats. Compared with the model group, MLST significantly improved the degree of posterior limb swelling in rats, reduced the levels of serum inflammatory factors, and alleviated oxidative stress injury. The HE staining results showed that the inflammatory infiltration in the posterior limb muscle tissues of rats in the MLST groups was significantly improved. Western blot results showed that MLST significantly increased the protein expression of HO-1, NQO1, and Nrf2 in rat posterior limb muscle tissues compared with the model group. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that MLST improved the disorder of intestinal flora in rats after femur fracture. The UPLC-MS/MS results showed that MLST significantly affected the bile acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathway in the intestine after femur fracture, and the Spearman analysis confirmed that the metabolite deoxycholic acid involved in bile acid biosynthesis was positively correlated with the abundance of Turicibacter. The metabolite cholic acid was positively correlated with the abundance of Papilibacter, Staphylococcus, and Intestinimonas. The metabolite lithocholic acid was positively correlated with Papilibacter and Intestinimonas. The above results indicated that MLST could protect against the posterior limb swelling caused by femur fracture in rats. This protective effect may be achieved by improving the pathological injury of the posterior limb muscle, reducing the expression levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related factors in serum, reducing the oxidative injury of the posterior limb muscle, improving intestinal flora, and balancing the biosynthesis of bile acids in the intestine.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Chromatography, Liquid , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Oxidative Stress , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Femur , Bile Acids and Salts , DNA, Ribosomal , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 649-655, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981912

ABSTRACT

Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, and plays a pivotal role in controlling pathogen infection. C1q/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) related proteins (CTRPs), a newly discovered adipokine family with conservative structure and wide distribution, has attracted increasing attention. The CTRP family consists of more than 15 members which fall into the characteristic C1q domain. Increasing studies have demonstrated that CTRPs are involved in the onset and development of inflammation and metabolism as well as related diseases, including myocardial infarction, sepsis and tumors. Here, we first clarified the characteristic domains of CTRPs, and then elucidated their roles in inflammatory-related diseases. Taken together, the information presented here provides new perspectives for therapeutic strategies to improve inflammatory and metabolic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Complement C1q/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction
17.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 633-637, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981910

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the relationship between nephritis activity, autophagy and inflammation in patients with SLE. Methods Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and P62 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients with lupus nephritis and non-lupus nephritis patients. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in the serum of SLE patients were determined by ELISA. The correlation between LC3II/LC3I ratio and SLE disease activity score (SLEDAI), urinary protein, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels was analyzed by Pearson method. Results The expression of LC3 was increased and P62 was decreased in SLE patients. TNF-α and IFN-γ were increased in the serum of SLE patients. LC3II/LC3I ratio was positively correlated with SLEDAI (r=0.4560), 24 hour urine protein (r=0.3753), IFN-γ (r=0.5685), but had no correlation with TNF-α (r=0.04 683). Conclusion Autophagy is found in PBMCs of SLE, and the autophagy is correlated with renal damage and inflammation in patients with lupus nephritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Lupus Nephritis/urine , Kidney , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 610-616, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981907

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of formononetin (FMN) on cognitive behavior and inflammation in aging rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods SD rats aged about 70 weeks were divided into healthy control group, CUMS model group, CUMS combined with 10 mg/kg FMN group, CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg fluoxetine hydrochloride (Flu) group. Except for healthy control group, other groups were stimulated with CUMS and administered drugs for 28 days. Sugar water preference, forced swimming experiment and open field experiment were used to observe the emotional behavior of rats in each group. HE staining was used to observe the pathological injury degree of brain equine area. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were detected by the kit. The apoptosis was tested by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the brain tissue. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to detect Bcl2, Bcl2 associated X protein (BAX), cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in brain tissues. Results Compared with CUMS model group, sugar water consumption, open field activity time, open field travel distance and swimming activity time significantly increased in the CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and the CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg Flu group. The number of new outarm entry increased significantly, while the number of initial arm entry and other arm entry decreased significantly. The pathological damage of brain equine area was alleviated, and the contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were significantly increased. The ratio of BAX/Bcl2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 protein as well as the number of apoptotic cells were significantly decreased. The contents of TNF-α, iNOS and IL-6 were significantly decreased. The protein levels of TLR4, MyD88 and p-NF-κB p65 were significantly decreased. Conclusion FMN can inhibit the release of inflammatory factors by blocking NF-κB pathway and improve cognitive and behavioral ability of CUMS aged rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Horses , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/pharmacology , Serotonin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hippocampus/metabolism , Cognition
19.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 410-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981881

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effect of artesunate on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its mechanism in neonatal rats. Methods 7-day-old neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, artesunate 5 mg/kg group, artesunate 10 mg/kg group, artesunate 20 mg/kg group and dexamethasone 6 mg/kg group, with 18 rats in each group. HIBD models were established in groups except for the sham operation group. The sham operation group only needed to separate the left common carotid artery without ligation and nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas ventilation. Each group was injected with drug intraperitoneally right after surgery and the rats in the sham operation group and the model group were injected with an equal volume of normal saline (once a day for a total of 5 times). One hour after the last injection, the rats in each group were scored for neurological defects. After the rats were sacrificed, the brain water content was measured and the pathological changes of the brain tissues of rats were observed. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the neuronal cell apoptosis, and ELISA was applied to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood of each group of rats. Western blot analysis was adopted to detect the protein expression levels of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 in the rats brain tissues of each group. Results Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was decreased; the pathological damage of brain tissues was relieved; the brain water content was significantly reduced; the apoptosis number of hippocampal neurons was decreased significantly; the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood were significantly reduced; the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly lowered in the middle-dose and high-dose artesunate groups and the dexamethasone group. Conclusion Artesunate can improve the neurological function, relieve the brain damage, and alleviate the brain edema in neonatal rats with HIBD. It can protect the HIBD, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduction of inflammatory cytokine secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Artesunate/pharmacology , Brain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Water/metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 404-409, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981880

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the ameliorative effect of salidroside on diabetes retinopathy (DR) rats and its mechanism. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, low-dose and high-dose salidroside treatment groups. Except for the blank group, other groups were modeled by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After successful modeling, treatment groups were injected intraperitoneally with [50 mg/(kg.d)] and [100 mg/(kg.d)] salidroside respectively, for 4 weeks; the blank group and model group were injected with corresponding doses of saline. ELISA was used to measure the expression levels of antioxidant-related enzyme activity and inflammatory factors in blood glucose and serum of rats in each group. Retinal tissue lesions were detected by HE staining, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in retinal tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) , nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) proteins. Results Compared with model group, salidroside could significantly reduce blood glucose level and increase body mass in DR rats. The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β were reduced. The protein expression of VEGF, ICAM-1, NF-κB p65 and p-p38 MAPK was significantly decreased, while the protein expression of PI3K and p-AKT was increased. Conclusion Salidroside can reduce DR in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and immune inflammatory response, which may be related to the reduction of abnormal expression of VEGF and ICAM-1 and the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Diseases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL