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2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 180-188, Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983821

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In menopause, there is greater cellular exposure to oxidative stress, related to the decreased antioxidative effects of estrogen. These metabolic changes favor the progression of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Abnormal function of the aorta - the most important artery - is associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Collagen, especially types I and III, is one of the most important aortic wall components and it can be affected by many factors, including menopause. The 8-OHdG is one of the main markers of DNA oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Objective: We aimed to investigate effects of moderate aerobic training on the ascending aorta of LDL-knockout (LDL-KO) and ovariectomized female mice. Methods: A total of 15 C57BL/6 mice and 15 LDL-KO mice were divided into experimental groups. The thickness and volume density of types I and III collagen fibers were performed by morphoquantitative analysis, whereas the MMP-2 and MMP-9 and 8-OHdG were detected by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL assay. The significance level for all tests was p < 0.05. Results: Exercise causes an increase in the thickness of the aorta in LDL-KO groups, particularly accentuated in the ovariectomized groups. The type I collagen fibers showed an increase in volume density influenced by training in both Control groups and in the LDL-KO group. Type III collagen density decreased in both groups. The MMP-2 showed moderade immunostaining in the tunica media in LDL-KO groups, which did not occur in the control groups and the MMP-9 stained irregularly in all tissues. The marker 8-OhdG was stronger in the exercise training groups. Additionally, the ovariectomy, the exercise training and the LDL-KO treatments increased apoptosis. Conclusion: These results suggest that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in ovariectomized mice associated to an increase in LDL rate possibly increases oxidative stress and apoptosis induction.


Resumo Fundamento: Na menopausa, há maior exposição celular ao estresse oxidativo, relacionada à diminuição dos efeitos antioxidantes do estrogênio. Essas alterações metabólicas favorecem a progressão das doenças cardiovasculares, como a aterosclerose. A função anormal da aorta - a artéria mais importante - está associada a muitas doenças cardiovasculares. O colágeno, especialmente os tipos I e III, é um dos mais importantes componentes da parede da aorta e pode ser afetado por muitos fatores, incluindo a menopausa. Por sua vez, 8-OHdG é um dos principais marcadores de danos oxidativos do DNA induzidos por espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS). Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do treinamento aeróbico moderado na aorta ascendente de camundongos fêmeas, nocaute para LDL (LDL-KO) e ovariectomizadas. Métodos: Um total de 15 animais C57BL/6 e 15 animais LDL-KO foram divididos em grupos experimentais. A espessura e a densidade de volume das fibras de colágeno tipos I e III foram realizadas por análise morfoquantitativa; MMP-2 e MMP-9 e 8-OHdG foram detectadas por imunohistoquímica; e a apoptose foi detectada pelo ensaio TUNEL. O nível de significância adotado para todos os testes realizados foi p < 0,05. Resultados: o exercício causa aumento da espessura da aorta em grupos LDL-KO, particularmente acentuada em grupos ovariectomizados. As fibras de colágeno de tipo I mostraram aumento da densidade de volume influenciado pelo treinamento em animais controle e LDL-KO. A densidade do colágeno tipo III diminuiu em ambos os grupos. A MMP-2 mostrou imunomarcação moderada na túnica média em animais LDL-KO; em grupos controle, a MMP-9 marcou irregularmente em todos os tecidos. O marcador 8-OHdG foi mais forte nos grupos de treinamento de exercícios. Além disso, a ovariectomia, o treinamento físico e os tratamentos de LDL-KO aumentaram a apoptose. Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que exercícios aeróbicos de intensidade moderada em camundongos ovariectomizados associados ao aumento da taxa de LDL, possivelmente, aumentam o estresse oxidativo e a indução da apoptose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Aorta/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Ovariectomy , Collagen/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Aorta/pathology , Menopause/metabolism , Receptors, LDL/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Tunica Media/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress/physiology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Sedentary Behavior
3.
Afr. pop.stud ; 33(1): 4738-4749, 2019.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258282

ABSTRACT

Background: In as much as studies have been conducted on Lassa fever in Nigeria, the studies had no media angle and were carried out mainly in the Northern and Western regions of the country. This study examined how mass media intervention messages on Lassa fever have influenced the level of knowledge, attitudes and health practices of people living in South-East Nigeria towards controlling and eradicating this disease. Methods: The study adopted survey research design. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 428 respondents while structured questionnaire was used for data collection.Data analyzed was by descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation technique. Result: The level of exposure to and knowledge of Lassa fever media campaigns among South-East residents were high as confirmed by 90% and 51.1% respectively of the responses. Media campaigns against Lassa fever positively influenced the attitudes of 56.3% of the respondents towards prevention and control of this disease.There is positivesignificant relationship (0.93 with 0.01 level of significant) between exposure level to Lassa fever media campaigns and knowledge level of the disease among South-East residents. Conclusion: Mass media campaigns aimed at sensitizing the public on Lassa fever disease was adjudged effective. There is also need to employ more of interpersonal communication strategies to enhance effective delivery of this health messages


Subject(s)
Attitude , Knowledge , Lassa Fever , Nigeria , Tunica Media
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(4): 562-568, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973770

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in coronary heart disease remains an unsolved problem. Clusterin (CLU) (or Apolipoprotein [Apo] J) levels have been reported to be elevated during the progression of postangioplasty restenosis and atherosclerosis. However, its role in neointimal hyperplasia is still controversial. Objective: To elucidate the role Apo J in neointimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid artery model in vivo with or without rosuvastatin administration. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n = 20), the model group (n = 20) and the statin intervention group (n = 32). The rats in the intervention group were given 10mg /kg dose of rosuvastatin. A 2F Fogarty catheter was introduced to induce vascular injury. Neointima formation was analyzed 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after balloon injury. The level of Apo J was measured by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results: Intimal/medial area ratio (intimal/medial, I/M) was increased after balloon-injury and reached the maximum value at 4weeks in the model group; I/M was slightly increased at 2 weeks and stopped increasing after rosuvastatin administration. The mRNA and protein levels of Apo J in carotid arteries were significantly upregulated after rosuvastatin administration as compared with the model group, and reached maximum values at 2 weeks, which was earlier than in the model group (3 weeks). Conclusion: Apo J served as an acute phase reactant after balloon injury in rat carotid arteries. Rosuvastatin may reduce the neointima formation through up-regulation of Apo J. Our results suggest that Apo J exerts a protective role in the restenosis after balloon-injury in rats.


Resumo Fundamento: A reestenose após intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) após doença coronariana continua um problema não solucionado. Estudos relataram que os níveis de clusterina (CLU), também chamada de apolipoproteína (Apo) J, encontram-se elevados na progressão da reestenose pós-angioplastia e na aterosclerose. Contudo, seu papel na hihperplasia neointimal ainda é controverso. Objetivo: Elucidar o papel da Apo J na hiperplasia neointimal na artéria carótida utilizando um modelo experimental com ratos in vivo, com e sem intervenção com rosuvastatina. Métodos: ratos Wistar machos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos - grupo controle (n = 20), grupo modelo (n = 20), e grupo intervenção com estatina (n = 32). Os ratos no grupo intervenção receberam 10 mg/kg de rosuvastatina. Um cateter Fogarty 2 F foi introduzido para induzir lesão vascular. A formação de neoíntima foi analisada 1, 2, 3 e 4 semanas após lesão com balão. Concentrações de Apo J foram medidas por PCR em tempo real, imuno-histoquímica e western blotting. Resultados: A razão área íntima/média (I/M) aumentou após a lesão com balão e atingiu o valor máximo 4 semanas pós-lesão no grupo modelo; observou-se um pequeno aumento na I/M na semana 2, que cessou após a administração de rosuvastatina. Os níveis de mRNA e proteína da Apo J nas artérias carótidas aumentaram significativamente após administração de rosuvastatina em comparação ao grupo modelo, atingindo o máximo na semana 2, mais cedo em comparação ao grupo modelo (semana 3). Conclusão: A Apo J atuou como reagente de fase aguda após lesão com balão nas artérias carótidas de ratos. A rosuvastatina pode reduzir a formação de neoíntoma por aumento de Apo J. Nossos resultados sugerem que a Apo J exerce um papel protetor na reestenose após lesão com balão em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/adverse effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Carotid Artery Injuries/drug therapy , Coronary Restenosis/drug therapy , Clusterin/drug effects , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Carotid Arteries/drug effects , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Tunica Media/drug effects , Tunica Media/pathology , Tunica Intima/drug effects , Tunica Intima/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Carotid Artery Injuries/etiology , Carotid Artery Injuries/pathology , Coronary Restenosis/etiology , Coronary Restenosis/pathology , Clusterin/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rosuvastatin Calcium/pharmacology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intima-to-intima microanastomotic vascular remodeling was explored, utilizing a polylactide-caprolactone absorbable vein coupler model (PAVCM), which was designed to simulate a non-absorbable counterpart system with the sole exception of being absorbable. METHODS: Six New Zealand white rabbits were used. After transection of the jugular vein, 2 PAVCMs were placed, 1 at each transected end. The stumps were slipped through the PAVCMs, and the venous wall was everted 90° to achieve intima-to-intima contact. Reanastomosis of the transected jugular vein was performed bilaterally in 3 rabbits. In the other 3 rabbits, the jugular vein (20 mm) harvested from one side was interpositionally grafted to the jugular vein on the opposite side to ease the anastomotic tension. Patency testing, ultrasonography, and histologic assessments were conducted postoperatively at weeks 2, 4, 12, 16, 22, and 26. RESULTS: All anastomotic sites were patent, without stenosis, occlusion, or dilatation. In the histologic sections, immature endothelial regeneration was observed at week 2, which was completed by week 4. Regeneration of the tunica media was noted at week 12. Between week 22 and week 26, the tunica media fully regenerated and the coupler dissipated entirely. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the absence of a coupler to act as an anastomotic buttress, the structure and function of all the vessels appeared normal, even histologically. These outcomes are true milestones in the development of an absorbable vein coupler.


Subject(s)
Anastomosis, Surgical , Constriction, Pathologic , Dilatation , Jugular Veins , Microsurgery , Rabbits , Regeneration , Transplants , Tunica Media , Ultrasonography , Vascular Remodeling , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Veins
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1113-1121, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266854

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Vascular calcification is the consequence of the complex interaction between genetic, environmental, and vascular factors, which ultimately lead to the deposition of calcium in the tunica intima (atherosclerotic calcification) or tunica media (Mönckenberg's sclerosis). Vascular calcification is also closely related to other pathologies, such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease. It has been concluded that the degree of vascular calcification may vary from person to person, even if the associated pathologies and environmental factors are the same. Therefore, this suggests an important genetic contribution to the development of vascular calcification. This review aimed to find the most recent evidence about vascular calcification pathophysiology regarding the genetic aspects and molecular pathways.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>We conducted an exhaustive search in Scopus, EBSCO, and PubMed with the keywords "genetics and vascular calcification", "molecular pathways, genetic and vascular calcification" and included the main articles from January 1995 up to August 2016. We focused on the most recent evidence about vascular calcification pathophysiology regarding the genetic aspects and molecular pathways.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>The most valuable published original and review articles related to our objective were selected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Vascular calcification is a multifactorial disease; thus, its pathophysiology cannot be explained by a single specific factor, rather than by the result of the association of several genetic variants, molecular pathway interactions, and environmental factors that promote its development.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Although several molecular aspects of this mechanism have been elucidated, there is still a need for a better understanding of the factors that predispose to this disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Metabolism , Dyslipidemias , Metabolism , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Metabolism , Tunica Intima , Metabolism , Tunica Media , Metabolism , Vascular Calcification , Metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77130

ABSTRACT

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder characterized by vascular abnormalities such as thickening of the vascular media layer in medium- and large-sized arteries. Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPAS) are common vascular abnormalities in WS. The natural course of SVAS and PPAS is variable, and the timing of surgery or intervention is determined according to the progression of vascular stenosis. In our patient, SVAS and PPAS showed rapid concurrent progression within two weeks after birth. We report the early manifestation of SVAS and PPAS in the neonatal period and describe the surgical treatment for stenosis relief.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular , Arteries , Constriction, Pathologic , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans , Parturition , Pulmonary Artery , Tunica Media , Williams Syndrome
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146505

ABSTRACT

Mönckeberg sclerosis is a disease of unknown etiology, characterized by dystrophic calcification within the arterial tunica media of the lower extremities leading to reduced arterial compliance. Medial calcinosis does not obstruct the lumina of the arteries, and therefore does not lead to symptoms or signs of limb or organ ischemia. Mönckeberg sclerosis most commonly occurs in aged and diabetic individuals and in patients on dialysis. Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis is frequently observed in the visceral arteries, and it can occur in the head and neck region as well. This report describes a remarkable case of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region as detected on dental imaging studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that has been reported in which this condition presented in the facial vasculature. The aim of this report was to define the radiographic characteristics of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in an effort to assist health care providers in diagnosing and managing this condition.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Arteriosclerosis , Calcinosis , Compliance , Dialysis , Extremities , Head , Health Personnel , Humans , Ischemia , Lower Extremity , Monckeberg Medial Calcific Sclerosis , Neck , Tunica Media , Vascular Calcification
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(3): 747-754, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-753919

ABSTRACT

As lesões coronarianas já foram relatadas em espécies de peixes anádromos, com características semelhantes às observadas em aterosclerose humana, mas não em peixes cultivados sem interferência de padrões reprodutivos. Objetivou-se descrever lesões coronarianas em beijupirá (Rachycentron canadum) criado em sistema offshore, em 54 exemplares coletados ao longo do cultivo de oito meses. Amostras de tecido cardíaco de alevinos e juvenis foram submetidas à análise histopatológica e à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET), para visualização de lesões coronarianas, sendo as lâminas histológicas coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina, ácido periódico de Schiff, alcian blue e reticulina de Gomori. Exames realizados pela fotomicroscopia de luz evidenciaram lesões arteriais caracterizadas por hiperplasia das túnicas íntima e média de artérias coronárias em, respectivamente, 29,63% e 79,63% dos animais, com redução do lúmen arterial. Na MET, foram observadas alterações na estrutura das coronárias com espessamento do endotélio e membrana basal, proliferação de fibroblastos e fibras colágenas, com acúmulo de material lipídico subendotelial, resíduos celulares aderidos à membrana basal e vesículas pinocitóticas com presença de lisossomos isolados. Constatou-se que os peixes da espécie Rachycentron canadum criados em cativeiro desenvolvem lesão arterial do tipo crônica degenerativa inflamatória.


The coronary lesions have been reported in species of anadromous fish with similar characteristics as those observed in human atherosclerosis, but not in farmed fish without interference of reproductive patterns. This study aimed to describe coronary lesions in beijupirá (Rachycentron canadum) farmed in an offshore system, in 54 specimens collected along an eight month cultivation period. Samples of heart tissue of fry and juveniles were subjected to histopathological analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for visualization of coronary lesions, the histology slides were stained using hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid Schiffh, alcian blue, and reticulin of Gomori. Examinations performed by light microscopy showed arterial lesions characterized by hyperplasia of the intima and media tunics, respectively in 29.63% and 79.63 % of the animals, with reduced lumen. In TEM changes in the structure of the coronary endothelium and thickening of the basement membrane, proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, with subendothelial accumulation of lipid material, cellular debris adhering to the basement membrane and presence of pinocytotics vesicles and isolated lysosomes were observed. It has been found that the Rachycentron canadum fish species farmed in captivity develop arterial lesion of the chronic inflammatory degenerative type.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Artery Disease/veterinary , Perciformes , Tunica Intima/pathology , Tunica Media/pathology , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/veterinary , Histological Techniques/veterinary , Coronary Vessels/pathology
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(1): 93-103, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742896

ABSTRACT

Objective: A systematic analysis was made in view of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and main outcomes of mycobacterial endocarditis. Methods: The data source of the present study was based on a comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google search engine for publications on mycobacterial endocarditis published between 2000 and 2013. Results: The rapidly growing mycobacteria become the predominant pathogens with Mycobacterium chelonae being the most common. This condition has changed significantly in terms of epidemiology since the 21st century, with more broad patient age range, longer latency, prevailed mitral valve infections and better prognosis. Conclusion: Mycobacterial endocarditis is rare and the causative pathogens are predominantly the rapidly growing mycobacteria. Amikacin, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin are the most frequently used targeted antimicrobial agents but often show poor responses. Patients with deep infections may warrant a surgical operation or line withdrawal. With periodic multidrug therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing, and surgical managements, patients may achieve good therapeutic results. .


Objetivo: Uma análise sistemática foi feita considerando epidemiologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamento e principais resultados da endocardite micobacteriana. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica abrangente no MEDLINE, Highwire Press e no Google para publicações sobre endocardite micobacteriana, publicados entre 2000 e 2013. Resultados: As micobactérias de crescimento rápido tornam-se os patógenos predominantes, com Mycobacterium chelonae sendo a mais comum. Essa condição se alterou significativamente em termos de epidemiologia, desde o início do século 21, abrangendo faixa etária mais ampla, maior latência, prevalecendo infecções da valva mitral e melhor prognóstico. Conclusão: Endocardite micobacteriana é rara e os patógenos causadores são predominantemente as micobactérias de crescimento rápido. Amicacina, ciprofloxacina e claritromicina são os agentes antimicrobianos mais frequentemente utilizados, mas muitas vezes apresentam respostas pobres. Pacientes com infecções profundas podem justificar um procedimento cirúrgico ou retirada de linha. Com a poliquimioterapia periódica guiada por testes de sensibilidade às drogas, e abordagens cirúrgicas, os pacientes podem obter bons resultados terapêuticos. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases , Tunica Intima , Tunica Media , Analysis of Variance , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology
11.
Journal of Stroke ; : 2-6, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166392

ABSTRACT

Two major vascular pathologies underlie brain damage in patients with disease of small size penetrating brain arteries and arterioles; 1) thickening of the arterial media and 2) obstruction of the origins of penetrating arteries by parent artery intimal plaques. The media of these small vessels may be thickened by fibrinoid deposition and hypertrophy of smooth muscle and other connective tissue elements that accompanies degenerative changes in patients with hypertension and or diabetes or can contain foreign deposits as in amyloid angiopathy and genetically mediated conditions such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. These pathological changes lead to 2 different pathophysiologies: 1) brain ischemia in regions supplied by the affected arteries. The resultant lesions are deep small infarcts, most often involving the basal ganglia, pons, thalami and cerebral white matter. And 2) leakage of fluid causing edema and later gliosis in white matter tracts. The changes in the media and adventitia effect metalloproteinases and other substances within the matrix of the vessels and lead to abnormal blood/brain barriers in these small vessels. and chronic gliosis and atrophy of cerebral white matter.


Subject(s)
Adventitia , Amyloid , Arteries , Arterioles , Atrophy , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Brain Ischemia , CADASIL , Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Connective Tissue , Edema , Gliosis , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertrophy , Metalloproteases , Muscle, Smooth , Parents , Pathology , Pons , Stroke, Lacunar , Tunica Media
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171264

ABSTRACT

Intimal accumulation of smooth muscle cells contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions and restenosis following endovascular procedures. Arterial smooth muscle cells display heterogeneous phenotypes in both physiological and pathological conditions. In response to injury, dedifferentiated or synthetic smooth muscle cells proliferate and migrate from the tunica media into the intima. As a consequence, smooth muscle cells in vascular lesions show a prevalent dedifferentiated phenotype compared to the contractile appearance of normal media smooth muscle cells. The discovery of abundant stem antigen-expressing cells in vascular lesions also rarely detected in the tunica media of normal adult vessels stimulated a great scientific debate concerning the possibility that proliferating vascular wall-resident stem cells accumulate into the neointima and contribute to the progression of lesions. Although several experimental studies support this hypothesis, others researchers suggest a positive effect of stem cells on plaque stabilization. So, the real contribute of vascular wall-resident stem cells to pathological vascular remodelling needs further investigation. This review will examine the evidence and the contribution of vascular wall-resident stem cells to arterial pathobiology, in order to address future investigations as potential therapeutic target to prevent the progression of vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Endovascular Procedures , Humans , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Neointima , Pathology , Phenotype , Stem Cells , Tunica Media , Vascular Diseases
13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 733-736, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261645

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the impact of atorvastatin on blood lipids and arterial media thickness (IMT) in new-onset type 2 diabetes patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>333 patients, 30-70 years old and diagnosed within one year as type 2 diabetes, were selected from the Chinese Diabetes Complication Prevention Study (CDCPS) to take part in this study. Changes of blood lipids and IMT of carotid, femoral and iliac artery pre and post the administration of atorvastatin were tested and followed for 24 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein decreased significantly (P = 0.000) and maintained at a low level. The carotid artery IMT decreased significantly (P = 0.022) at the end of this study, but the femoral and iliac artery IMT did not show any obvious change. There were no serious adverse events noticed, during the study period.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Long-term use of atorvastatin seemed to be safe and effective in reducing blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes thus could delay the development of atherosclerosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Atorvastatin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heptanoic Acids , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Lipids , Blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pyrroles , Therapeutic Uses , Tunica Media , Pathology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angioleiomyoma, a vascular leiomyoma, is a rare, benign smooth-muscle tumor that originates in the tunica media of vessels. It occurs anywhere in the body, most frequently in the lower extremities. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 16 patients who were treated for angioleiomyoma between 2000 and 2012. The clinical features of angioleiomyoma and the correlation between symptoms and pathological subtypes were investigated. RESULTS: There were 9 males and 6 females. Ages of the patients ranged from 21 to 61. Pain was the primary symptom in 44% of the patients. Tumors were smaller than 2.0 cm in all dimensions and were located in the face in 4 patients, whereas 5 lesions occurred in the upper extremities and the remaining 7 in the lower extremities. Three histologic subtypes were identified: solid, venous, and cavernous. The subtypes did not correlate with the clinical symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Angioleiomyoma appears to be a rare tumor that occurs in the face and the extremities. The tumor usually occurs in middle age. A differential diagnosis of this tumor is difficult, but the tumor should be considered in the diagnosis of painful subcutaneous masses. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can be helpful in the diagnosis of angioleiomyoma. These tumors can be successfully treated with simple excision, with a low recurrence rate.


Subject(s)
Angiomyoma , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Extremities , Female , Humans , Leiomyoma , Leiomyomatosis , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Tunica Media , Ultrasonography , Upper Extremity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727706

ABSTRACT

Vascular remodelling is an adaptive mechanism, which counteracts pressure changes in blood circulation. Nicotine content in cigarette increases the risk of hypertension. The exact relationship between nicotine and vascular remodelling still remain unknown. Current study was aimed to determine the effect of clinically relevant dosage of nicotine (equivalent to light smoker) on aortic reactivity, oxidative stress markers and histomorphological changes. Twelve age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, i.e.: normal saline as control or 0.6 mg/kg nicotine for 28 days (i.p., n=6 per group). On day-29, the rats were sacrificed and the thoracic aorta was dissected immediately for further studies. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) of nicotine-treated vs. control were significantly increased (p<0.05). Nicotine-treated group showed significant (p<0.05) increase tunica media thickness, and decrease in lumen diameter, suggesting vascular remodelling which lead to prior hypertension state. The phenylephrine (PE)-induced contractile response in nicotine group was significantly higher than control group (ED50=1.44x10(5) M vs. 4.9x10(6) M) (p<0.05~0.001). However, nicotine-treated rat showed significantly lower endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) than in control group (ED50=6.17x10(7) M vs. 2.82x10(7) M) (p<0.05), indicating loss of primary vascular function. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker was significantly higher in nicotine group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymatic activity and glutathione (GSH) were all reduced in nicotine group (p<0.05) vs. control, suggesting nicotine induces oxidative imbalance. In short, chronic nicotine administration impaired aortic reactivity, probably via redox imbalance and vascular remodelling mechanism.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Aorta , Aorta, Thoracic , Arterial Pressure , Blood Circulation , Blood Pressure , Glutathione , Humans , Hypertension , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Malondialdehyde , Nicotine , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Phenylephrine , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Relaxation , Superoxide Dismutase , Tobacco Products , Tunica Media
16.
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2014; 64 (4): 609-613
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167578

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of histomorphometric changes which are associated with increasing age in local population, with the experience obtained in the dissection on cadavers. Cross-sectional comparative study. The study was carried out at the department of anatomy, army medical colege rawalpindi in collaboration with forensic departments of various medical institutes where cadavers were brought for autopsy, spanning from 15 Feb 2010 to 15 Aug 2010. A total of forty cadavers from local population [punjab and khyber pakhtunkhwa] were dissected and specimen [common hepatic artery] [CHA] were obtained. Two age groups, one below the age of forty years [1 to 39 years] and the other above the age of forty years [40 to 70 years] were made. The specimen were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Using a microscope with 10 X objective, micrometry was done and data of intima thickness [IT], media thickness [MT] and intima media thickness [IMT] was noted. After comparing the two age groups, statistically significant difference was found between the IT [p value <0.01]. The mean values of media failed to attain any statistical difference. No statistically significant difference was found in the IMT of the two age groups. Increase in itima thickness was found while MT and IMT did not show any statistical difference


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Muscles , Arteries , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Cadaver , Tunica Intima , Tunica Media , Hematoxylin
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(5): 683-687, maio 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-678351

ABSTRACT

A paca (Cuniculus paca) é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca) adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05). Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.


The paca (Cuniculus paca) is the second largest rodent of the Brazilian fauna. The excellent meat quality of this specie encourages the development of their commercial production. Moreover, this animal can become a viable alternative for animal experimentation although there exists scarce detailed information concerning their morphology. Therefore the purpose of this study is to describe the morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure in segments of the cranial and caudal portions of vena cava in four adult males and females of Cuniculus paca from the squad of Wild Animals Sector of Animal Science Department of FCAV-Unesp. Parts of the segments were examined by light microscopy and part by scanning electron microscopy. Thickness measures of the tunica intima and media complex and tunica adventitia of the vena cava were taken and analyzed using "T" test (p<0.05). In vena cava the thickness values of the intima, media and adventitia, for all animals, were significantly higher in the cranial segment. The layers of the vessel walls showed variations in structure and thickness, presumably due to an adaptation to functional demand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adventitia , Rodentia/anatomy & histology , Tunica Intima , Tunica Media , Venae Cavae/anatomy & histology , Biometry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Polarization
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 93-98
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147291

ABSTRACT

Studies indicate that risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) or cardiovascular disease is detectable in childhood, though these disorders may not emerge until adulthood. This study was aimed to assess the markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with the family history of T2D from South Indian population. A total of 450 subjects were included in the study comprising Group I (n = 200) of T2D, Group II (n = 200) of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, Group III (n = 25) of children of T2D patients and Group IV (n = 25) of children of healthy controls. Results showed that intimal medial thickening (IMT) was significantly higher in T2D patients, compared with control subjects with no family history of diabetes. The fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were significantly increased, whereas HDL-cholesterol and serum nitrite levels were significantly decreased in T2D patients. However, children of T2D patients who were not diabetic did not show significant increase in the IMT, as compared to those of healthy controls. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that IMT was significantly higher in the T2D patients and increased with age and family history. The increased levels of lipids, hsCRP, IMT and decreased nitrite levels might contribute to the risk of endothelial dysfunction in patients with T2D. However, further studies are warranted with other biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in T2D patients with increased sample size.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Family Health , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , India/epidemiology , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Tunica Intima/metabolism , Tunica Media/metabolism
19.
Rev. bras. ecocardiogr. imagem cardiovasc ; 25(4): 285-291, out.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-653986

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a medida da ECMIC em idosos portadores de EVAo, de forma a tentar estabelecer uma relação entre a EVAo e a Aterosclerose de Carótidas. Método: Estudo seccional observacional baseado na demanda espontânea do Serviço de Ecocardiografia do Centro Clínico Vingt-un Rosado, município de Mossoró-RN, no período de novembro de 2.009 a junho de 2.010. Foram excluídos com história de evento e/ou doença cardiovascular prévios. Foram considerados portadores de aumento da ECMIC, aqueles que tiveram uma medida da ECMIC ≥ 10mm. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo método do Teste Exato de Fisher, considerando significância estatística para um p < 0,05. Resultados: Foram avaliados 105 pacientes, dos quais 37 preenchiam os critérios de exclusão do estudo. Entre os 68 pacientes analisados, foram 18 (26,4%) homens e 50 mulheres (73,5%), com média de idade de 71,9 anos. 56 pacientes (82,3%) tinham EVAo, sendo 16 do sexo masculino (28,5%) e 40 do sexo feminino (71,4%); e 40 apresentavam aumento da ECMI, com prevalência significativamente maior nos pacientes portadores de EVAo (p < 00,5). Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que idosos portadores de EVAo devem ser mais bem avaliados para detecção de ateromatose subclínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged , Coronary Disease/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Tunica Media/pathology , Aortic Valve/abnormalities , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography , Risk Factors
20.
Clinics ; 67(9): 1071-1075, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the morphological features of atherosclerosis in the aortas of autopsied patients (ranging from young adults to the elderly), thus providing new tools for a more sensitive morphological evaluation. METHOD: We collected 141 aorta samples. We assessed the macroscopic degree of atherosclerosis, thickness of the intima and media, lipid and collagen depositions in the intima, and the infiltration of mast cells into the layers of the aorta. We correlated the findings with gender, age, race and cause of death. RESULTS: The degree of atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the elderly. The aorta was thicker in the elderly and in cases with a cardiovascular cause of death. The thickness of the intima was significantly greater in the elderly, in males and in cases with a cardiovascular cause of death. The lipid content in the intima of the aorta was significantly higher in Caucasians. Older people and men had a significantly higher number of mast cells. CONCLUSION: A macroscopic evaluation is a good indicator of the severity of atherosclerosis, but a more detailed analysis, namely evaluating the thickness of the layers of the aorta and the number of mast cells, may further elucidate the changes in the constituents of this vessel.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Tunica Media/pathology , Age Factors , Aorta , Biomarkers , Cause of Death , Collagen/analysis , Disease Progression , Mast Cells/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
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