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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 318-322, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346465

ABSTRACT

Abstract Carpal tunnel syndrome is median nerve symptomatic compression at the level of the wrist, characterized by increased pressure within the carpal tunnel and decreased nerve function at the level. Carpal tunnel release decreases pressure in Guyon's canal, via open techniques, with symptom and two-point discrimination improvement in the ulnar nerve distribution. We hypothesize that endoscopic carpal tunnel release improves two-point discrimination in the ulnar nerve distribution as well. This study includes 143 patients who underwent endoscopic carpal tunnel release between April 2016 to June 2019 in a single, community-based teaching hospital. A comprehensive retrospective chart review was performed on patient demographics, preand post-operative two-point discrimination test results, and complications. The effects of sex, age, and diabetes mellitus in the ulnar and median nerve territories with two-point discrimination tests were analyzed. As well as the differences in two-point discrimination among patient's based on their smoking status. There were significant post operative improvements in both the median (7.7 vs 4.4 mm, p < 0.001) and ulnar (5.7 vs 4.1 mm, p < 0.001) nerve territories. Smoking status, sex, age and diabetes did not significantly affect two-point discrimination outcomes. In conclusion the endoscopic release of the transverse carpal ligament decompresses the carpal tunnel and Guyon's canal, demonstrating improvement in two-point discrimination in both the ulnar and median nerve distributions.


Resumen El síndrome de túnel carpiano es la compresión sintomática del nervio mediano al nivel de la muñeca. Se caracteriza por un aumento de presión dentro del túnel y una disminución de la función del nervio a ese nivel. La liberación del túnel carpiano descomprime el canal de Guyon, con mejoría sintomática y en la prueba de discriminación de dos puntos en la distribución del nervio cubital. Hipotetizamos que la liberación endoscópica mejora de la misma manera en la distribución del nervio cubital. Este trabajo incluye 143 pacientes que tuvieron liberación endoscópica del túnel carpiano entre abril del 2016 y junio del 2019 en un hospital Universitario de la comunidad. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas para los datos demográficos, los resultados pre y post quirúrgicos en la prueba de discriminación de dos puntos y complicaciones. Se analizaron los efectos del sexo, edad, tabaco y diabetes en los resultados de la prueba de discriminación de dos puntos para los nervios cubital y mediano. Hubo mejoría significativa post quirúrgica en la prueba de discriminación de dos puntos para los nervios mediano (7.7 vs 4.4 mm, p < 0.001) y cubital (5.7 vs 4.1 mm, p < 0.001). Fumadores, sexo, edad, y diabetes no afectaron de forma significativa. Concluimos que la liberación endoscópica del ligamento transverso del carpo descomprime el túnel carpiano y el canal de Guyon con mejoría en la prueba de discriminación de dos puntos para los nervios cubital y mediano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/surgery , Median Nerve , Ulnar Nerve , Wrist , Retrospective Studies
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1555-1559, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134477

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: During routine dissection of a left upper limb of a 68-year-old male human cadaver, an unusual muscle was observed originating from the radius and flexor retinaculum, and continued in the hypothenar region with the muscle belly of the abductor digiti minimi. We checked that it was an accessory abductor digiti minimi (ADM). Its muscular belly was in close relation to the median and ulnar nerves. We review the literature regarding such muscle variations and discuss the potential for compression of the median and ulnar nerves. Although the accessory ADM is usually asymptomatic and only rarely results in nerve compression, it should be taken into account by surgeons when establishing a differential diagnosis in the compression neuropathies of the median and ulnar nerves. An ultrasound scanning can help establish the differential diagnosis.


RESUMEN: Durante la disección de rutina de un miembro superior izquierdo de un cadáver humano masculino de 68 años, se observó un músculo inusual que se originaba en el radio y el retináculo flexor del carpo, y continuuaba en la región hipotenar con el vientre muscular del abductor digiti minimi manus. Verificamos que se trataba del músculo abductor digiti minimi accessorius (ADMA). Su vientre muscular se encontraba en estrecha relación con los nervios mediano y ulnar. Revisamos la literatura sobre variaciones musculares y discutimos la potencial compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Aunque el ADMA suele ser asintomático y rara vez produce compresión nerviosa, los cirujanos deben tenerlo en cuenta al establecer un diagnóstico diferencial en las neuropatías de compresión de los nervios mediano y ulnar. Una ecografía puede ayudar a establecer el diagnóstico diferencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/abnormalities , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Ulnar Nerve , Cadaver , Risk Factors , Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Median Neuropathy/etiology , Median Nerve
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1192-1196, oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134423

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La comunicación Ulnar-Mediano Palmar Profunda (CUMPP) es la conexión entre la rama profunda del nervio ulnar (NU) y la rama del nervio mediano (NM) que inerva a los músculos tenares como la cabeza superficial del flexor corto del pulgar. Son escasos los trabajos que se ocupan de esta rama comunicante, y su prevalencia es reportada con una amplia variabilidad, en un rango del 16-77 %. Este estudio no probabilístico, descriptivo, transversal, evaluó la frecuencia y características morfológicas de la CUMPP en 106 manos de especímenes cadavéricos frescos no reclamados, a quienes se les practicó necropsia en el Instituto de Medicina Legal de Bucaramanga (Colombia). Se observó rama comunicante CUMPP en 39 especímenes (50,2 %), de los cuales 12 (44,5 %) fueron bilate- rales, 15 (55,6 %) unilaterales, con predominio unilateral derecho para 9 casos (60 %), sobre el izquierdo de tan solo 6 casos (40 %). No se evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con relación al lado de presentación (P=0,223). En 21 especímenes (54 %) se observó el tipo IV; mientras que el tipo I fue encontrado en 4 casos (10 %). El promedio de la longitud de la rama comunicante fue de 24,67 DE 6,46 mm; mientras que la distancia del punto proximal de la CUMPP al surco distal del carpo fue de 41,4 DE 2,6 mm. Nuestros hallazgos no son concordantes con lo reportado en la mayoría de estudios previos. Diversos factores como el tamaño de las muestras, las diferentes metodologías de medición y las expresiones fenotípicas de cada grupo de población evaluado, pueden explicar la variabilidad de la CUMPP.


SUMMARY: Deep Palmar Ulnar-Medium Communication (DPUMC) is the connection between the deep branch of the ulnar nerve (UN) and the median nerve (MN) branch, that innervates the thenar muscles as the superficial head of the short flexor of the thumb. Few studies dealing with this communicating branch, and its prevalence is reported with a wide variability in the range of 16-77 %. This non-probabilistic, descriptive, cross-sectional study; evaluated the frequency and morphological characteristics of DPUMC in 106 hands of fresh unclaimed cadaveric specimens, that underwent necropsy at the Institute of Legal Medicine of Bucaramanga (Colombia). DPUMC communicating branch was observed in 39 specimens (50.2 %), of which 12 (44.5 %) were bilateral, 15 (55.6 %) unilateral, with right unilateral predominance for 9 cases (60 %), on the left of only 6 cases (40 %). There were no statistically significant differences in relation to the presentation side (P = 0.223). In 21 specimens (54%), type IV was observed; while type I was found in 4 cases (10%). The average length of the communicating branch was 24.67 SD 6.46 mm; while the distance from the proximal point of the DPUMC to the distal carpal groove was 41.4 SD 2.6 mm. Our findings are not consistent with those reported in most previous studies. Various factors such as sample size, different measurement methodologies and phenotypic expressions of each population group evaluated can explain the variability of the DPUMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology , Hand/innervation , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Thumb , Cadaver , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1096-1105, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124901

ABSTRACT

Los músculos lumbricales (ML) de la mano humana son claves en la propiocepción de la flexoextensión de los dedos. La descripción de su inervación indica que el nervio mediano (NM) inerva los dos ML laterales (L1 y L2) y el nervio ulnar (NU) los ML mediales (L3 y L4). Diversos autores han reportado una gran variabilidad de esta inervación, tanto en los nervios que entregan ramos para estos músculos, como también en la distribución de sus ramos y la presencia de troncos comunes. Por otra parte, el número de ramos que recibe cada ML y los puntos motores (Pm) de los mismos ha sido escasamente reportado. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar número, ubicación y Pm de los ramos destinados a los ML de la mano humana. Así mismo se estableció el patrón de inervación más frecuente. Para ello se utilizaron 24 manos formalizadas, pertenecientes al laboratorio de Anatomía, de la Universidad Andrés Bello, sede Viña del Mar, Chile. Se realizó una disección convencional por planos de profundidad. En todos los casos, el ramo del músculo L1 se originó del nervio digital palmar propio lateral del dedo índice, de la misma forma, en el 100 % el L2 fue inervado por un ramo del nervio digital palmar común del segundo espacio interóseo. En relación a los ML mediales en un 100 % ambos músculos fueron inervados por ramos del ramo profundo del NU (RPNM). En el caso del L3 en un 92 % se presentó un tronco común con el segundo músculo interóseo palmar, asimismo para L4 existió un tronco común con el tercer músculo interóseo palmar en un 79 %. En el 29 %, el L3 presentó una inervación dual. Considerando como referencia la línea biestiloidea, los Pm de los ramos del NM fue de 63,96 mm para L1; 67,91 mm para L2 y 68,69 mm para L3. Para los ramos provenientes del RPNU fue de 69,87 mm para L3 y 69, 21 mm para L4. Los resultados obtenidos aportan al conocimiento anatómico de la inervación de los músculos lumbricales y es de utilidad en procedimientos de neurocirugía que busquen la restauración de la funcionalidad de la mano.


The lumbrical muscles (LM) of the human hand are key in proprioception of flexion and finger extension. The description of its innervation indicates that the median nerve (MN) innervates the two lateral LMs (L1 and L2) and the ulnar nerve (UN) the medial LMs (L3 and L4). Various authors have reported a great variability of this innervation, both in which nerve delivers branches for these muscles, as well as in the distribution of their branches and the presence of common trunks. On the other hand, the number of branches that each LM receives and the motor points (Mp) of these have been scarcely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the number, location and Mp of the branches destined for the LM of the human hand. Likewise, the most frequent innervation pattern was established. For this, 24 formalized hands, belonging to the anatomy laboratory, of the Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile, were used. Conventional depth plane dissection was performed. In all cases, the branch of the L1 muscle originated from the palmar digital nerve proper to the index finger, in the same way, in 100 % the L2 was supplied with a branch of the common palmar digital nerve from the second interosseous space. In relation to the LM, in 100 % both muscles were innervated by branches of the deep branch of the UN (DBUN). In the case of L3, 92 % presented a common trunk with the second palmar interosseous muscle. Likewise, in 79 % of the cases, there was a common trunk between the L4 and the third palmar interosseous muscle. In 29 %, the L3 presented a dual innervation. The distance between of the Mp-BEstL was 63.96 mm for L1, 67.91 mm for L2 and 68.69 mm for L3. This distance was 69.87 mm for L3 and 69, 21 mm for L4. The results obtained contribute to the anatomical knowledge of the innervation of the lumbrical muscles and is useful in neurosurgery procedures that seek to restore the functionality of the hand.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Hand/innervation , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Anatomic Variation
5.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020153, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131804

ABSTRACT

Compressive syndromes of peripheral nerves both in the upper and lower limbs are part of daily clinical practice; however, the etiological diagnosis can be challenging and impact on the outcome of the patient. We report five cases with rare etiologies of nerve entrapments: one in the lower limb and four in the upper limbs with the final diagnosis made only during the operation. The patients evolved without post-operative complications and had good outcomes. This series includes the first report of sciatic compression by a lipoma in the popliteal fossa, two lipomas one with compression of infraclavicular brachial plexus and another with compressing the posterior interosseous nerve, and two reports of vascular lesions due to blunt traumas, which are also uncommon. This series adds to the literature more hypotheses of differential diagnoses in nerve entrapments, which is fundamental to surgical decisions and pre-operative planning—and perhaps most importantly prevents wrong diagnosis of idiopathic compressions, which would lead to a completely wrong approach and unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sciatic Neuropathy/diagnosis , Nerve Compression Syndromes/diagnosis , Radial Nerve , Ulnar Nerve , Aneurysm , Lipoma
6.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 36(2): 95-100, sep.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040449

ABSTRACT

Resumen La luxación del vientre medial del tríceps braquial es una rara condición que ocurre sobre el epicóndilo medial durante la flexión activa de este sobre el codo y a menudo está asociada a inestabilidad del nervio cubital, ocasionando síntomas de compresión de este.


Abstract The dislocation of the medial belly of the triceps is a rare occurrence that occurs on the medial epicondyle during active flexion of this over the elbow and is often associated with an instability of the ulnar nerve, causing symptoms of compression of this nerve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ulnar Nerve , Joint Dislocations , Elbow , Elbow Joint
7.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 51(4): 343-348, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092265

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las fracturas de la epitróclea representan el 11 al 20% de las lesiones en codo en población pediátrica y aproximadamente el 50% se asocia a luxación en el codo, siendo la incarceración menos frecuente. El objetivo del trabajo es describir los resultados funcionales de una serie de pacientes con fractura de epitróclea. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes pediátricos con fracturas de epitróclea, atendidos en un hospital pediátrico. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y los datos fueron analizados en Excel. El estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética del hospital. Se tomaron 42 casos de los cuales 39 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. La edad media fue 11.3 años (4-16 años). El 77% fueron operados y la fractura se asoció a luxación del codo en el 25.6%. El 7.6% de los casos tuvieron neuroapraxia de nervio cubital con recuperación espontánea. La fractura de la epitróclea se observa en población pediátrica involucrada en actividades de alto rendimiento. Puede ocurrir falla en diagnóstico debido a la compleja osificación del codo y también a la superposición de imagen de la epitróclea con la tróclea humeral. Se asocia con luxación del codo entre un 25 a 50% de los casos. El tratamiento de esta fractura es ortopédico o quirúrgico. Las tasas de consolidación en ambos tratamientos son similares.


Abstract Medial epicondyle fractures represent 11-20% of elbow injuries in the pediatric population. Approximately 50% is associated with dislocation in the elbow. Incarceration is less frequent. The objective of this study is to describe the functional results of a cases of patients with medial epicondyle fracture and to review the subject. It is a descriptive and retrospective observational study of pediatric patients with medial epicondyle fracture, attended in a pediatric hospital. The medical records were reviewed and the data were analyzed in an Excel table. The study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. 39 of 42 cases, met the inclusion criteria. The average age was 11.3 years (4-16 years). 77% were operated and the fracture was associated with dislocation of the elbow in 25.6%. The 7.6% of the cases had ulnar nerve neuroapraxia that they recovered spontaneously. The medial epicondyle fracture is observed in the pediatric population involved in high performance activities. Subdiagnosis can occur due to the complex ossification of the elbow and also to the superimposition of the medial epicondyle image with the humeral trochlea. It is associated with dislocation of the elbow between 25 to 50% of cases. The treatment of this fracture is orthopedic or surgical. The consolidation rates in both treatments are similar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Humeral Fractures , Ulnar Nerve , Child , Elbow , Fracture Dislocation , Fractures, Avulsion
8.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(4): 242-244, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177068

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las Schwannomatosis Mononeurales de los Miembros son entidades muy poco frecuentes, escasamente conocidas y raramente publicadas en la bibliografía internacional, éstas se encuentran caracterizadas por la existencia de múltiples formaciones nodulares o plexiformes con compromiso exclusivo de un solo nervio, todas con diagnóstico patológico de schwannoma, excluyéndose a otras entidades tumorales y fuera del contexto de una neurofibromatosis. Aquí se presenta un caso con compromiso del nervio plantar medial o interno. Material y método: Se evaluó y analizo el caso clínico, a nivel semiológico y Neurorradiológico, Neurofisilógico. Se definió la conducta terapéutica y quirúrgica. Se evaluaron resultados mediante: análisis semiológico y seguimiento con imágenes. Descripción y resultados: Paciente sexo masculino de 45 años de edad consulta por presentar múltiples tumoraciones palpables en región retromaleolar interna y plantar derecho y disestesias al apoyo, con antecedente de cirugía de schwannoma plantar. Al examen neurológico: masas palpables en los sectores previamente indicados y Tinel a nivel retromaleolar interno y plantar. RMN: múltiples nódulos con captación intermedia de contraste, hipertensos en T2.Se practicó resección quirúrgica mediante amplio abordaje, se identificaron múltiples nódulos, uno de ellos de aspecto plexiforme que involucraba la totalidad del nervio plantar interno imposibilitando la preservación del tronco por lo cual se practicó microneurorrafia con interposición de puente de safeno interno. Discusión y conclusión: Las Schwannomatosis Mononeurales de los Miembros son entidades extremadamente raras, se han reportado con una frecuencia un poco mayor a aquellas que involucran a los nervios mediano y cubital, en sus características macroscópicas las lesiones fueron publicadas como pertenecientes a la variante nodular para esa escasa mayoría. La configuración plexiforme de los schwannomas es menos frecuente que la nodular per se y, en general. está asociada a troncos menores, fuera de estos territorios, su rareza es extrema. Este caso clínico resulta aún más especial por tratarse de una Schwannomatosis Mononeural del Plantar Medial con variante de tipo mixto, es decir nodular con una masa plexiforme dominante. Esta entidad no la hemos encontrado en la bibliografía internacional.Por otro lado, la resección quirúrgica de estos tumores, cuando son nodulares es compatible con la preservación del tronco nervioso, sacrificando solamente, su fascículo de origen. Este caso, dada la configuración descripta del tumor principal, el cual involucraba la totalidad del tronco, se hizo imposible la preservación del nervio, para lo cual debió realizarse microneurorrafia con puente. Como consideración final, creemos que es de capital importancia la adecuada exploración y planificación pre e intraoperatoria de estos pacientes


Introduction: Mononeural Schwannomatosis located at limbs are very infrequent entities, the knowledge about its are very poor, and there are just a few publications related to them. This articles make reference multiple nodular or plexiform lesions with involvement oh only one nerve, every one whit diagnosis of schwannoma, excluding fibromatosis. In this article, we describe a patient with who suffered the involvement of multiples tumours with nodular and plexiform configuration. Material y method: The clinical case was analysed by different media, clinical, neuro physiological and by neuroimages. By this approaches were defined and evaluated the surgical outcomes and results. Clinical case: Male, 45 years old. Multiples tumours at plantar region. Tinel Sign with multiple palpable masses al retromaleolar sulcus and plantar region, plantar schwannoma operated on previously.RMN: multinodular configuration at level of medial plantar nerve, with intermediate contrast reinforcement.An extended approach was performed, from retromaleolar sulcus to medial aspect of the foot, and finishing inside the digital-plantar sulcus. Complete resection was performed, multiples nodulos were found, the bigger had a plexiform configuration, was imposible the preservation of the nerve trunk and the, the interposition of sural nerve was realized. With good evolution. Conclusions: For this very rare entities, the bigger frequency was reported et limbs.The most frequent locations was at medial nerve, second place occupied by the ulnar nerve, we didn't find on international literature a plexiform tumour inside the medial plantar nerve.On the other hand, we think that the complete resection for this tumours when are nodular, the complete resection with preservation of the main trunk, is feasible. Ehen the tumour has a plexiform pattern; complete resection is only feasible with trunk nerve resection and interposition of nerve graft


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Neurilemmoma , Sural Nerve , General Surgery , Tibial Nerve , Ulnar Nerve , Extremities , Foot
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(5): 564-571, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057924

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To define the anatomy pattern and the incidence of Riché-Cannieu anastomosis, that is, median and ulnar communication in the palmar aspect of the hand. Materials Methods A total of 80 anatomical dissections were performed on 60 hands of 30 cadavers from 1979 to 1982, and on 20 hands from 2012 to 2015. All of these procedures were performed at the Department of Anatomy of our institution. The incidence of Riché-Cannieu anastomosis and the innervation of the thenar muscles were studied. Results Riché-Cannieu anastomosis was identified in every dissected hand (100%). The extramuscular Riché-Cannieu anastomosis was recorded in 57 hands, and the intramuscular, in 19 hands. The association of extra- and intramuscular Riché-Cannieu anastomoses occurred in four hands. The ulnar component always originated from the deep branch. The anastomotic branch arising from the median nerve originated from the motor thenar branch (recurrent branch) of the median nerve in most of the observations. The median-ulnar double innervation only to the deep head of the flexor pollicis brevis was identified in 29 of 80 hands. The double innervation only of the superficial head of the flexor pollicis brevis was found in 13 hands. In 12 hands, the deep head of the flexor pollicis brevis was absent. The double innervation of the superficial and deep heads of the flexor pollicis brevis occurred in 14 hands. The oblique head of the adductor pollicis received double innervation in 12 hands. The deep head of the flexor pollicis brevis and the oblique head of adductor pollicis were doubly-innervated in nine hands. The transverse head of the adductor pollicis received double innervation in two hands. Double innervation of the deep head of the flexor pollicis brevis and the transverse head of the adductor pollicis were found in one hand. Conclusion According to the present study, Riché-Cannieu anastomosis should be considered a normal anatomical neural connection, not an anatomical variation. Knowledge of this anastomosis is essential because the presence of such neural communication may result in confusing clinical, surgical, and electromyographic findings in cases of median or ulnar damage or entrapment.


Resumo Objetivo Definir a anatomia e a incidência da anastomose de Riché-Cannieu, ou seja, a comunicação entre os nervos medianos e ulnar na palma da mão. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecadas 60 mãos de 30 cadáveres frescos de adultos, entre 1979 a 1982, e 20 mãos entre 2011 e 2015, num total de 80 mãos, no Departamento de Anatomia da nossa instituição. A incidência da anastomose de Riché-Cannieu e a inervação dos músculos da região do tênar foram estudadas. Resultados A anastomose de Riché-Cannieu foi identificada em todas as mãos dissecadas (100%). A anastomose de Riché-Cannieu extramuscular foi registrada em 57 mãos, e a intramuscular, em 19, e a associação das anastomoses extra e intramuscular, em 4 mãos. O componente ulnar da anastomose de Riché-Cannieu foi sempre do seu ramo profundo. O ramo anastomótico oriundo do nervo originava-se do ramo recorrente do nervo mediano na maioria das observações. A dupla inervação mediano-ulnar apenas da cabeça profunda do músculo flexor curto do polegar foi identificada em 29 de 80 mãos. Observou-se dupla inervação apenas da cabeça superficial do músculo flexor curto do polegar em 13 mãos. Foi observada dupla inervação das cabeças superficial e profunda do flexor curto do polegar em 14 mãos. A cabeça oblíqua do adutor do polegar recebeu inervação dupla em 12 mãos. A cabeça profunda do músculo flexor curto do polegar e a cabeça oblíqua do adutor do polegar foram inervadas duplamente em nove mãos. A cabeça transversa do adutor do polegar recebeu inervação dupla em duas mãos. A inervação dupla da cabeça profunda do flexor curto do polegar e da cabeça transversa do adutor do polegar foi observada em uma mão. Conclusão De acordo com o presente estudo, a anastomose de Riché-Cannieu deve ser considerada uma conexão nervosa normal, e não uma variação anatômica. O conhecimento dessa anastomose é essencial, pois a presença dessa comunicação neural pode resultar em achados clínicos, cirúrgicos e eletromiográficos confusos em casos de lesões ou síndromes compressivas dos nervos mediano ou ulnar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ulnar Nerve , Hand/innervation , Median Nerve , Neural Conduction
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 858-860, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012365

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un caso de variación del trayecto habitual del nervio ulnar, en los primeros 12 cm proximales del antebrazo, con la descripción de las estructuras anatómicas en relación con esta variación anatómica. Esto debe ser tenido en cuenta ante la ausencia de hallazgo del nervio ulnar al momento de realizar su abordaje quirúrgico habitual, como ocurre en las trasposiciones del nervio ulnar en los casos de compresión. De esta manera, se podrán evitar recidivas de la patología, y agregar otros factores anatómicos como causas de compresión del nervio.


We present an unusual ulnar nerve path variation case, in forearm first 12 cm, with anatomical structures description in relation to this anatomical variation. This must be consider in the ulnar nerve finding absence during its usal surgical preformance, as occurs in ulnar nerve compression transplant cases. In this way, pathology relapses can be avoided, and other anatomical factors can be added as nerve compression causes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Forearm/innervation
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1192-1196, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012416

ABSTRACT

The ulnar and median nerves are widely distributed, innervating the muscles of the forearm and hand. In the latter, it also registers the sensitivity of a significant part of the skin. A series of communicating branches (CB) is described on the path of these nerves, including: 1) the Martin-Gruber communicating branch, 2) the Marinacci communicating branch, 3) the Riché-Cannieu communicating branch and 4) the Berrettini communicating branch. The aim of this study was to establish a correct denomination of these CB, using Latin and eliminating the use of eponyms. The exploratory study included books on anatomy and scientific articles that detailed the anatomical aspects of these CB. To these were added the terms that these branches presented in the various anatomical lists and terminologies. Each term proposal was done in Latin, using the corresponding gender, number and case. The CB between the median and ulnar nerves are described in anatomy texts as well as a plethora of publications. The prevalence rates of the CB range between 1.7 and 94 %; however, their inclusion in the anatomical terminologies has been limited. Based on the description of these branches and the presence of some of them in the existing terminologies, a proposal was prepared in line with the indications of the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT): 1) Ramus comunicans cum nervo ulnari, 2) Ramus comunicans cum nervo mediano, 3) Ramus communicans cum ramo profundo nervi ulnaris y 4) Ramus communicans cum nervo digitali palmari communi. Considering that terminologies are dynamic linguistic corpora, it is important to analyze constantly the incorporation of new terms that are in harmony with the scientific findings. The incorporation of new structures must follow FIPAT guidelines and include the grammatical aspects of Latin.


Los nervios ulnar y mediano presentan una amplia distribución que permite inervar músculos del antebrazo y mano, en esta última, también registran la sensibilidad de un importante territorio cutáneo. En el recorrido de estos nervios se describen una serie de ramos comunicantes (RC), entre los cuales destacan: 1) Ramo comunicante de Martin-Gruber 2) Ramo comunicante de Marinacci 3) Ramo comunicante de Riché-Cannieu y 4) Ramo comunicante de Berretini. El propósito de este trabajo fue establecer una correcta denominación de estos RC, usando para ello el latín y eliminando el uso de epónimos. El estudio exploratorio incluyó libros de anatomía y artículos científicos que detallaran los aspectos anatómicos de estos RC. A lo anterior se sumaron los términos que estos ramos presentaron en las diversas nóminas y terminologías anatómicas. Cada propuesta de denominación se realizó en latín, utilizando el género, número y caso correspondiente. Los RC entre los nervios mediano y ulnar se encuentran descritos tanto en textos de anatomía como en un sinnúmero de publicaciones. Las tasas de prevalencia de los RC fluctúan entre 1,7 y 94 %; a pesar de ello; su inclusión en las terminologías anatómicas ha sido limitado. En base a la descripción de éstos ramos y la presencia de algunos de ellos en las terminologías existentes, se elaboró una propuesta alineada con las indicaciones del Programa Federativo Internacional de Terminología Anatómica (FIPAT): 1) Ramus comunicans cum nervo ulnari, 2) Ramus comunicans cum nervo mediano, 3) Ramus communicans cum ramo profundo nervi ulnaris y 4) Ramus communicans cum nervo digitali palmari communi. Considerando que las terminologías son cuerpos lingüísticos dinámicos, resulta importante analizar constantemente la incorporación de nuevos términos que se encuentren en sintonía con los hallazgos científicos. La incorporación de nuevas estructuras debe seguir los lineamientos de FIPAT y considerar los aspectos gramaticales del latín.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology , Forearm/innervation , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Terminology as Topic
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 542-550, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper and lower motor neurons with no effective cure. Electrophysiological studies have found decremental responses during low-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) except for diffused neurogenic activities. However, the difference between ALS and generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) in terms of waveform features is unclear. In the current study, we explored the variation trend of the amplitudes curve between ALS and GMG with low-frequency, positive RNS, and the possible mechanism is discussed preliminarily.@*METHODS@#A total of 85 ALS patients and 41 GMG patients were recruited. All patients were from Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between July 1, 2012 and February 28, 2015. RNS study included ulnar nerve, accessory nerve and facial nerve at 3 Hz and 5 Hz stimulation. The percentage reduction in the amplitude of the fourth or fifth wave from the first wave was calculated and compared with the normal values of our hospital. A 15% decrease in amplitude is defined as a decrease in amplitude.@*RESULTS@#The decremental response at low-frequency RNS showed the abnormal rate of RNS decline was 54.1% (46/85) in the ALS group, and the results of different nerves were 54.1% (46/85) of the accessory nerve, 8.2% (7/85) of the ulnar nerve and 0% (0/85) of the facial nerve stimulation, respectively. In the GMG group, the abnormal rate of RNS decline was 100% (41/41) at low-frequency RNS of accessory nerves. However, there was a significant difference between the 2 groups in the amplitude after the sixth wave.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both groups of patients are able to show a decreasing amplitude of low-frequency stimulation RNS, but the recovery trend after the sixth wave has significant variation. It implies the different pathogenesis of NMJ dysfunction of these 2 diseases.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Adult , Aged , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Therapeutics , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Male , Median Nerve , Physiology , Middle Aged , Motor Neurons , Physiology , Muscle, Skeletal , Physiology , Myasthenia Gravis , Therapeutics , Retrospective Studies , Ulnar Nerve , Physiology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare activity, function and postoperative ulnar nerve function of elbow joint by anterior transposition of ulnar nerve or not during open reduction and internal fixation for intercondylar humerus fractures.@*METHODS@#From January 2013 to May 2017, 168 patients with intercondylar humerus fractures were treated surgically with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The patients were divided into anterior subcutaneous transposition group and simple decompression group according to handling method of ulnar nerve. There were 48 patients in transposition group, including 23 males and 25 females with an average age of (42.5±15.7) years old ranging from 14 to 77 years old, and ulnar nerve treated enough free and anterior subcutaneous transpostion after reduction of intercondylar humerus fractures; while there were 120 patients in simple decompression group, including 62 males and 58 females with an average age of (43.4±17.3) years old ranging from 14 to 81 years old, ulnar nerve returned to sulci nervi ulnaris. Activity of flexion and extension of elbow joint, range of rotation of forearm were recorded at the latest following-up, Mayo score of elbow joint was used to evaluate clinical effect, McGowan grading was used to assess dysfunction of unlnar nerve.@*RESULTS@#There was 1 patient delayed union, and 2 patients occurred joint stiffness in transposition group; while 1 patient suffered from incision infection, 1 fracture nonunion, and 4 joint stiffness in simple decompression group; and there was no statistical difference between two groups(>0.05). Forty-eight patients in transposition group were followed-up from 12 to 59 months with an average of (32.2±14.2) months, activity of flexion and extension of elbow joint was (116±28)°, range of rotation of forearm was (152±12)°, MEPS score was 88.6±11.6; and 28 patients got excellent results, 16 good, 3 moderate and 1 poor. There were 17 patients occurred injury of ulnar nerve, and 7 patients still occurred dysfunction of ulnar nerve, and 6 patients were grade I, 1 patient was grade II according to McGowan grading. In simple decompression group, there were 120 patients were followed-up from 13 to 61 months with an average of (32.0±14.9) months, activity of flexion and extension of elbow joint was (119±27)°, range of rotation of forearm was (154±16)°, MEPS score was 88.9±12.5; and 67 patients got excellent results, 44 good, 7 moderate and 2 poor. There were 42 patients occurred injury of ulnar nerve, and 22 patients still occurred dysfunction of ulnar nerve, and 18 patients were grade I, 4 patients were grade II according to McGowan grading. There were no statistical differences in following time, activity of flexion and extension of elbow joint, range of rotation of forearm, MEPS score and dysfunction of ulnar nerve.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Whether anterior transposition of ulnar nerve or not has no clarified effects for open reduction and internal fixation for intercondylar humerus fractures.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Elbow Joint , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Humeral Fractures , Humerus , Male , Middle Aged , Range of Motion, Articular , Treatment Outcome , Ulnar Nerve , Young Adult
15.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 97-101, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811487

ABSTRACT

Tardy ulnar nerve palsy is ulnar neuropathy at or around elbow and commonly evaluated in the electromyography laboratory. However, ulnar neuropathy at the elbow due to neurofibroma is rare. Neurofibromas are tumors that arise within nerve fasciculi and anywhere along a nerve from dorsal root ganglion to the terminal nerve branch. We report one case of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow due to neurofibroma. Patient had paresthesia on the left 5th finger and there had been left hypothenar atrophy since 2 months ago. Tinel's sign was positive at left elbow. As a result of electromyography, there were suggestive of right ulnar neuropathy at or around elbow, referred to as tardy ulnar nerve palsy. Ultrasonography showed a diffuse tortuous thickening with multiple neurofibromas arising from individual fascicles of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel area. Surgery was then performed to release cubital tunnel of left elbow, then the patient's symptoms improved.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Elbow , Electromyography , Fingers , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Neurofibroma , Neurofibromatoses , Paresthesia , Ulnar Nerve , Ulnar Neuropathies , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766412

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of fixation of AO/OTA type C2 fractures among intra-articular fractures of the distal humerus using the paratricipital approach (side to side retraction of the triceps). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2008 to January 2018, 12 patients underwent an open reduction and internal fixation with the paratricipital approach and were followed-up for more than 10 months after surgery. According to the AO/OTA classification, type C2 fractures were chosen among the intraarticular distal humerus fractures. An extended posterior incision was used over the olecranon in the prone position, preserving the insertion site of the triceps brachii muscle. The fracture site was exposed by retracting the muscle side-to side through a dissection of the medial and lateral intermuscular septum of the triceps brachii muscle. The therapeutic results were assessed by the anatomical reduction of the articular surface and integrity of the metaphyseal contour in postoperative simple radiographs, complications, such as neuropathy or non-union, and the Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) were checked to estimate the functional outcome. RESULTS: In the postoperative simple radiographs, no case showed more than 1 mm step-off and the disrupted contour of the distal humerus was recovered to normal alignment in most cases. The range of elbow joint motion in the last follow-up was 133.8° on average with a mean flexion contracture of 5.0°. The clinical results depending on the MEPS were excellent, except for two cases, which were good. Neuropathy of the ulnar nerve was observed in one patient, which was resolved after metal removal. CONCLUSION: The paratricipital approach is useful technique in AO/OTA type C2 intra-articular distal humerus fractures that provides sufficient exposure of the surgical field, without injury to the triceps brachii muscle and postoperative complications associated with the trans-olecranon approach.


Subject(s)
Classification , Contracture , Elbow , Elbow Joint , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Humerus , Intra-Articular Fractures , Olecranon Process , Postoperative Complications , Prone Position , Ulnar Nerve
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738996

ABSTRACT

Ganglion cyst is considered to be a usual cause of peripheral nerve compression. In this report, we present a rare case of ulnar nerve compression by a multi-septated ganglion cyst in the cubital tunnel. A 33-year-old left-handed male amateur tennis player developed progressive numbness and weakness in his right elbow, forearm, and hand for 1 year. Decrease of grip power was apparent in left hand. Clinical examination revealed a cystic mass at the posterior side of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a ganglion cyst at the elbow. During surgery about 3 cm diameter epineural ganglion was observed compressing the ulnar nerve and was excised using microsurgery techniques. Three months postoperatively, the clinical recovery of the patient was very satisfactory and he restored his original performance in tennis match.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cubital Tunnel Syndrome , Elbow , Forearm , Ganglion Cysts , Hand , Hand Strength , Humans , Hypesthesia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Microsurgery , Peripheral Nerves , Tennis , Ulnar Nerve , Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738448

ABSTRACT

Distal humerus fractures require stable fixation and early joint motion, similar to other intra-articular fractures, but are difficult to treat adequately because of the anatomical complexity, severe comminution, and accompanying osteoporosis. In most cases, surgical treatment is performed using two supporting plates. Plate fixation can be divided into right angle plate fixation and parallel plate fixation. In addition, depending on the type of fracture, surgical procedures can be performed differently, and autologous bone grafting can be required in the case of severe bone loss. The elbow joint is vulnerable to stiffness, so it is important to start joint movement early after surgery. Postoperative complications, such as nonunion, ulnar nerve compression, and heterotopic ossification, can occur. Therefore, accurate and rigid fixation and meticulous manipulation of soft tissues are required during surgery.


Subject(s)
Bone Transplantation , Elbow Joint , Humerus , Intra-Articular Fractures , Joints , Ossification, Heterotopic , Osteoporosis , Postoperative Complications , Rehabilitation , Ulnar Nerve , Ulnar Nerve Compression Syndromes
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 7-13, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893178

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this paper was to report the incidences of the anastomosis between deep branch of ulnar nerve and a branch of the median nerve commonly named Cannieu-Riché anastomosis (CRA) and thenar muscles innervation. The anatomical dissection of 80 limbs from 40 fresh adult cadavers were performed in the Department of Anatomy at the Medical School of the Catholic University of São Paulo. The incidence of CRA and thenar muscle innervation were studied. The CRA was found in all of the dissected hands (100 %). The abdutor pollicis brevis and the opponens pollicis muscle are innervated exclusively by median nerve in all dissected hands. The superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis was innervated by the median nerve in of 56 the hands (70 %), in 24 (30 %) it had double innervation (median nerve and deep branch of ulnar nerve). The deep head of flexor pollicis brevis were absent in 11 hands (14 %), in 52 hands (65 %), a double innervation was observed. In 14 (17.5 %) exclusively by deep branch of ulnar nerve and in 3 hands (3.6 %) exclusively by a branch of median nerve. The oblique head of adductor pollicis muscle was innervated only by deep branch of ulnar nerve in 66 hands (82 %) of dissected hands, 14 (17.5 %) had a double innervation. The transverse head of adductor pollicis was innervated exclusively by deep branch of ulnar nerve in 77 hands (96.4 %), and in 3 (3.6 %) had a double innervation. According to our study the pattern of innervation was more frequent in relation to the flexor pollicis brevis muscle and should be considered as a normal pattern, in that the superficial head receives innervation of branches of median nerve, and the deep head receives innervation of deep branch of ulnar nerve and branches of median nerve (dual innervation). The abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis received innervation exclusively by median nerve. Both the oblique and transverse head of adductor pollicis exclusively by ulnar nerve. The RCA was found in all of the dissected hands (100 %).


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo fue informar la anastomosis entre el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar y un ramo del nervio mediano (Anastomosis de Cannieu-Riché) y de la inervación de los músculos de la eminencia tenar. Se realizó la disección anatómica de 80 miembros de 40 cadáveres adultos frescos en el Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Católica de São Paulo, Brasil. Se estudió la incidencia de formación de la ACR y la inervación de los músculos tenares. La ACR se encontró en todas las manos disecadas (100 %). El músculo abductor corto del pulgar y el músculo oponente del pulgar recibían inervación exclusivamente por el nervio mediano en todas las manos disecadas. La cabeza superficial del músculo flexor corto del pulgar estaba inervada por el nervio mediano (70 %), en 24 casos, (30 %) presentó inervación doble (nervio mediano y ramo profundo del nervio ulnar). La cabeza profunda del músculo flexor corto del pulgar estuvo ausente en 11 manos (14 %), mientras que en 52 manos (65 %) se produjo una doble inervación. En 14 casos (17,5 %) se vio inervado exclusivamente por el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar y en 3 manos (3,6 %) exclusivamente por un ramo del nervio mediano. La cabeza oblicua del músculo aductor del pulgar estaba inervada sólo por el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar en 66 manos (82 %), en 14 casos (17,5 %) tenía una doble inervación. La cabeza transversa del músculo aductor del pulgar estaba inervada exclusivamente por el ramo profundo del nervio ulnar en 77 manos (96,4 %), en 3 manos (3,6 %) presentó una doble inervación. De acuerdo con nuestro estudio, el patrón de inervación más frecuente en relación al músculo flexor corto del pulgar debe ser considerado como un patrón normal, en el que la cabeza superficial recibe inervación de ramos del nervio mediano y la cabeza profunda recibe inervación del ramo profundo de nervio ulnar y ramos del nervio mediano (inervación dual). El músculo abductor corto del pulgar y el músculo oponente del pulgar recibieron inervación exclusivamente por el nervio mediano. Tanto la cabeza oblicua como transversa del músculo aductor del pulgar están inervadas exclusivamente por el nervio ulnar. La ACR se encontró en todas las manos disecadas (100 %).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hand/innervation , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773457

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The cross Kirschner wire (K-wire) configuration in closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of paediatric supracondylar humeral fracture affords superior stability. However, medial pin placement presents a risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. This study describes, in step-by-step detail, another safe method of percutaneous medial pin insertion.@*METHODS@#The technique involved placing the patient's arm in external rotation, with elbow flexed no more than 45° after closed reduction. The surgeon held the K-wire close to its sharp end to pass it percutaneously onto the medial epicondyle, then adjusted his grip toward the blunt end. After fluoroscopy check, the wire driver was engaged and an anteriorly directed force was applied to the distal humerus fragment using the thumb of the surgeon's free hand. The K-wire was inserted at a 45° angle to the longitudinal axis of the humerus shaft. Clinical notes and radiographs of patients who underwent surgery with this technique from 2006 to 2008 were reviewed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 125 patients (84 boys, 41 girls) were included, with a mean age of 7.1 (range 2-14) years. Most injuries were left-sided (72.8%, n = 91, vs. right: 27.2%, n = 34). 72 (57.6%) patients had two-pin cross K-wire configuration, while 53 (42.4%) patients had an additional lateral pin inserted. No patient had postoperative ulnar neuropathy. There were no complications of non-union, malunion or infection.@*CONCLUSION@#This safe method of medial pin placement for surgical stabilisation of paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is easily learnt and reproducible, and produces excellent results.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bone Nails , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fluoroscopy , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary , Methods , Humans , Humeral Fractures , General Surgery , Humerus , Wounds and Injuries , Iatrogenic Disease , Male , Pediatrics , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , Ulnar Nerve
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