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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Clinics ; 70(2): 91-96, 2/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a costly and crippling autoimmune disease that can lead to the development of depression, contributing to suboptimal clinical outcomes. However, no longitudinal studies have identified an association between rheumatoid arthritis and subsequent depression. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of depression among RA patients in Taiwan. METHODS: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 3,698 newly diagnosed RA patients aged 18 years or older, together with 7,396 subjects without RA matched by sex, age and index date, between 2000 and 2004. The incidence of depression and the risk factors among RA cases were evaluated using Cox proportional-hazard regression. RESULTS: The incidence of depression was 1.74-fold greater in the RA cohort than in the non-RA cohort (11.80 versus 6.89 per 1,000 person-years; p<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that RA subjects who were female, were older, or had comorbidities such as stroke, chronic kidney disease, or cancer had a significantly greater risk of depression compared with those without these conditions. CONCLUSION: This population-based cohort study showed a strong relationship between RA and a subsequent risk of depression. The findings could be beneficial to healthcare providers for identifying individuals with a higher predisposition for depression, thereby possibly facilitating the provision of an appropriate rehabilitation intervention after RA onset to support the patient's adaptation. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1385-1391, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741291

ABSTRACT

An in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction was established and evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence of Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates from Kelantan, Malaysia. Three sets of primers consisting of two outer and 4 inner were designed based on locus STBHUCCB_38510 of chaperone PapD of S. Typhi genes. The reaction was optimised using genomic DNA of S. Typhi ATCC7251 as the template. The products were visualised directly by colour changes of the reaction. Positive results were indicated by green fluorescence and negative by orange colour. The test was further evaluated for specificity, sensitivity and application on field samples. The results were compared with those obtained by gold standard culture method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This method was highly specific and -10 times more sensitive in detecting S. Typhi compared to the optimised conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.


Subject(s)
Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Salmonella typhi/isolation & purification , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , DNA Primers/genetics , Malaysia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Salmonella typhi/genetics , Time Factors , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
4.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2013; 19 (1): 88-93
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-158848

ABSTRACT

Salmonella remains a public health concern around the world, including Yemen although data on its incidence are few. This study determined the incidence of Salmonella infection in 250 enteric fever and 210 food poisoning cases attending Thamar general hospital and Dar Alshafaa medical clinic in 2008. In total, 773 clinical specimens were taken: 250 blood, 187 urine and 336 stool samples. Of the patients with enteric fever and food poisoning, 16.4% and 15.2% respectively were infected with Salmonella. The serovars isolated were: Salmonella Typhi [45.6%], Salmonella Enteritidis [24.4%], Salmonella Paratyphi B [14.4%], Salmonella Typhimurium [13.3%] and Salmonella Paratyphi A [2.2%]. The distribution of somatic groups was: D [70%], B [27.7%] and A [2.2%]. None of the isolates was resistant to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftriaxone or moxifloxacin, while 71.1% were resistant to cotrimoxazole, 62.2% to gentamicin, 56.6% to ampicillin and 35.5% to nalidixic acid


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella , Incidence , Salmonella typhi , Salmonella enteritidis , Salmonella paratyphi B , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella paratyphi A
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138763

ABSTRACT

Typhoid fever is a systemic disease caused by the human specific Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The extra-intestinal infections caused by Salmonella are very fatal. The incidence of typhoid fever remains very high in impoverished areas and the emergence of multidrug resistance has made the situation worse. To combat and to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by typhoid fever, many preventive measures and strategies have been employed, the most important being vaccination. In recent years, many Salmonella vaccines have been developed including live attenuated as well as DNA vaccines and their clinical trials have shown encouraging results. But with the increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of potent vaccine candidate for typhoid fever is a need of the hour. This review discusses the latest trends in the typhoid vaccine development and the clinical trials which are underway.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Resistance, Multiple/genetics , Humans , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/therapeutic use , Salmonella Infections/prevention & control , Salmonella typhi/immunology , Salmonella typhi/pathogenicity , Typhoid Fever/immunology , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Typhoid Fever/prevention & control , Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/classification , Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 30(1): 30-33
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143890

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study was performed to assess the current susceptibility pattern of blood isolates of Salmonella spp from a super specialty hospital in North India against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin and compare the in vitro and in vivo response against azithromycin. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration's (MIC's) of 107 blood isolates of Salmonella spp against nalidixic acid, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin and correlated in vitro and in vivo response of azithromycin from the treatment and discharge summaries from the Hospital Information System (HIS) software. Results: Among the 107 isolates evaluated, 94 (87.8%) were nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR) Salmonella and 36 were resistant to azithromycin by MIC testing. The MIC 90 value for azithromycin was 24 μg/mL. Among the 57 treatment histories evaluated using the HIS software, 19 (33%) patients had documented clinical non-response to azithromycin which required change of therapy. Conclusions: The present study observed a higher MIC 90 values for azithromycin compared to Salmonella isolates from Western studies. There was also a documented clinical non-response against azithromycin. The in vitro and in vivo findings in this study suggest a guarded use of azithromycin for cases of enteric fever in India. The study also augments the reversal of resistance pattern in favour of chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Nalidixic Acid/therapeutic use , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/isolation & purification , Typhoid Fever/drug therapy , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
10.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2011 Jul-Sept; 29(3): 223-229
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143822

ABSTRACT

Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. On a global scale, it has been appraised that Salmonella is responsible for an estimated 3 billion human infections each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths) and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5.4 million of these cases. Infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and South-eastern Asia experience the greatest burden of illness. In cases of enteric fever, including infections with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and B, it is often necessary to commence treatment before the results of laboratory sensitivity tests are available. Hence, it is important to be aware of options and possible problems before beginning treatment. Ciprofloxacin has become the first-line drug of choice since the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. There is increase in the occurrence of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin. Reports of typhoidal salmonellae with increasing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and resistance to newer quinolones raise the fear of potential treatment failures and necessitate the need for new, alternative antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin are the options available for the treatment of enteric fever. The emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance in typhoidal salmonellae leading to treatment failure. This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Asia, Southeastern , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella paratyphi B/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135671

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Almost round-the-year occurrence of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A has been noticed in Rourkela since last 13 and five years respectively. The incidence of infection along with the antibiogram of these two serotypes in this area were carried out. Methods: The study was carried out at Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela, India, between January 2005 and December 2008 with 5340 blood samples collected from patients with suspected enteric fever and pyrexia of unknown origin. Isolation, identification and antibiogram of the causative organisms were performed according to standard bacteriological procedures. Results: A total of 298 Salmonella isolates showed an overall per cent positivity of 5.58. Multidrug resistance was found in 11.96 per cent and 15.62 per cent isolates of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A respectively. Less than 2 per cent isolates of Salmonella showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. A resistance of 3.0 to 6.25 per cent against third generation cephalosporins was observed among the salmonella isolates. Interpretation & conclusion: A round-the-year occurrence of Salmonella spp. in Rourkela might have been due to the presence of a considerable number of carriers in the locality, poor sanitation in nearby slum areas, and inadequate and contaminated community water supply at times. Higher degree of susceptibility among S. Typhi isolates against various antibiotics was encouraging, but increasing trend of resistance observed among S. Paratyphi A isolates was a matter of concern.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Community-Acquired Infections , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/microbiology , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Paratyphoid Fever/drug therapy , Paratyphoid Fever/epidemiology , Paratyphoid Fever/microbiology , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella paratyphi A/isolation & purification , Salmonella paratyphi A/metabolism , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/isolation & purification , Salmonella typhi/metabolism , Sanitation , Typhoid Fever/drug therapy , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Water Pollutants
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-23040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Enteric fever is a major public health problem in India. It is classically caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A which had been reported less frequently from cases of enteric fever has shown an increasing trend since 1996 in India. There is also variation in the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Paratyphi A from different parts of the country. An attempt is therefore made to study the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella Paratyphi A from cases of enteric fever coming to a tertiary care hospital at Chandigarh. METHODS: The blood samples of patients suspected of having enteric fever and admitted to Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from January 2006 to April 2007 (11,240) were processed by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration to two antibiotics- ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol was determined by agar dilution technique. Simultaneously, retrospective analysis was done from January 2003-December 2005 to study any difference in the incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella Paratyphi A among enteric fever patients. RESULTS: Of 305 total isolates, 231 were S. Typhi and 84 S. Paratyphi A rise. The number of Salmonella Paratyphi A cases rose from 27 in 2006 (34.18%) to 13 (40.63%) in four months of 2007. All were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime but MIC to ciprofloxacin was raised (0.125-0.5 microg/ml). Resistance to nalidixic acid was 92.5 per cent. Chloramphenicol sensitivity re-emerged with 90 per cent isolates sensitive to it while sensitivity to ampicillin dropped (72.5%) as compared to previous years. Only one isolate was multi-drug resistant. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The present study conferencing Salmonella Paratyphi A as the rapidly emerging pathogen of enteric fever. With increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones and possibility of re-emergence of sensitivity to chloramphenicol, the policy of empirical treatment of enteric fever needs to be rationalized.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Disease Outbreaks , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Humans , India/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/drug therapy , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2008 Jan-Mar; 26(1): 50-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53507

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Over the last few years, resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica has become a global concern. The present study was undertaken to find out the susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica isolates in our hospital. METHODS: Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT 3D system. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using CLSI breakpoints. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant strains using E-test and Vitek-1 automated system. RESULTS: A total of 25,953 samples of blood culture yielded 431 Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and 198 serotype Paratyphi A isolates. Twenty-two isolates of serotype Typhi were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while two isolates of Typhi and two Paratyphi A were intermediately susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin resistance is 5.6% (24 isolates) among Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi appears to have decreased to 14.9% (64/431) in comparison to the 27% (55/205) during 2003. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin can no longer be considered as the drug of choice in treating Salmonella infections. While first-line antimicrobials may still have a role to play in the treatment of enteric fever, ceftriaxone remains the sole defence against ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Blood/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Paratyphoid Fever/microbiology , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
15.
J Postgrad Med ; 2006 Jul-Sep; 52(3): 163-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-116404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance pattern and R-plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A isolates from Kolkata, India are not well documented. AIMS: To determine the trend of antibiotic resistance of S. paratyphi A isolates. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out using blood culture isolates of S. paratyphi A (1991 to 2005) obtained from patients of enteric fever from Asansol and Kolkata and its suburbs (India). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibility pattern, using seven antibiotics, for the isolates was determined following agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. Transferability of multidrug resistance to ampicillin (Am), chloramphenicol (Chl), cotrimoxazole (Cot) and tetracycline (Tet) among the isolates was determined by in vitro conjugation. The multi-drug resistant (MDR) and antibiotic susceptible S. paratyphi A strains and the trans-conjugants were screened for the presence of plasmid. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The t test was used to compare the difference between mean minimum inhibitory concentration values of ciprofloxacin (Cp) for nalidixic acid (Nx)-resistant and Nalidixic acid (Nx)-susceptible isolates. RESULTS: Among 13 outbreak causing isolates in 1991, 9 (69.23%) showed AmChlCotTet-resistance, while 4 (30.77%) Cot-resistance only. During 1992-1994, all 13 isolates were susceptible to Am, Chl, Cot and Tet. During 1995-2005, isolates demonstrated different resistance patterns and emergence of nalidixic acid (Nx)-resistance. A transferable plasmid conferring AmChlCotTet-resistance was detected among MDR isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone (Ctx) and ciprofloxacin (Cp). Association between Nalidixic acid (Nx)-resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (Cp) among 59 S. paratyphi A isolates was noticed (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Vigilance for R-plasmid and surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility among S. paratyphi A isolates in and around Kolkata, India, are mandatory in order to combat antibiotic resistance of the isolates in this part of the world.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , R Factors , Retrospective Studies , Salmonella paratyphi A/drug effects , Time Factors , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
16.
Rev. panam. infectol ; 8(2): 40-44, abr.-jun. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-439224

ABSTRACT

La reacción de Widal es un test basado en el principio de aglutinación antígeno-anticuerpo, donde se determina la presencia de anticuerpos contra el antígeno O y H de la Salmonella typhi para el serodiagnóstico de fiebre tifoidea, sin embargo debido a su falta de especificidad, debe ser interpretado en el contexto clínico del paciente. Para considerar el diagnóstico de fiebre tifoidea con un titulo Anti-O y Anti-H aislado, se debe conocer su prevalencia en una determinada comunidad, en términos generales, se acepta títulos anti-O y anti-H > o = 1: 160-200 y > o = 1: 50-100 en zonas endémicas y no endémicas, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Salmonella typhi/isolation & purification , Salmonella typhi/ultrastructure , Agglutination Tests , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2006 Jan; 24(1): 45-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53822

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to compare the changing trends of antibiograms of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A isolates. A total of 80 isolates of salmonella obtained from blood cultures between 2001-2004 were included in the study. Identification and antibiotic sensitivities of the isolates were performed by using mini API (bio Merieux, France). Sixty isolates were identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and 20 were identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A. More than 67% of S.typhi and 80% of S.paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Sensitivity of S.typhi isolates to cephalosporins was found to have increased from 2001-2004 while that of S.paratyphi A showed a decline. With increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin and the possibility of re-emergence of sensitivity to chloramphenicol, the policy of empirical treatment of enteric fever needs to be rationalized.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Blood/microbiology , Culture Media , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Paratyphoid Fever/microbiology , Salmonella paratyphi A/classification , Salmonella typhi/classification , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
19.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2005 Apr; 23(2): 92-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: to screen Salmonella typhi in asymptomatic typhoid carriers and to find out drug resistance and ability of the strains to transmit drug resistance to other bacteria. METHODS: Cultural characters, biochemical tests, antibiotic sensitivity test (disc diffusion), agarose gel electrophoresis, and conjugation protocols were done. Thirty five stool samples were collected from the suspected food handlers for the study. RESULTS: Among 35 samples, (17.14%) yielded a positive result. Out of these 4 (20.0%) were women and 2 (13.33%) were men. The isolates were tested with a number of conventional antibiotics viz, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimaxazole, rifampicin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin and tetracycline. Five isolates were having the multidrug resistant character. Four (66.66%) multidrug resistant isolates were found to have plasmids, while one (16.66%) multidrug resistant isolate had no plasmid and the chromosome encoded the resistance. Only one strain (16.66%) showed single antibiotic resistance in the study and had no plasmid DNA. The molecular weights of the plasmids were determined and found to be 120 kb.The mechanism of spreading of drug resistance through conjugation process was analyzed. In the conjugation studies, the isolates having R+ factor showed the transfer of drug resistance through conjugation, which was determined by the development of antibiotic resistance in the recipients. CONCLUSION: This study shows that drug resistant strains are able to transfer genes encoding drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State , Conjugation, Genetic , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
20.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2004 Jan; 58(1): 16-23
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-66358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ciprofloxacin replaced chloramphenicol (C), the best choice of antibiotic in the treatment of enteric fever, when C-resistant enteric fever emerged and caused outbreaks in different parts of the world. C-sensitive S. enterica serovar Typhi emerged again due to withdrawal of the antibiotic pressure. AIMS: To assess the in vitro efficacy of C against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates (1991-2003). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 464 blood culture isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhi were subjected to C susceptibility by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods using Mueller-Hinton agar. The antibiotic susceptibility of S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates obtained in the year 2002 and 2003 was determined using ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, in addition to C. Escherichia coli strain ATCC 25922 was used as the control. Changes in C sensitivity of the isolates were analyzed using chi2 test with Yates correction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All the isolates of 1991 were C-resistant with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MICs) of 2000-5000 mg/ml. In the following years decrease in frequency of C resistance was noticed: 1992 (50%), 1993 (32%), 1994 (27%) and 1995 (05%). The isolates of 1996-99 and 2001 were 100% C-sensitive. In 2000, sensitivity was also high (79%). The strains isolated in the year 2002 and 2003, showing reduced susceptibility of ciprofloxacin, were nalidixic acid resistant, but sensitive to the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and cefotaxime). The MICs for C-sensitive isolates (1991-2003) ranged 0.1-5 mg/ml. Results suggest the necessity for re-evaluation of C therapy in typhoid fever.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
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