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1.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e059, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039303

ABSTRACT

Abstract We recently demonstrated that a co-culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) could enhance angiogenesis ability in vitro. However, whether tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) could promote blood vessel formation during pulp regeneration remained unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TNF-α on the formation of endothelial tubules and vascular networks in a co-culture system of hDPSCs and HUVECs. hDPSCs were co-cultured with HUVECs at a ratio of 1:5. The Matrigel assay was performed to detect the total tubule branching lengths and numbers of branches, and the Cell-Counting Kit 8 assay was performed to examine the effect of TNF-α on cell proliferation. Real-time polymerase chain reactions and western blot were used to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression. The Matrigel assay showed significantly greater total branching lengths and numbers of branches formed in the experimental groups treated with different concentrations of TNF-α compared with the control group. The decomposition times of the tubule structures were also significantly prolonged (P < 0.05). Treatment with 50 ng/ml TNF-α did not significantly change the proliferation of co-cultured cells, but it significantly increased the VEGF mRNA and protein expression levels (p < 0.05). In addition, the migration abilities of HUVECs and hDPSCs increased after co-culture with TNF-α (p < 0.05). TNF-α enhanced angiogenic ability in vitro in the co-culture system of hDPSCs and HUVECs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Proteoglycans , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cell Count , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen , Laminin , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Dental Pulp/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Drug Combinations , Cell Migration Assays , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7844, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974274

ABSTRACT

Necroptosis is a regulated cell death mechanism. However, it is unknown whether necroptosis is involved in the death of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-treated osteoblasts. Therefore, we conducted the study with TNF-α, Nec-1 (a specific inhibitor of necroptosis), and Z-IETD-FMK (a specific inhibitor of apoptosis) to determine whether necroptosis plays a role in the death of TNF-α-treated osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Cell viability, cell death, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assayed to evaluate cytotoxicity. Specific marker proteins receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK3) and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (p-MLKL) for necroptosis, and cleaved caspase 3 for apoptosis were detected by western blot, and mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found that TNF-α inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nec-1 plus Z-IETD-FMK restored cell viability and significantly decreased LDH release. In addition, TNF-α alone increased the cell population of AV+PI−, while Z-IETD-FMK caused a shift in the cell population from AV+PI− to AV+PI+. Furthermore, TNF-α significantly increased protein cleaved caspase 3. TNF-α plus Z-IETD-FMK significantly increased the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 cells, while the changes in mRNA levels of RIPK3, MLKL, and caspase 3 were not consistent with the changes in the corresponding protein expression levels. In conclusion, TNF-α induced preferentially apoptosis in osteoblast cell line and necroptosis played a decisive role when TNF-α-induced death was inhibited by the inhibitor of apoptosis. Combined treatment with Nec-1 and Z-IETD-FMK protected mouse osteoblasts from death induced by TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Osteoblasts/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Caspase 8/drug effects , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Necrosis/pathology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7065, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889100

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon where intestinal motility is disturbed. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required to maintain normal intestinal motility. In the present study, we assessed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on viability and apoptosis of ICC, as well as on the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), ghrelin, and substance P. ICC were derived from the small intestines of Swiss albino mice. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, ghrelin, substance P, and endothelin-1. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of SCF. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, interleukins, SCF, and NF-κB signaling pathway proteins. TNF-α induced inflammatory injury in ICC by decreasing cell viability and increasing apoptosis and levels of IL-1β and IL-6. TNF-α decreased the levels of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P, but had no effect on endothelin-1. TNF-α down-regulated expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P by activating the NF-κB pathway in ICC. In conclusion, TNF-α down-regulated the expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P via the activation of the NF-κB pathway in ICC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Ghrelin/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Stem Cell Factor/metabolism , Substance P/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Ghrelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e6997, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889113

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be associated with heart valve disease, which can be caused by inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the functional impacts of miR-27a on TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury in human mitral valve interstitial cells (hMVICs). hMVICs were subjected to 40 ng/mL TNF-α for 48 h, before which the expressions of miR-27a and NELL-1 in hMVICs were altered by stable transfection. Trypan blue staining, BrdU incorporation assay, flow cytometry detection, ELISA, and western blot assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. We found that miR-27a was lowly expressed in response to TNF-α exposure in hMVICs. Overexpression of miR-27a rescued hMVICs from TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury, as cell viability and BrdU incorporation were increased, apoptotic cell rate was decreased, Bcl-2 was up-regulated, Bax and cleaved caspase-3/9 were down-regulated, and the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-9 were reduced. NELL-1 was positively regulated by miR-27a, and NELL-1 up-regulation exhibited protective functions during TNF-α-induced cell damage. Furthermore, miR-27a blocked JNK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, and the blockage was abolished when NELL-1 was silenced. This study demonstrated that miR-27a overexpression protected hMVICs from TNF-α-induced cell damage, which might be via up-regulation of NELL-1 and thus modulation of JNK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Inflammation/chemically induced , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mitral Valve/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heart Valve Diseases/prevention & control , Inflammation/pathology , Mitral Valve/cytology , Mitral Valve/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transfection , Up-Regulation
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 277-286, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174623

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the molecular responses of various genes and proteins related to disc degeneration upon treatment with cytokines that affect disc-cell proliferation and phenotype in living human intervertebral discs (IVDs). Responsiveness to these cytokines according to the degree of disc degeneration was also evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The disc specimens were classified into two groups: group 1 (6 patients) showed mild degeneration of IVDs and group 2 (6 patients) exhibited severe degeneration of IVDs. Gene expression was analyzed after treatment with four cytokines: recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Molecular responses were assessed after exposure of cells from the IVD specimens to these cytokines via real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: mRNA gene expression was significantly greater for aggrecan, type I collagen, type II collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Sox9 in group 1 than mRNA gene expression in group 2, when the samples were not treated with cytokines. Analysis of mRNA levels for these molecules after morphogen treatment revealed significant increases in both groups, which were much higher in group 1 than in group 2. The average number of IVD cells that were immunofluorescence stained positive for alkaline phosphatase increased after treatment with rhBMP-2 and TGF-beta in group 1. CONCLUSION: The biologic responsiveness to treatment of rhBMP-2, TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the degenerative living human IVD can be different according to the degree of degeneration of the IVD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aggrecans/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/pharmacology , Collagen Type I/genetics , Collagen Type II/genetics , Cytokines/pharmacology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Intervertebral Disc/drug effects , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Osteocalcin/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223789

ABSTRACT

Eupatilin is the main active component of DA-9601, an extract from Artemisia. Recently, eupatilin was reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the anti-arthritic effect of eupatilin in a murine arthritis model and human rheumatoid synoviocytes. DA-9601 was injected into collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Arthritis score was regularly evaluated. Mouse monocytes were differentiated into osteoclasts when eupatilin was added simultaneously. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and then manually counted. Rheumatoid synoviocytes were stimulated with TNF-alpha and then treated with eupatilin, and the levels of IL-6 and IL-1beta mRNA expression in synoviocytes were measured by RT-PCR. Intraperitoneal injection of DA-9601 reduced arthritis scores in CIA mice. TNF-alpha treatment of synoviocytes increased the expression of IL-6 and IL-1beta mRNAs, which was inhibited by eupatilin. Eupatilin decreased the number of osteoclasts in a concentration dependent manner. These findings, showing that eupatilin and DA-9601 inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the differentiation of osteoclasts, suggest that eupatilin and DA-9601 is a candidate anti-inflammatory agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type II , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Lymph Nodes/cytology , Mice , Mice, Inbred DBA , Monocytes/cytology , Osteoclasts/cytology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Synovial Membrane/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/cytology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
7.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of a methanolic extract, dichloromethane fraction, water layer, and polyhydroxylated sterols (1-4) isolated from the Vietnamese starfish Protoreaster nodosus on pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-12 p40, IL-6, and TNF-α) production in LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). RESULTS: The methanolic extract and dichloromethane fraction exerted potent inhibitory effects on the production of all three pro-inflammatory cytokines, with IC50 values ranging from 0.60 ± 0.01 to 26.19 ± 0.64 µg/mL. Four highly pure steroid derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction and water layer of P. nodosus. Potent inhibitory activities were also observed for (25S)5α-cholestane-3ß,4ß,6α,7α,8ß,15α,16ß,26-octol (3) on the production of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 (IC50s = 3.11 ± 0.08 and 1.35 ± 0.03 µM), and for (25S) 5α-cholestane-3ß,6α,8ß,15α,16ß,26-hexol (1) and (25S)5α-cholestane-3ß,6α,7α,8ß,15α,16ß,26-heptol (2) on the production of IL-12 p40 (IC50s = 0.01 ± 0.00 and and 1.02 ± 0.01 µM). Moreover, nodososide (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory effects on IL-12 p40 and IL-6 production. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the anti-inflammatory activity from the starfish P. nodosus. The main finding of this study is the identification oxygenated steroid derivatives from P. nodosus with potent anti-inflammatory activities that may be developed as therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Starfish/chemistry , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Interleukin-12 Subunit p40/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Steroids/administration & dosage , Vietnam , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Interleukin-12 Subunit p40/analysis , Primary Cell Culture , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Rev. interdisciplin. estud. exp. anim. hum. (impr.) ; 6(único): 29-37, dezembro 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964725

ABSTRACT

A encefalomielite autoimune experimental (EAE) é uma doença inflamatória e desmielinizante do sistema nervoso central (SNC) caracterizada por incapacidades temporárias ou permanentes. A patogênese envolve a reação auto-imune associada com a produção de citocinas pró inflamatórias, tais como o fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α). Esta citocina está associada com o aumento de radicais livres de oxigênio, como o óxido nítrico, liberados pelas células imunes ativadas. Além de aumentar a inflamação, tanto o fator de necrose tumoral, como o óxido nítrico causam lesão tecidual direta. Este estudo avaliou o efeito da talidomida na progressão clínica da doença, desenvolvimento da reação inflamatória e desmielinização. A expressão tecidual "in situ" do TNF-α e iNOS, uma enzima associada com a produção de óxido nítrico, foi investigada em amostras do SNC obtidos durante o desenvolvimento do modelo de EAE em ratos Lewis. Métodos: Ratos Lewis(n = 30) foram divididos em grupo de controle saudável (I), grupo experimental de encefalomielite autoimune (II) e o grupo tratado com talidomida (III). Os ratos foram monitorizados durante 15 dias para determinação da condição clínica, após este período, os animais foram eutanasiados e as amostras do sistema nervoso central foram obtidas para a realização de estudo histopatológico e imuno-histoquímico Resultados: Todos os animais do grupo II tiveram sintomas relacionados a EAE, enquanto apenas um do grupo tratado talidomida apresentaram alterações clínicas. O estudo histopatológico revelou que as amostras de SNC do grupo II apresentaram áreas de intenso infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear difuso e presença de áreas de desmielinização. No entanto, os animais tratados com talidomida apresentaram ocasionalmente um leve infiltrado inflamatório e bainhas de mielina bem organizadas. Além disso, a expressão de TNF-α e iNOS foram significativamente maiores no grupo II, quando comparado com o grupo tratado com a talidomida. Conclusões: Os resultados considerados em conjunto sustentam a hipótese de que a talidomida inibe a intensidade do processo inflamatório e desmielinização, assim como reduz a produção de mediadores inflamatórios modulando o desenvolvimento da encefalomielite auto-imune experimental em ratos Lewis.


Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a inflammatory and demyelinating disease of central nervous system (CNS) characterized by permanents or temporary disabilities. Its pathogenesis involves autoimmune reaction associated with the production of pro inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This cytokine is associated with increase of reactive oxygen free radicals, such as nitric oxide, released by activated immune cells. Besides enhancing inflammation, both tumor necrosis factor as nitric oxide cause pathologically direct destruction of proteins and enzyme oxidation. This study focuses on clinical disease progression, development of the inflammatory reaction and evaluation axonal myelination . The " in situ" tissue expression of the TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS ,an enzyme associated with the production of nitric oxide , were also investigated in CNS samples obtained during the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model in Lewis rats. Methods: Lewis rats were used to perform the classical model of EAE. The rats ( n=30) were divided into the healthy control group (I), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis group (II) and thalidomide treated group (III). The rats were monitored for 15 days for determination of clinical score , after this period , the animals were euthanized and samples were obtained from the central nervous system in which histopatological study and immunohistochemistry for SNC in situ detection of TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. Results: All animals of group II had symptoms related to experimental encephalomyelitis , while only one of the thalidomide treated group showed clinical changes. The histopatological study revealead that SNC samples of group II presented areas of intense focal and diffuse mononuclear inflammation and the myelin sheaths were scarce and poorly stained. However, thalidomide treated rats presented occasionally a mild perivascular inflammatory infiltrate and myelin sheaths were organized and well evidenced. In addition, the expression of TNF-α and iNOS were significantly higher in the group II when compared with thalidomide treated group. Conclusions: The results taken together support the hypothesis that thalidomide inhibits the intensity of the inflammation and demyelination process and as well as reduces the production of inflammatory mediators influencing the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Thalidomide/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Demyelinating Diseases , Nitric Oxide Synthase/pharmacology , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Rats, Inbred Lew
9.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(5): 722-729, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731212

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se estimar o tempo de decisão para procura de atendimento (TD) para homens e mulheres com infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM); analisar a influência de variáveis ambientais no TD e a interação entre gênero e variáveis ambientais para o desfecho TD. Estudo transversal, envolvendo cem pacientes, entrevistados em hospitais de Salvador. Na análise dos dados empregou-se o Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher e o Modelo de Regressão Linear Robusto. Predominou o IAM ocorrido no domicílio, familiares no entorno, e os pacientes sendo alvo de ações equivocadas. Observou-se TD elevado para mulheres (0,9h) e homens (1,4h). Aqueles em casa no início dos sintomas tiveram maior TD, comparados aos no trabalho e menor em relação aos em via pública (p=0,047). Houve interação estatisticamente significante entre gênero e viver acompanhado; e entre gênero e ter companheiro e filhos no entorno, para o desfecho TD. O cuidar em enfermagem focalizado nas especificidades de fatores ambientais e de gênero pode otimizar o atendimento precoce.


The purpose was to estimate the decision time (DT) for searching for attendance for men and women suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI); and to analyze the influence of surrounding variables in the DT. Transversal study, involving one hundred patients interviewed in hospitals of Salvador-BA, Brazil. For data analysis, it was used the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test, and the Robust Linear Regression Model. AMI at the home predominated, with family members and patients receiving mistaken actions. A high DT was observed both, for women (0.9h) and men (1.4h). Those at home during the initial symptoms had higher DT, compared to those at work; and lower in relation to those in public spaces (p=0.047). Statistically significant interaction occurred among gender and the fact of living with company; and among gender and having a companion and children, for the outcome of the DT. Nursing care focused on the specificity of surrounding factors and gender can optimize early attendance.


Se objetivó estimar el tiempo de decisión para buscar atendimiento (TD) para hombres y mujeres con infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM); analizar la influencia de variables ambientales en TD y la interacción entre genero y variables ambientales para el desfecho del TD. Estudio transversal, envolviendo cien pacientes entrevistados en hospitales de Salvador-BA, Brasil. En el análisis se utilizó el chi-cuadrado o el Teste Exacto de Fisher y el Modelo de Regresión Linear Robusto. Predominó el IAM en el domicilio, familiares en el entorno y con pacientes siendo objeto de acciones equivocadas. Se observó TD elevados para mujeres (0,9h) y hombres (1,4h). Aquellos en sus casas en el inicio de los síntomas tuvieron mayor TD, comparados a los en el trabajo, y menor en relación aquellos en vía pública (p=0,047). Hubo interacción estadísticamente significante entre genero y vivir acompañado y entre genero y tener compañero e hijos en el entorno, para el desfecho del TD. El cuidar en enfermería focalizado en especificidades de factores ambientales y de géneros puede optimizar el atendimiento precoce.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Growth Hormone/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Repressor Proteins , Transcription Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Proteins/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Somatotropin/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180432

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify the differences in angiogenesis gene expression between normal and diabetic keratocytes stimulated with interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Primarily cultured normal and diabetic keratocytes were treated with 20 ng/mL of IL-1a and TNF-alpha for 6 hr. cDNA was hybridized to an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes that were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Diabetes keratocytes overexpressed vital components of angiogenesis including Agtr1, and under-expressed components related to the blood vessel maturation, including Dcn. Cytokine-treated diabetic keratocytes differentially expressed components of angiogenesis. OLETF keratocytes after treatment with IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha showed the newly expressed 15 and 14 genes, respectively. Newly and commonly under-expressed five genes followed by treatment with both IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha were also evident. RT-PCR showed results similar to the microarray results. Agtr1 and Itga1 showed an increased expression in diabetic keratocytes compared with normal corneal keratocytes, especially after TNF-alpha treatment. Il6 appeared strong expression after interleukin-1alpha treatment, but showed down expression after TNF-alpha treatment. Further studies to analyze and confirm the significance of the identified angiogenetic genes of diabetes are needed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Interleukin-1alpha/pharmacology , Keratinocytes/cytology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51698

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced-inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). We treated HK-2 cells with CoCl2 before the administration of TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma. To regulate hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, the cells were treated CoCl2 or HO-1 siRNA. CoCl2 reduced the generation of ROS induced by TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma. TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-treated-cells showed an increase in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated NF-kappaBp65 protein, the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaBp50 and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and a decrease in IkappaBalpha protein expression. These changes were restored by CoCl2. We noted an intense increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production in TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-treated cells. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated through NF-kappaB signaling because an NF-kappaB inhibitor significantly reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. CoCl2 effectively reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. The expression of HO-1 was increased by CoCl2 and decreased by HO-1 siRNA. However, knockdown of HO-1 by RNA interference did not affect MCP-1 or RANTES production. We suggest that CoCl2 has a protective effect on TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-induced inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kappaB and ROS in HK-2 cells. However, CoCl2 appears to act in an HO-1-independent manner.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Cobalt/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Heme Oxygenase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Protein Binding , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(11): 1045-1051, Nov. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-650569

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The cardiomyocytes of neonatal Wistar rats (1-2 days old) were cultured and stimulated by TNF-α (100 μg/L), and Ca2+ signal transduction was blocked by several antagonists, including BAPTA (4 µM), KN-93 (0.2 µM) and cyclosporin A (CsA, 0.2 µM). Protein content, protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte volumes, [Ca2+]i transients, CaMKIIδB and CaN were evaluated by the Lowry method, [³H]-leucine incorporation, a computerized image analysis system, a Till imaging system, and Western blot analysis, respectively. TNF-α induced a significant increase in protein content in a dose-dependent manner from 10 µg/L (53.56 µg protein/well) to 100 μg/L (72.18 µg protein/well), and in a time-dependent manner from 12 h (37.42 µg protein/well) to 72 h (42.81 µg protein/well). TNF-α (100 μg/L) significantly increased the amplitude of spontaneous [Ca2+]i transients, the total protein content, cell size, and [³H]-leucine incorporation in cultured cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator. The increases in protein content, cell size and [³H]-leucine incorporation were abolished by 0.2 µM KN-93 or 0.2 µM CsA. TNF-α increased the expression of CaMKIIδB by 35.21% and that of CaN by 22.22% compared to control. These effects were abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, which itself had no effect. These results suggest that TNF-α induces increases in [Ca2+]i, CaMKIIδB and CaN and promotes cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Ca2+/CaMKII- and CaN-dependent signaling pathways are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Calcineurin/metabolism , /metabolism , Cardiomegaly/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Animals, Newborn , Cells, Cultured , Cardiomegaly/chemically induced , Cardiomegaly/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192551

ABSTRACT

During ischemia-reperfusion injury, brief pre-exposure to oxidative stress renders organs resistant to subsequent severe damage. NF-kappaB is a transcription factor that is involved in reperfusion-induced inflammatory and immune responses. The activity of NF-kappaB has been shown to be modulated by oxidative stress in various cell types through different pathways. We studied the effect of pre-exposure to oxidative stress on subsequent NF-kappaB activation in TNFalpha-stimulated HEK293 cells. The cells were transiently exposed to 0.5 mM H2O2 for 20 min, prior to stimulation with TNFalpha, and the subsequent expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes and the levels of NF-kappaB signaling molecules were measured. Pre-exposure to H2O2 significantly delayed the TNFalpha-induced expression of an NF-kappaB reporter gene and inflammatory proteins (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and IL-1beta). The degradation of inhibitor of NF-kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) and the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB were also delayed by H2O2 treatment, whereas IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and IkappaB kinase activity were not changed. When we examined the ubiquitin/proteosome pathway in H2O2-treated cells, we could not detect significant changes in proteosomal peptidase activities, but we were able to detect a delay of IkappaBalpha poly-ubiquitination. Our results suggest that transient exposure to oxidative stress temporally inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression by suppressing the poly-ubiquitination of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha in HEK293 cells.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , I-kappa B Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Transport , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Ubiquitination/drug effects
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210397

ABSTRACT

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key negative regulator of immune responses and has been implicated in tumor tolerance, autoimmune disease and asthma. IDO was detected in the joint synovial tissue in the inflammatory microenvironment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but IDO expression in joint synovial tissue is not sufficient to overcome the inflamed synovial environment. This study aimed to unravel the mechanisms involving the failure to activate tolerogenic IDO in the inflamed joint. We demonstrate that both poly (I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce expression of IDO in synovial fibroblasts. However, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-23 and IL-16 did not induce IDO expression. Poly (I:C) appeared to induce higher IDO expression than did LPS. Surprisingly, toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated IDO expression was upregulated after depletion of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) in synovial fibroblasts using small interfering RNA (siRNA). IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 were highly expressed in synovial tissue of RA patients compared with that of osteoarthritis patients. In addition, RA patients with severe disease activity had higher levels of expression of IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 in the synovium than patients with mild disease activity. These data suggest that upregulation of IDO expression in synovial fibroblasts involves TLR3 and TLR4 activation by microbial constituents. We showed that the mechanisms responsible for IDO regulation primarily involve MyD88 signaling in synovial fibroblasts, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of MyD88.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/genetics , Interleukin-12/pharmacology , Interleukin-16/pharmacology , Interleukin-17/pharmacology , Interleukin-23/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Synovial Membrane/cytology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210394

ABSTRACT

A variety of benzylidenethiazole analogs have been demonstrated to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Here we report the anti-atherogenic potential of 5-(4-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimethylbenzylidene) thiazolidin-2,4-dione (HMB-TZD), a benzylidenethiazole analog, and its potential mechanism of action in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice. HMB-TZD Treatment reduced leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production significantly in RAW264.7 macrophages and SVEC4-10 endothelial cells. Macrophages or endothelial cells pre-incubated with HMB-TZD for 2 h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) displayed reduced cytokine production. Also, HMB-TZD reduced cell migration and adhesion in accordance with decreased proinflammatory molecule production in vitro and ex vivo. HMB-TZD treatment of 8-week-old male Ldlr-/- mice resulted in significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions without a change to plasma lipid profiles. Moreover, aortic expression of pro-atherogenic molecules involved in the recruitment of monocytes to the aortic wall, including TNF-alpha , MCP-1, and VCAM-1, was downregulated. HMB-TZD also reduced macrophage infiltration into atherosclerotic lesions. In conclusion, HMB-TZD ameliorates atherosclerotic lesion formation possibly by reducing the expression of proinflammatory molecules and monocyte/macrophage recruitment to the lesion. These results suggest that HMB-TZD, and benzylidenethiazole analogs in general, may have therapeutic potential as treatments for atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Movement/drug effects , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , Macrophages/cytology , Male , Mice , Monocytes/cytology , Random Allocation , Receptors, LDL/deficiency , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131290

ABSTRACT

The homing properties of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) have stimulated intravenous applications for their use in stem cell therapy. However, the soluble factors and corresponding cellular receptors responsible for inducing chemotaxis of AdMSCs have not yet been reported. In the present study, the migration capacity of human AdMSCs (hAdMSCs) toward various cytokines or growth factors (GFs) and the expression of their receptors were determined. In a conventional migration assay, PDGF-AB, TGF-beta1, and TNF-alpha showed the most effective chemoattractant activity. When AdMSCs were preincubated with various chemokines or GF, and then allowed to migrate toward medium containing 10% FBS, those preincubated with TNF-alpha showed the highest migratory activity. Next, hAdMSCs were either preincubated or not with TNF-alpha, and allowed to migrate in response to various GFs or chemokines. Prestimulation with TNF-alpha increased the migration activity of hAdMSCs compared to unstimulated hAdMSCs. When analyzed by FACS and RT-PCR methods, hAdMSCs were found to express C-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1), CCR7, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), CXCR5, CXCR6, EGF receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, TGF-beta receptor 2, TNF receptor superfamily member 1A, PDGF receptor A and PDGF receptor B at both the protein and the mRNA levels. These results indicate that the migration capacity of hAdMSCs is controlled by various GFs and chemokines. Prior in vitro modulation of the homing capacity of hAdMSCs could stimulate their movement into injured sites in vivo when administered intravenously, thereby improving their therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Separation , Cells, Cultured , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Receptors, Growth Factor/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-131287

ABSTRACT

The homing properties of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) have stimulated intravenous applications for their use in stem cell therapy. However, the soluble factors and corresponding cellular receptors responsible for inducing chemotaxis of AdMSCs have not yet been reported. In the present study, the migration capacity of human AdMSCs (hAdMSCs) toward various cytokines or growth factors (GFs) and the expression of their receptors were determined. In a conventional migration assay, PDGF-AB, TGF-beta1, and TNF-alpha showed the most effective chemoattractant activity. When AdMSCs were preincubated with various chemokines or GF, and then allowed to migrate toward medium containing 10% FBS, those preincubated with TNF-alpha showed the highest migratory activity. Next, hAdMSCs were either preincubated or not with TNF-alpha, and allowed to migrate in response to various GFs or chemokines. Prestimulation with TNF-alpha increased the migration activity of hAdMSCs compared to unstimulated hAdMSCs. When analyzed by FACS and RT-PCR methods, hAdMSCs were found to express C-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1), CCR7, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), CXCR5, CXCR6, EGF receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, TGF-beta receptor 2, TNF receptor superfamily member 1A, PDGF receptor A and PDGF receptor B at both the protein and the mRNA levels. These results indicate that the migration capacity of hAdMSCs is controlled by various GFs and chemokines. Prior in vitro modulation of the homing capacity of hAdMSCs could stimulate their movement into injured sites in vivo when administered intravenously, thereby improving their therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Separation , Cells, Cultured , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Receptors, Growth Factor/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155751

ABSTRACT

Steroid sulfatase (STS) is responsible for the hydrolysis of aryl and alkyl steroid sulfates and has a pivotal role in regulating the formation of biologically active estrogens. STS may be considered a new promising drug target for treating estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of STS expression is not well-known. To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is able to regulate gene transcription of STS, we studied the effect of TNF-alpha on STS expression in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that TNF-alpha significantly induced the expression of STS mRNA and protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with TNF-alpha resulted in a strong increase in the phosphorylation of Akt on Ser-473 and when cells were treated with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitors such as LY294002 or wortmannin, or Akt inhibitor (Akt inhibitor IV), induction of STS mRNA expression by TNF-alpha was significantly prevented. Moreover, activation of Akt1 by expressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 increased STS expression whereas dominant-negative Akt suppressed TNF-alpha-mediated STS induction. We also found that TNF-alpha is able to increase STS mRNA expression in other human cancer cells such as LNCaP, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 as well as PC-3 cells. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PI 3-kinase/Akt activation mediates induction of human STS gene expression by TNF-alpha in human cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/genetics , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Signal Transduction , Steryl-Sulfatase/genetics , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
19.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 70(2): 99-108, ago. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577231

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Secreciones sinonasales patológicas y elevados niveles de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF alfa) se han encontrado en mucosa sin usal de pacientes con sinusitis crónica. Las células ciliadas respiratorias tienen una reserva funcional que les permite autorregular su frecuencia de batido ciliar (FBC) en respuesta a cambios en la viscosidad, modificando los niveles de calcio intraacelular [Ca+²]ic. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es determinóar si TNFalfa afecta el mecanismo de autorregulación y la homeostasis del calcio intraacelular frente a cambios en la viscosidad. Material y método: Cultivos primarios de explantes de tejido adenoideo. Registro de FBC mediante microfotodensitometría. Cultivos tratados con TNFalfa (10 ng/ml) o control durante 24 y 48 horas. Se in crementó la viscosidad agregando dextrano 500 al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento. Se midió [Ca+²]ic en células cargadas con Fura 2AM. Resultados: El tratamiento con TNFalfa por 48 horas produjo una significativa disminución de la FBC a baja viscosidad, aumento significativo de [Ca+²]ic y caída mayor de FBC en cultivos tratados con tapsigargina (bloqueador bomba calcio-ATPasa retículo). in o se encontró diferencia a alta viscosidad. Conclusión: Después de 48 horas de exposición a TNFalfa se observa un efecto negativo en el mecanismo de adaptación de las células ciliadas a un medio con baja viscosidad, probablemente secundario a cambios en la homeostasis del [Ca+²]ic.


Introduction: Pathologic sinonasal secretions and elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) have been in oted in sin us mucosa ofpatients with chronic sinusitis. Respiratory ciliated cells have a functional reserve that allows them to autoregulate their ciliary beat in response to the changesin viscosity, modify in g intraacellular calcium levels [Ca+²]ic. Aim: Our goal was to determinate if TNFalpha affect this autoregulation to viscosity and calcium homeostasis. Material and Method: Primary cultures from adenoid tissue expiants. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was recorded usin g microphotodensitometry Cultures viere treated with TNF alpha (10 ng/ml) or control during 24 and 48 hours. Viscosity was increased by add in g dextran 500 10 percent and 20 percent. [Ca+²]ic was determined in cells loaded with Fura-2AM. Results: 48 hours treatment with TNFalpha produced a significant decrease in CBF at low viscosity significant increase in [Ca+²]ic and greater decrese in CBF in cultures treated with thapsigargin (endoplasmic calcium-ATPase pump blocker). Conclusions: After 48 hours of exposure to TNF alpha a negative effect in the adaptation mechanism to a low viscous media is observed in ciliated cells, probably secondary to changesin homeostasis of [Ca+²]ic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Calcium/physiology , Cilia , Cilia/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Nasal Mucosa , Paranasal Sinuses , Cells, Cultured , Densitometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Homeostasis , Photomicrography , Time Factors , Viscosity
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(4): 330-337, Apr. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-543582

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-á) on intestinal epithelial cell permeability and the expression of tight junction proteins. Caco-2 cells were plated onto Transwell® microporous filters and treated with TNF-á (10 or 100 ng/mL) for 0, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h. The transepithelial electrical resistance and the mucosal-to-serosal flux rates of the established paracellular marker Lucifer yellow were measured in filter-grown monolayers of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The localization and expression of the tight junction protein occludin were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, respectively. SYBR-Green-based real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of occludin mRNA. TNF-á treatment produced concentration- and time-dependent decreases in Caco-2 transepithelial resistance and increases in transepithelial permeability to the paracellular marker Lucifer yellow. Western blot results indicated that TNF-á decreased the expression of phosphorylated occludin in detergent-insoluble fractions but did not affect the expression of non-phosphorylated occludin protein. Real-time RT-PCR data showed that TNF-á did not affect the expression of occludin mRNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TNF-á increases Caco-2 monolayer permeability, decreases occludin protein expression and disturbs intercellular junctions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Tight Junctions/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism
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