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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929234

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). The discovery of UPS activators for anti-neurodegenerative diseases is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we aimed to identify potential UPS activators using the high-throughput screening method with the high-content fluorescence imaging system and validate the neuroprotective effect in the cell models of AD. At first, stable YFP-CL1 HT22 cells were successfully constructed by transfecting the YFP-CL1 plasmid into HT22 cells, together with G418 screening. The degradation activity of the test compounds via UPS was monitored by detecting the YFP fluorescence intensity reflected by the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation signal CL1. By employing the high-content fluorescence imaging system, together with stable YFP-CL1 HT22 cells, the UPS activators were successfully screened from our established TCM library. The representative images were captured and analyzed, and quantification of the YFP fluorescence intensity was performed by flow cytometry. Then, the neuroprotective effect of the UPS activators was investigated in pEGFP-N1-APP (APP), pRK5-EGFP-Tau P301L (Tau P301L), or pRK5-EGFP-Tau (Tau) transiently transfected HT22 cells using fluorescence imaging, flow cytometry, and Western blot. In conclusion, our study established a high-content fluorescence imaging system coupled with stable YFP-CL1 HT22 cells for the high-throughput screening of the UPS activators. Three compounds, namely salvianolic acid A (SAA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and ellagic acid (EA), were identified to significantly decrease YFP fluorescence intensity, which suggested that these three compounds are UPS activators. The identified UPS activators were demonstrated to clear AD-related proteins, including APP, Tau, and Tau P301L. Therefore, these findings provide a novel insight into the discovery and development of anti-AD drugs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Neuroprotective Agents , Optical Imaging , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Ubiquitin
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1189-1204, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878624

ABSTRACT

The innate immune system initiates innate immune responses by recognizing pathogen-related molecular patterns on the surface of pathogenic microorganisms through pattern recognition receptors. Through cascade signal transduction, it activates downstream transcription factors NF-κB and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), and then leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines and type Ⅰ interferon, which resists the infection of pathogenic microorganism. TBK1 is a central adapter protein of innate immune signaling pathway and can activate both NF-κB and IRFs. It is a key protein kinase in the process of anti-infection. The finetuning regulation of TBK1 is essential to maintain immune homeostasis and resist pathogen invasion. This paper reviews the biological functions and ubiquitin modification of TBK1 in innate immunity, to provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of pathogenic infections and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitin
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190242, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins (Ub-L) are critical regulators of complex cellular processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, transcription, chromatin remodeling, signal translation, and protein degradation. Giardia intestinalis possesses an experimentally proven Ub-conjugation system; however, a limited number of enzymes involved in this process were identified using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). This is due to the limitations of BLAST's ability to identify homologous functional regions when similarity between the sequences dips to < 30%. In addition Ub-Ls and their conjugating enzymes have not been fully elucidated in Giardia. OBJETIVE To identify the enzymes involved in the Ub and Ub-Ls conjugation processes using intelligent systems based on the hidden Markov models (HMMs). METHODS We performed an HMM search of functional Pfam domains found in the key enzymes of these pathways in Giardia's proteome. Each open reading frame identified was analysed by sequence homology, domain architecture, and transcription levels. FINDINGS We identified 118 genes, 106 of which corresponded to the ubiquitination process (Ub, E1, E2, E3, and DUB enzymes). The E3 ligase group was the largest group with 82 members; 71 of which harbored a characteristic RING domain. Four Ub-Ls were identified and the conjugation enzymes for NEDD8 and URM1 were described for first time. The 3D model for Ub-Ls displayed the β-grasp fold typical. Furthermore, our sequence analysis for the corresponding activating enzymes detected the essential motifs required for conjugation. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our findings highlight the complexity of Giardia's Ub-conjugation system, which is drastically different from that previously reported, and provides evidence for the presence of NEDDylation and URMylation enzymes in the genome and transcriptome of G. intestinalis.


Subject(s)
Ubiquitins/genetics , Giardia lamblia/metabolism , Ubiquitin/genetics , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Models, Molecular , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Ubiquitin/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880485

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination, an essential post-transcriptional modification (PTM), plays a vital role in nearly every biological process, including development and growth. Despite its functions in plant reproductive development, its targets in rice panicles remain unclear. In this study, we used proteome-wide profiling of lysine ubiquitination in rice (O. sativa ssp. indica) young panicles. We created the largest ubiquitinome dataset in rice to date, identifying 1638 lysine ubiquitination sites on 916 unique proteins. We detected three conserved ubiquitination motifs, noting that acidic glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) were most frequently present around ubiquitinated lysine. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of these ubiquitinated proteins revealed that ubiquitination plays an important role in fundamental cellular processes in rice young panicles. Interestingly, enrichment analysis of protein domains indicated that ubiquitination was enriched on a variety of receptor-like kinases and cytoplasmic tyrosine and serine-threonine kinases. Furthermore, we analyzed the crosstalk between ubiquitination, acetylation, and succinylation, and constructed a potential protein interaction network within our rice ubiquitinome. Moreover, we identified ubiquitinated proteins related to pollen and grain development, indicating that ubiquitination may play a critical role in the physiological functions in young panicles. Taken together, we reported the most comprehensive lysine ubiquitinome in rice so far, and used it to reveal the functional role of lysine ubiquitination in rice young panicles.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Lysine/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination
5.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(1): e1414, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973381

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background : It is believed that the Wnt pathway is one of the most important signaling involved in gastric carcinogenesis. Aim : To analyze the protein expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways in gastric carcinoma. Method : The immunohistochemistry was performed in 72 specimens of gastric carcinomas for evaluating the expression of Wnt-5a, FZD5, GSK3β, axin, CK1, ubiquitin, cyclin D1 and c-myc. Results : There were significant differences for cytoplasm and nucleus ubiquitin for moderately and well differentiated tumors (p=0.03) and for those of the intestinal type of the Lauren classification (p=0.03). The absence of c-myc was related to Lauren's intestinal tumors (p=0.03). Expression of CK1 in the cytoplasm was related to compromised margin (p=0.03). Expression of cyclin D1 protein was more intense in male patients (p=0.03) There was no relation of the positive or negative expression of the Wnt-5a, FZD5, GSK3 and Axin with any clinicopathological variables. Conclusion: The canonical WNT pathway is involved in gastric carcinoma.


RESUMO Racional : Acredita-se que a via Wnt é uma das mais importantes da sinalização envolvidas na carcinogênese gástrica. Objetivos : Analisar a expressão das proteínas das vias Wnt canônicas e não-canônicas no carcinoma gástrico e relacionar sua expressão com as variáveisclinicopatológicas. Método : Foram coletadas 72 amostras de carcinoma gástrico, e áreas representativas do tumor foram selecionadas para o Tissue Microarray. Imunoistoquímica foi realizada para avaliar a expressão de Wnt-5a, FZD5, GSK3β, axina, CK1, ubiquitina, ciclina D1 e c-myc. Resultados : Houve diferenças significativas para a expressão de ubiquitina no citoplasma e núcleo para tumores moderadamente e bem diferenciados (p=0,03) e para aqueles do tipo intestinal da classificação de Lauren (p=0,03). A expressão negativa da proteína c-myc no citoplasma foi relacionada aos tumores intestinais de Lauren (p=0,028). A expressão positiva de CK1 no citoplasma das células neoplásicas foi relacionada a tumores com margens cirúrgicas livre de envolvimento neoplásico (p=0,03). A expressão positiva da proteína ciclina D1 foi maior nos tumores dos homens (p=0,03). Não houve relação da expressão positiva ou negativa das proteínas Wnt-5a e FZD5 no citoplasma ou núcleo com quaisquer variáveis clinicopatológicas. O mesmo foi observado para GSK3β e Axin. Conclusões : A relação da expressão das proteínas da via canônica com as variáveis epidemiológicas e tumorais sugere sua participação na carcinogênese gástrica. Por outro lado, a ausência da relação das expressões das proteínas da via não-canônica sugere sua não participação na carcinogênese gástrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stomach Neoplasms/chemistry , Carcinoma/chemistry , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Neoplasm Proteins/analysis , Reference Values , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/analysis , Cyclin D1/analysis , Ubiquitin/analysis , Casein Kinase I/analysis , Frizzled Receptors/analysis , Axin Protein/analysis , Carcinogenesis , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/analysis , Wnt-5a Protein/analysis , Neoplasm Staging
6.
Immune Network ; : e32-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764028

ABSTRACT

Pellino-1 is a ubiquitin (Ub) E3 ligase that plays a role in M1, but not M2a polarization of macrophages. However, it is unknown whether Pellino-1 regulates IL-10-mediated M2c polarization of macrophages. Here, we found that Pellino-1 attenuated tumor growth by inhibiting M2c polarization of macrophages. Upon IL-10 stimulation, Pellino-1-deificient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed higher expression of M2c markers, but not M2a, and M2b markers than wild-type (WT) BMDMs, indicating that Pellino-1 inhibits M2c polarization of macrophages. Pellino-1-deficient BMDMs exhibited a defect in mitochondria respiration, but enhancement of glycolysis during M2c polarization. During M2c polarization of macrophages, Pellino-1 increased STAT1 phosphorylation via K63-linked ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1). Furthermore, Lysm-CrePellino-1(fl/fl) mice showed enhancement of tumor growth via regulating M2c polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. These results demonstrate that Pellino-1 inhibits IL-10-induced M2c macrophage polarization via K63-linked ubiquitination of IRAK1 and activation of STAT1, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glycolysis , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-10 , Macrophages , Mice , Mitochondria , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Respiration , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination
7.
Immune Network ; : e16-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764015

ABSTRACT

Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62), a ubiquitin binding protein, plays a role in cell signaling, oxidative stress, and autophagy. However, its functional role in inflammatory signaling is controversial. Recent studies have shown that p62 is negatively implicated in inflammatory responses. But, the precise molecular mechanisms by which p62 regulates inflammatory responses remain unclear. In this study, we report on a new regulatory role for p62 in TLR4-mediated signaling. p62 overexpression led to the suppression of NF-κB activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR4 stimulation. In contrast, p62(−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells exhibited marked enhancement of NF-κB activation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by TLR4 stimulation, compared to p62(+/+) MEF cells. Additionally, the TLR4-induced activation of signal transduction was significantly augmented in p62(−/−) MEF cells, indicating that p62 was negatively implicated in TLR4-mediated signaling. Biochemical studies revealed that p62 interacted with the internal domain of evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways (ECSIT), which is critical for associating with the TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-ECSIT complex to activate NF-κB in TLR4 signaling. Interestingly, p62-ECSIT interaction inhibited the interaction between TRAF6 and ECSIT and attenuated the ubiquitination of ECSIT. Furthermore, upon LPS challenge, the mortality of p62(−/−) (p62-knockout) mice was markedly enhanced compared to p62(+/+) (p62 wild-type) mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that p62 negatively regulated TLR4 signaling via functional regulation of the TRAF6-ECSIT complex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Carrier Proteins , Cytokines , Fibroblasts , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Mortality , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771633

ABSTRACT

The clinical treatment of joint contracture due to immobilization remains difficult. The pathological changes of muscle tissue caused by immobilization-induced joint contracture include disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and skeletal muscle tissue fibrosis. The proteolytic pathways involved in disuse muscle atrophy include the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent pathway, caspase system pathway, matrix metalloproteinase pathway, Ca-dependent pathway and autophagy-lysosomal pathway. The important biological processes involved in skeletal muscle fibrosis include intermuscular connective tissue thickening caused by transforming growth factor-β1 and an anaerobic environment within the skeletal muscle leading to the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. This article reviews the progress made in understanding the pathological processes involved in immobilization-induced muscle contracture and the currently available treatments. Understanding the mechanisms involved in immobilization-induced contracture of muscle tissue should facilitate the development of more effective treatment measures for the different mechanisms in the future.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Autophagy , Calcium , Metabolism , Caspases , Metabolism , Connective Tissue , Metabolism , Pathology , Contracture , Metabolism , Pathology , Therapeutics , Fibrosis , Humans , Immobilization , Joints , Lysosomes , Metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal , Metabolism , Pathology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Metabolism , Proteolysis , Signal Transduction , Physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism , Ubiquitin , Metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is an agent widely applied in dermatology for skin regeneration. To test whether TCA can offer an advantage for the regeneration of oral soft tissue defects, the cellular events following TCA application were explored in vitro and its influence on the oral soft tissue wound healing was evaluated in a canine palate model.METHODS: The cytotoxicity and growth factor gene expression in human gingival fibroblasts were tested in vitro following the application of TCA at four concentrations (0.005%, 0.05%, 0.5% and 1%) with different time intervals (0, 3, 9 and 21 h). One concentration of TCA was selected to screen the genes differentially expressed using DNA microarray and the associated pathways were explored. TCA was injected in open wound defects of the palatal mucosa from beagle dogs (n = 3) to monitor their healing and regeneration up to day 16-post-administration.RESULTS: While the 0.5–1% concentration induced the cytoxicity, a significantly higher expression of growth factor genes was observed after 3 and 9 h following the 0.5% TCA application in comparison to other groups. DNA microarray analysis in 0.5% TCA group showed 417 genes with a significant 1.5-fold differential expression, involving pathways of cell cycle, FoxO signaling, p53 signaling, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and cAMP signaling. In vivo results showed a faster reepithelialization of TCA-treated wounds as compared to spontaneous healingCONCLUSION: TCA promoted the healing and regeneration of oral soft tissue wound defects by up-regulating the cell cycle progression, cell growth, and cell viability, particularly at a concentration of 0.5%.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Cycle , Cell Survival , Dermatology , Dogs , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mouth Mucosa , Mucous Membrane , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Palate , Proteolysis , Regeneration , Skin , Trichloroacetic Acid , Ubiquitin , Up-Regulation , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190052, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Biomphalaria glabrata is the major species used for the study of schistosomiasis-related parasite-host relationships, and understanding its gene regulation may aid in this endeavor. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) performs post-translational regulation in order to maintain cellular protein homeostasis and is related to several mechanisms, including immune responses. OBJECTIVE The aims of this work were to identify and characterise the putative genes and proteins involved in UPS using bioinformatic tools and also their expression on different tissues of B. glabrata. METHODS The putative genes and proteins of UPS in B. glabrata were predicted using BLASTp and as queries reference proteins from model organism. We characterised these putative proteins using PFAM and CDD software describing the conserved domains and active sites. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using ClustalX2 and MEGA5.2. Expression evaluation was performed from 12 snail tissues using RPKM. FINDINGS 119 sequences involved in the UPS in B. glabrata were identified, which 86 have been related to the ubiquitination pathway and 33 to proteasome. In addition, the conserved domains found were associated with the ubiquitin family, UQ_con, HECT, U-box and proteasome. The main active sites were lysine and cysteine residues. Lysines are responsible and the starting point for the formation of polyubiquitin chains, while the cysteine residues of the enzymes are responsible for binding to ubiquitin. The phylogenetic analysis showed an organised distribution between the organisms and the clades of the sequences, corresponding to the tree of life of the animals, for all groups of sequences analysed. The ubiquitin sequence was the only one with a high expression profile found in all libraries, inferring its wide range of performance. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results show the presence, conservation and expression profile of the UPS in this mollusk, providing a basis and new knowledge for other studies involving this system. Due to the importance of the UPS and B. glabrata, this work may influence the search for new methodologies for the control of schistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ubiquitin/analysis , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Biomphalaria/parasitology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772974

ABSTRACT

DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for maintaining genome stability and protecting cells from tumorigenesis. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications play an important role in DDR, from signaling DNA damage to mediating DNA repair. In this report, we found that the E3 ligase ring finger protein 126 (RNF126) was recruited to UV laser micro-irradiation-induced stripes in a RNF8-dependent manner. RNF126 directly interacted with and ubiquitinated another E3 ligase, RNF168. Overexpression of wild type RNF126, but not catalytically-inactive mutant RNF126 (CC229/232AA), diminished ubiquitination of H2A histone family member X (H2AX), and subsequent bleomycin-induced focus formation of total ubiquitin FK2, TP53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), and receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80). Interestingly, both RNF126 overexpression and RNF126 downregulation compromised homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, our findings demonstrate that RNF126 negatively regulates RNF168 function in DDR and its appropriate cellular expression levels are essential for HR-mediated DSB repair.


Subject(s)
Carrier Proteins , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair , Genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , Genomic Instability , HeLa Cells , Histones , Metabolism , Humans , Nuclear Proteins , Metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor p53-Binding Protein 1 , Metabolism , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Genetics , Metabolism , Ubiquitination
12.
Immune Network ; : e4-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740205

ABSTRACT

The initiation of cellular antiviral signaling depends on host pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs)-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids that are known as classical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PRRs recruit adaptor proteins and kinases to activate transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers to regulate transcription of hundreds of genes, the products of which collaborate to elicit antiviral responses. In addition, PRRs-triggered signaling induces activation of various inflammasomes which leads to the release of IL-1β and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that PRRs-triggered signaling is critically regulated by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules. In this review, we first summarize an updated understanding of cellular antiviral signaling and virus-induced activation of inflammasome and then focus on the regulation of key components by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules.


Subject(s)
Epigenomics , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Nucleic Acids , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Phosphotransferases , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors , Ubiquitin
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 377-386, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717414

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that is highly expressed in neurons, and gathering evidence indicates that UCH-L1 may play pathogenic roles in many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Additionally, lipid rafts have attracted interest in neurodegeneration as playing a common role in many neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that UCH-L1 associates with lipid rafts as with other PD-associated gene products. In addition, UCH-L1 regulates lipid raft-dependent endocytosis and it is not dependent on the expression and degradation of caveolin-1 or flotillin-1. Finally, UCH-L1 regulates cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein. This study provides evidence that many PD-associated gene products share common signaling pathways to explain the pathogenesis of PD.


Subject(s)
alpha-Synuclein , Alzheimer Disease , Caveolin 1 , Endocytosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Prion Diseases , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase , Ubiquitin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740116

ABSTRACT

Imbalance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is known to cause cellular malfunction, cell death, and diseases. Elaborate regulation of protein synthesis and degradation is one of the important processes in maintaining normal cellular functions. Protein degradation pathways in eukaryotes are largely divided into proteasome-mediated degradation and lysosome-mediated degradation. Proteasome is a multisubunit complex that selectively degrades 80% to 90% of cellular proteins. Proteasome-mediated degradation can be divided into 26S proteasome (20S proteasome + 19S regulatory particle) and free 20S proteasome degradation. In 1980, it was discovered that during ubiquitination process, wherein ubiquitin binds to a substrate protein in an ATP-dependent manner, ubiquitin acts as a degrading signal to degrade the substrate protein via proteasome. Conversely, 20S proteasome degrades the substrate protein without using ATP or ubiquitin because it recognizes the oxidized and structurally modified hydrophobic patch of the substrate protein. To date, most studies have focused on protein degradation via 26S proteasome. This review describes the 26S/20S proteasomal pathway of protein degradation and discusses the potential of proteasome as therapeutic targets for cancer treatment as well as against diseases caused by abnormalities in the proteolytic system.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Cell Death , Eukaryota , Homeostasis , Oxidative Stress , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740115

ABSTRACT

TGF-β signaling plays a tumor suppressive role in normal and premalignant cells but promotes tumor progression during the late stages of tumor development. The TGF-β signaling pathway is tightly regulated at various levels, including transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Ubiquitination of signaling components, such as receptors and Smad proteins is one of the key regulatory mechanisms of TGF-β signaling. Tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins is a highly conserved group of E3 ubiquitin ligase proteins that have been implicated in a variety of cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, immune response, and carcinogenesis. Recent emerging studies have shown that some TRIM family proteins function as important regulators in tumor initiation and progression. This review summarizes current knowledge of TRIM family proteins regulating the TGF-β signaling pathway with relevance to cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Humans , Smad Proteins , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740072

ABSTRACT

We previously demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances cell migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in a SMAD ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (SMURF1)-dependent manner and that SMURF1 induces degradation of β-catenin in C2C12 cells. However, the relationship between EGF-induced SMURF1 and β-catenin expression in breast cancer cells remains unclear. So, we investigated if EGF and SMURF1 regulate β-catenin expression in MDAMB231 human breast cancer cells. When MDAMB231 cells were incubated with EGF for 24, 48, and 72 hours, EGF significantly increased expression levels of SMURF1 mRNA and protein while suppressing expression levels of β-catenin mRNA and protein. Overexpression of SMURF1 downregulated β-catenin mRNA and protein, whereas knockdown of SMURF1 increased β-catenin expression and blocked EGF-induced β-catenin downregulation. Knockdown of β-catenin enhanced cell migration and invasion of MDAMB231 cells, while β-catenin overexpression suppressed EGF-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, knockdown of β-catenin enhanced vimentin expression and decreased cytokeratin expression, whereas β-catenin overexpression decreased vimentin expression and increased cytokeratin expression. These results suggest that EGF downregulates β-catenin in a SMURF1-dependent manner and that β-catenin downregulation contributes to EGF-induced cell migration and invasion in MDAMB breast cancer cells.


Subject(s)
beta Catenin , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Movement , Down-Regulation , Epidermal Growth Factor , Humans , Keratins , RNA, Messenger , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination , Vimentin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739922

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination of proteins plays an essential role in various cellular processes, including protein degradation, DNA repair, and cell signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown that protein ubiquitination is implicated in regulating pluripotency as well as fate determination of stem cells. To identify how protein ubiquitination affects differentiation of embryonic stem cells, we analyzed microarray data, which are available in the public domain, of E3 ligases and deubiquitinases whose levels changed during stem cell differentiation. Expression of pja2, a member of the RING-type E3 ligase family, was up-regulated during differentiation of stem cells. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the most important signaling pathways for regulation of the self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Pja2 was shown to bind to TCF/LEF1, which are transcriptional factors for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and regulate protein levels by ubiquitination, leading to down-regulation of Wnt signaling activity. Based on these results, we suggest that E3 ligase Pja2 regulates stem cell differentiation by controlling the level of TCF/LEF1 by ubiquitination.


Subject(s)
DNA Repair , Down-Regulation , Embryonic Stem Cells , Humans , Ligases , Proteolysis , Public Sector , Stem Cells , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases , Ubiquitination
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739645

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays an important role in redox metabolism and antioxidant defense. Under normal conditions, NRF2 proteins are maintained at very low levels because of their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation via binding to the kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (KEAP1)-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. However, oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses disrupt the KEAP1-NRF2 interaction, which leads to the accumulation and transactivation of NRF2. During recent decades, a growing body of evidence suggests that NRF2 is frequently activated in many types of cancer by multiple mechanisms, including the genetic mutations in the KEAP1-NRF2 pathway. This suggested that NRF2 inhibition is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Recently, several NRF2 inhibitors have been reported with anti-tumor efficacy. Here, we review the mechanisms whereby NRF2 is dysregulated in cancer and its contribution to the tumor development and radiochemoresistance. In addition, among the NRF2 inhibitors reported so far, we summarize and discuss repurposed NRF2 inhibitors with their potential mechanisms and provide new insights to develop selective NRF2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidation-Reduction , Transcriptional Activation , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739491

ABSTRACT

An interaction between ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) and nuclear factor kappa B or macrophage migration inhibitory factor in non-small-cell lung cancer is responsible for radioresistance. However, the role of rpS3 in glioblastoma (GBM) has not been investigated to date. Here we found that in irradiated GBM cells, rpS3 translocated into the nucleus and was subsequently ubiquitinated by ring finger protein 138 (RNF138). Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of rpS3 consequently led to radioresistance in GBM cells. To elucidate the apoptotic role of rpS3, we analyzed the interactome of rpS3 in ΔRNF138 GBM cells. Nuclear rpS3 interacted with DNA damage inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), leading to DDIT3-induced apoptosis in irradiated ΔRNF138 GBM cells. These results were confirmed using in vivo orthotopic xenograft models and GBM patient tissues. This study aims to clarify the role of RNF138 in GBM cells and demonstrate that rpS3 may be a promising substrate of RNF138 for the induction of GBM radioresistance, indicating RNF138 as a potential target for GBM therapy.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , DNA Damage , Fingers , Glioblastoma , Heterografts , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Ribosomal Proteins , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitination
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 261-266, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348276

ABSTRACT

Iron accumulation in the brain is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Misexpression of some iron transport and storage proteins is related to iron dyshomeostasis. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) including IRP1 and IRP2 are cytosolic proteins that play important roles in maintaining cellular iron homeostasis. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5) is involved in the regulation of iron metabolism by degrading IRP2 through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Nitric oxide (NO) enhances the binding activity of IRP1, but its effect on IRP2 is ambiguous. Therefore, in the present study, we aim to determine whether sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, regulates FBXL5 and IRP2 expression in cultured SH-SY5Y cells. MTT assay revealed that treatment of SNP attenuated the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry test showed that 100 and 300 μmol/L SNP administration significantly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential by 45% and 60%, respectively. Moreover, Western blotting analysis demonstrated that 300 μmol/L SNP significantly increased FBXL5 expression by about 39%, whereas the expression of IRP2 was decreased by 46%, correspondingly. These findings provide evidence that SNP could induce mitochondrial dysfunction, enhance FBXL5 expression and decrease IRP2 expression in SH-SY5Y cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Cell Survival , F-Box Proteins , Metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Iron Regulatory Protein 2 , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitroprusside , Pharmacology , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Ubiquitin , Metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes , Metabolism
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