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Med. infant ; 27(2): 152-156, Diciembre 2020. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1150596


Introducción: La cateterización venosa central es un procedimiento usual en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). El ultrasonido (US) para guiar la cateterización, ofrece ventajas, permitiendo tener una imagen topográfica precisa del vaso, reduciendo las complicaciones, el tiempo y el número de punciones. Objetivo: determinar, si la US en la colocación de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC), podría disminuir el número de punciones y lograr la cateterización exitosa. Población y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo de los CVC colocados mediante punción guiada por US, en una UCI polivalente del Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan, entre el año 2018 al 2019. Población: pacientes de 1 mes a 18 años que requirieron colocación de un CVS por US. Se consideró significativo un valor de p< 0.05. Resultados: VYI en 66 pacientes (43,5%), VF fue en 86 pacientes (56,5%). 86 (56,5%) CVC, fueron insertados en el primer intento y 66 (43,5%), requirieron más de un intento. Las inserciones en VYI fueron exitosas en el primer intento en 46 pac. (53,5%) 20 pac. requirieron más de un intento (30,3%) p 0,004 OR 0,37 (IC 95% 0,18-0,78. En <6 meses los CVC colocados en VYI tuvieron menos riesgo de requerir más de un intento, con respecto a aquellos en los cuales se eligió la VF, p 0,0026 OR 0,31 (IC 95% 0,12 -0,75). 5,2% presentaron complicaciones, no hubo mortalidad relacionada al procedimiento. Conclusiones: La inserción de CVC guiados por US fue segura y significativamente exitosa en el primer intento cuando el vaso de elección fue la VYI, especialmente en < 6 meses (AU)

IIntroduction: Central venous catheterization is a common procedure in intensive care units (ICU). The use of ultrasound (US) to guide catheterization offers advantages, allowing for an accurate topographic image of the vessel, reducing complications as well as time and number of punctures. Objective: To determine whether the use of US for the placement of central venous catheters (CVCs) may decrease the number of punctures and achieve successful catheterization. Patients and methods: A descriptive, prospective study was conducted of CVCs placed by US-guided puncture at a general ICU of Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan between 2018 and 2019. Patients from 1 month to 18 years of age who required US-guided placement of a CVC were included. A p< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The internal jugular vein (IJV) was used in 66 (43.5%) and the femoral vein (FV) in 86 patients (56.5%). Overall, in 86 (56.5%) CVC were inserted on the first attempt and 66 (43.5%) required more than one attempt. Insertions into the VYI were successful on the first attempt in 46 (53.5%) patients and 20 (30.3%) patients required more than one attempt, p 0.004; OR 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.78). In patients <6 months CVCs placed in the IJV had a lower risk of requiring more than one attempt compared to those in which the FV was chosen, p 0.0026 OR 0.31 (95% CI 0.12 -0.75). Complications occurred in 5.2%; no procedure-related mortality was observed. Conclusions: US-guided insertion of CVC was safe and significantly successful on the first attempt when the vessel of choice was the IJV, especially in patients < 6 months (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ultrasonography, Interventional/instrumentation , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Central Venous Catheters , Prospective Studies , Femoral Vein , Jugular Veins
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202530, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136531


ABSTRACT Introduction: simulation based teaching is a powerful tool in medical education, allowing hands on practice under a controlled environment and with repeated maneuvers. Central venous access venipuncture is one of the most frequent procedures carried out in the hospital setting, due to its various clinical indications and, when performed with the help of ultrasonography, the risk of adverse events is minimized. Aim: to develop, to describe and to test a porcine model that simulates the central venous access puncture aided by ultrasonography. Method: a low cost porcine model was developed to train medical students and residents on central venous access guided by ultrasonography. Both students and medical residents underwent a theoretical training regarding the model, followed by a hands-on training session. Afterwards, the participants assessed the model by answering a questionnaire. Results: there were 51 participants. The average score regarding the similarity between the model and the human anatomy was 9.15. When the characteristics were separately assessed, the mean scores regarding the similarity of the vessels, anatomic disposition and ultrasonographic characteristics as well as the venipuncture were, respectively, 9.27; 9.31; 9.54 and 8.86. Conclusion: The model was approved and considered appropriate for the training of central venous venipuncture by all the participants. Furthermore, it is a low cost, simple and reproducible model, that presents high similarity with the human anatomy. Therefore, it may be used as an aid to train people on ultrasonography guided central venous access.

RESUMO Introdução: o ensino baseado em simulação é poderosa ferramenta para o aprendizado na educação médica, permitindo a prática de procedimentos em ambientes controlados e por repetidas vezes. A realização de acesso venoso central é um dos procedimentos médicos mais realizados em ambiente hospitalar, tendo várias indicações e, quando realizada com o auxilio da ultrassonografia, os riscos das complicações do procedimento são minimizados. Objetivo: desenvolver, descrever e aplicar um modelo porcino para simulação de acesso venoso central guiado por ultrassonografia. Métodos: modelo porcino de baixo custo foi desenvolvido para treinamento de acesso venoso central guiado por ultrassonografia. Estudantes de medicina e médicos residentes receberam treinamento teórico em relação ao procedimento, seguido de treinamento prático no modelo. Posteriormente, os participantes avaliaram o modelo desenvolvido por meio de um questionário. Resultados: o estudo contou com 51 participantes. O escore médio de semelhança geral do modelo com a realidade foi 9,15. Quando separadas por características, as médias dos escores de semelhança da imagem dos vasos, da disposição anatômica das estruturas, das características ultrassonográficas e da punção foram, respectivamente, 9,27; 9,31; 9,54 e 8,86. Conclusão: o modelo foi aprovado e considerado útil para treinamento do procedimento por todos os participantes, além de ter baixo custo, ser simples, reprodutível e apresentar alta semelhança com a realidade, podendo ser utilizado como adjunto no treinamento de acesso venoso central guiado por ultrassonografia.

Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Education, Medical , Central Venous Catheters , Swine , Models, Animal , Simulation Training
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1281-1282, Nov.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056347


ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: We aim to present the use of 3D digital and physical renal model (1-5) to guide the percutaneous access during percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL). Materials and Methods: We present the clinical case of a 30 years old man with left renal stone (25x15 mm). A virtual 3D reconstruction of the anatomical model including the stone, the renal parenchyma, the urinary collecting system (UCS) and the skeletal landmarks (lumbar spine and ribs) was elaborated. Finally, a physical 3D model was created with a 3D printer including the renal parenchyma, UCS and the stone. The surgeon evaluated the 3D virtual reconstruction and manipulated the printed model before surgery to improve the anatomical knowledge and to facilitate the percutaneous access. In prone position, combining ultrasound and fluoroscopy implemented by the preoperative anatomical planning based on the 3D virtual and printed model, an easy and safe access of the inferior calyx was achieved. Then, the patient underwent PNL using a 30 Fr Amplatz sheet with semi-rigid nephroscope and ultrasound energy to achieve a complete lithotripsy of the pelvic stone. Results: The procedure was safely completed with 1 single percutaneous puncture (time of puncture 2 minutes). Overall surgical time was 90 min. No intra and postoperative complications were reported. The CT scan performed before discharge confirmed a complete stone free state. Conclusion: The 3D-guided approach to PNL facilitates the preoperative planning of the puncture with better knowledge of the renal anatomy and may be helpful to reduce operative time and improve the learning curve.

Humans , Male , Adult , Lithotripsy/methods , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Models, Anatomic , Fluoroscopy/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Operative Time , Kidney
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 560-564, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042042


Abstract Introduction: Angiographically visible plaques in patent vein grafts are usually detected years after surgery. Our aim was to examine early plaque formation in vein grafts. Methods: Bypass angiography and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) examination were performed on 77 aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) implanted in 36 patients during the first 2 years after CABG. In each graft, a good quality 25 mm ultrasound image was analyzed. We measured: plaque area, lumen area, external elastic membrane (EEM) area, graft area and wall area. For the comparative assessment of SVGs, the index plaque area/EEM area was calculated. Data were analyzed for the following 4 time periods: I - 0-4 months (22 grafts), II - 5-8 months (23 grafts), III - 9-12 months (19 grafts) and IV - 13-16 months (13 grafts) after CABG. Student's t and Fisher-Snedecor tests were used for the purpose of statistical analysis in this retrospective study. Results: In period I, plaque formation (neointimal) was observed in 10 grafts (45%), with a mean plaque area of 1.59 mm., in 6 grafts (26%) in period II, with a mean plaque area of 1.03 mm. and in 15 grafts (71%) in period III, with a mean plaque area of 1.41 mm., and in all (100%) grafts in period IV, with mean plaque area of 2,3 mm.. Average index plaque area/EEM area in periods I, II, III and IV were 0.12, 0.08, 0.13 and 0.22. We have showed a significant plaque increase between periods II and IV(P=0.038). Conclusion: IVUS showed plaque in about 40% of venous grafts during the first year after CABG. Between 13-16 months plaque was visible in all studied grafts.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Early Diagnosis
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 413-416, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042008


Abstract Background and objectives Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization is a common and generally safe procedure in the operating room. However, inadvertent puncture of a noncompressible artery such as the subclavian artery, though rare, may be associated with life-threatening sequelae, including hemomediastinum, hemothorax, and pseudoaneurysm. Case report We describe a case of the successful endovascular repair of right subclavian artery injury in a 75-year-old woman. Subclavian artery was injured secondary to ultrasound-guided right internal jugular vein catheterization under general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. Conclusion Under general anesthesia several factors such as hypotension can mask the signs of subclavian artery injury. This case report indicates that clinicians should be aware of the complications of central venous catheterization and take prompt action.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A cateterização da veia jugular interna guiada por ultrassom é um procedimento comum e geralmente seguro em sala cirúrgica. No entanto, a punção inadvertida de uma artéria não compressível, como a artéria subclávia, embora rara, pode estar associada a sequelas e risco para vida, incluindo hemomediastino, hemotórax e pseudoaneurisma. Relato de caso Descrevemos um caso bem-sucedido da correção endovascular de lesão da artéria subclávia direita em uma paciente de 75 anos. A artéria subclávia foi lesionada após cateterização guiada por ultrassom da veia jugular interna direita sob anestesia geral para cirurgia ortopédica. Conclusão Sob anestesia geral, vários fatores, como a hipotensão, podem mascarar os sinais de lesão da artéria subclávia. Este relato de caso indica que os médicos devem estar cientes das complicações da cateterização venosa central e tomar medidas imediatas.

Humans , Female , Aged , Subclavian Artery/injuries , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Jugular Veins/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 982-987, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013009


SUMMARY A clinical, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial with two parallel groups. OBJECTIVE to evaluate the efficacy of ropivacaine injection in each belly of the anterior and middle scalene muscles, guided by ultrasonography, in the treatment of Nonspecific Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) compared to cutaneous pressure. METHODS 38 patients, 19 in the control group (skin pressure in each belly of the anterior and middle scalene muscles) and 19 in the intervention group (ropivacaine). Subjects with a diagnosis of Nonspecific Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, pain in upper limbs and/or neck, with no radiculopathy or neurological involvement of the limb affected due to compressive or encephalic root causes were included. The primary endpoint was functionality, evaluated by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand - DASH scale validated for use in Brasil. The time of the evaluations were T0 = before the intervention; T1 = immediately after; T2 = 1 week; T3 = 4 weeks; T4 = 12 weeks; for T1, the DASH scale was not applied. RESULTS Concerning the DASH scale, it is possible to affirm with statistical significance (p> 0.05) that the intervention group presented an improvement of functionality at four weeks, which was maintained by the 12th week. CONCLUSION In practical terms, we concluded that a 0.375% injection of ropivacaine at doses of 2.5 ml in each belly of the anterior and middle scalene muscles, guided by ultrasonography, in the treatment of Nonspecific Thoracic Outlet Syndrome helps to improve function.

RESUMO Ensaio clínico, controlado por placebo, aleatorizado, duplo-cego, com dois braços paralelos. OBJETIVO Avaliar a eficácia da injeção de ropivacaína em cada ventre dos músculos escalenos anterior e médio, guiada por ultrassonografia, no tratamento da Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico Neurogênico inespecífico comparado com o toque cutâneo. MÉTODOS Trinta e oito pacientes, sendo 19 no grupo controle (toque cutâneo em cada ventre dos músculos escalenos anterior e médio) e 19 no grupo intervenção (ropivacaína). Foram incluídos sujeitos com diagnóstico de Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico Neurogênico inespecífico com dor em membros superiores e/ou cervicalgia sem radiculopatia ou comprometimento neurológico do membro em questão por causas radiculares compressivas ou encefálicas. O desfecho primário foi a funcionalidade avaliada pela escala Disabilitie of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand - Dash, validada no Brasil. O tempo das avaliações foram T0 = antes da intervenção; T1 = imediatamente após, T2 = 1 semana, T3 = 4 semanas e T4 = 12 semanas, sendo que para o T1 não foi aplicado o Dash. RESULTADOS Com relação ao Dash, de forma estatisticamente significante (p>0,05), é possível afirmar que o grupo intervenção apresentou melhora da funcionalidade a partir de quatro semanas, e essa melhora se manteve até a 12a semana. CONCLUSÃO Em termos práticos, conclui-se que a injeção de ropivacaína 0,375% nas doses de 2,5 ml em cada ventre dos músculos escalenos anterior e médio, guiada por ultrassonografia, no tratamento da Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico Neurogênico inespecífico auxilia na melhora da função.

Humans , Male , Female , Thoracic Outlet Syndrome/drug therapy , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Neck Muscles/drug effects , Time Factors , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 272-278, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013422


Abstract Background and objectives: Inadequate pain relief after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction affects mobility leading to development of adhesions, weakened ligament insertion and muscle atrophy. Adductor canal block for postoperative analgesia preserves quadriceps strength. The present study was conducted to compare pain free period in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, receiving ultrasound-guided adductor canal block with ropivacaine alone and ropivacaine with clonidine. Methods: A prospective randomized double blinded study was conducted including sixty-three adult, ASA class I, II patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. They were randomized into three groups: Group S - control group received adductor canal block with 30 mL saline, Group R - ropivacaine group received adductor canal block with 30 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine and Group RC - clonidine group received adductor canal block with 30 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine with clonidine 1 µ The primary aim was to compare the pain free period in patients receiving adductor canal block with ropivacaine alone or ropivacine with clonidine. The secondary outcomes were pain score at rest and movement, total analgesic requirement, sedation score and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Results: The mean pain free periods were 20 min, 384.76 min and 558.09 min for Group S, Group R and Group RC, respectively and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between Group R and Group RC in terms of pain scores at rest and movement and total analgesic requirement. Conclusion: Addition of clonidine to ropivacaine in USG guided adductor canal block led to significant prolongation of pain free period though pain score at rest and movement, and rescue analgesic requirement, did not differ.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O alívio inadequado da dor após a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior afeta a mobilidade, leva ao desenvolvimento de aderências, inserção do ligamento enfraquecido e atrofia muscular. O bloqueio do canal adutor para analgesia pós-operatória preserva a força do quadríceps. O presente estudo foi feito para comparar o período sem dor em pacientes de reconstrução artroscópica do ligamento cruzado anterior, submetidos ao bloqueio do canal adutor guiado por ultrassom com ropivacaína isolada e ropivacaína + clonidina. Métodos: Um estudo prospectivo, randômico e duplo-cego foi conduzido com 63 pacientes adultos, estado físico ASA I-II, submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. Os pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos: Grupo S, que recebeu bloqueio do canal adutor com 30 mL de solução salina para controle; Grupo R, que recebeu bloqueio do canal adutor com 30 mL de ropivacaína a 0,375%; Grupo RC, que recebeu bloqueio do canal adutor com 30 mL de ropivacaína a 0,375% e 1 µ de clonidina. O desfecho primário do estudo foi comparar o período sem dor nos pacientes que receberam bloqueio do canal adutor com ropivacaína isolada ou ropivacina + clonidina. Os desfechos secundários foram escores de dor em repouso e movimento, necessidade total de analgésicos, escore de sedação, além de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório. Resultados: Os períodos médios sem dor foram 20 min, 384,76 min e 558,09 min para os grupos S, R e RC, respectivamente, e essa diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,001). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos R e RC em termos de escores de dor em repouso e movimento e a necessidade total de analgésicos. Conclusão: A adição de clonidina à ropivacaína em bloqueio do canal adutor guiado por ultrassom levou a um prolongamento significativo do período sem dor, embora os escores de dor em repouso e movimento, e a necessidade de analgésico de resgate, não tenham diferido.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Arthroscopy/methods , Clonidine/administration & dosage , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction/methods , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 253-258, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013415


Abstract Background and objectives: The current study aimed to determine the minimum effective volume (MEV) of bupivacaine 0.5% in 50% of patients for an ultrasound-guided retroclavicular approach to infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Methods: A total of 25 adult patients who were scheduled for upper limb surgery received an ultrasound-guided retroclavicular approach to infraclavicular brachial plexus block with bupivacaine 0.5%. The needle insertion point was posterior to the clavicle and the needle was advanced from cephalad to caudal. Block success was defined as a composite score of 14 at 30 min after local anesthetic (LA) injection. The minimum effective volume in 50% of patients was determined using the Dixon-Massey up-and-down staircase method. Minimum effective volume for a successful block in 95% of the patients was also calculated using logistic regression and probit transformation. Results: The minimum effective volume of bupivacaine 0.5% resulting in successful block in 50% of patients (MEV50) according to the up-and-down staircase method was found to be 9.6 mL (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.7-13.4). The calculated minimum effective volume required for a successful block in 95% of patients (MEV95) using the probit transformation and logistic regression analysis was 23.2 mL (95% CI, 18.8-36.7). Conclusions: The MEV50 of bupivacaine 0.5% for US-guided retroclavicular approach to infraclavicular brachial plexus block was 9.6 mL and the calculated MEV95 was 23.2 mL. Future studies are required for infraclavicular brachial plexus block with different approaches, other LA agents and different concentrations of bupivacaine.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Determinar o volume mínimo efetivo (VE) de bupivacaína a 0,5% em 50% dos pacientes para uma abordagem retroclavicular guiada por ultrassom no bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular. Métodos: Um total de 25 pacientes adultos agendados para cirurgia do membro superior receberam abordagem retroclavicular guiada por ultrassom para o bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular com bupivacaína a 0,5%. O ponto de inserção da agulha foi posterior à clavícula e a agulha foi avançada de cefálica para caudal. O sucesso do bloqueio foi definido como um escore composto de 14 aos 30 min após a injeção do anestésico local. O VE em 50% dos pacientes foi determinado com o método de escalonamento progressivo-regressivo de Dixon-Massey. O VE para um bloqueio bem-sucedido em 95% dos pacientes também foi calculado com regressão logística e transformação probit. Resultados: O volume mínimo efetivo (VE50) de bupivacaína a 0,5% que resultou em bloqueio bem-sucedido em 50% dos pacientes, de acordo com o método de escalonamento progressivo-regressivo, foi de 9,6 ml (intervalo de confiança de 95%, IC 5,7-13,4). O cálculo do volume mínimo efetivo necessário para um bloqueio bem-sucedido em 95% dos pacientes (VE95) com a análise de transformação probit e regressão logística foi de 23,2 ml (IC 95%, 18,8-36,7). Conclusões: O VE50 de bupivacaína a 0,5% para abordagem retroclavicular guiada por US para o bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular foi de 9,6 ml e o VE95 calculado foi de 23,2 ml. Estudos futuros são necessários para o bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular com diferentes abordagens, outros anestésicos locais e diferentes concentrações de bupivacaína.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Upper Extremity/surgery , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 307-310, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013412


Abstract Augmentation mammoplasty is the third most frequently performed esthetic surgical procedure worldwide. Breast augmentation with prosthetic implants requires the insertion of an implant under breast tissue, which causes severe pain due to tissue extension and surgical trauma to separated tissues. In this case series, we present the successful pain management of six patients with ultrasound-guided Erector Spinae Plane block after augmentation mammoplasty. In the operating room, all patients received standard monitoring. While the patients were sitting, the anesthesiologist performed bilateral ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block at the level of T5. Bupivacaine (0.25%, 20 mL) was injected deep to the erector spinae muscle. Then, induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium bromide. All patients received intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol for analgesia. The mean operation time was 72.5±6 min and none of the patients received additional fentanyl. The mean pain scores of the patients were 1, 2, 2, and 2 at the postoperative 5th, 30th, 60th and 120th minutes, respectively. At the postoperative 24th hour, the mean Numerical Rating Scale score was 1. The mean intravenous tramadol consumption was 70.8±15.3 mg in the first 24 h. None of the patients had any complications related to erector spinae plane block.

Resumo A mamoplastia de aumento é o terceiro procedimento cirúrgico estético mais feito em todo o mundo. A cirurgia com implantes protéticos requer a inserção de um implante sob o tecido mamário, o que causa dor intensa devido à extensão do tecido e trauma cirúrgico aos tecidos separados. Nesta série de casos, apresentamos o manejo bem-sucedido da dor em seis pacientes com bloqueio do plano eretor da espinha guiado por ultrassom (US-ESP) após mamoplastia de aumento. Na sala de cirurgia, todas as pacientes receberam monitoramento padrão. Enquanto as pacientes estavam sentadas, o anestesiologista fez o bloqueio US-ESP bilateral no nível de T5. Bupivacaína (0,25%, 20 mL) foi injetada entre os músculos romboide maior e eretor da espinha. Em seguida, a indução anestésica foi feita com propofol, fentanil e rocurônio. Todas as pacientes receberam dexcetoprofeno trometamol por via venosa para analgesia. O tempo médio de operação foi de 72,5 ± 6 minutos e nenhuma das pacientes recebeu fentanil adicional. Os escores médios de dor das pacientes foram 1, 2, 2 e 2 no 5°, 30°, 60° e 120° minutos de pós-operatório, respectivamente. No 24° dia de pós-operatório, o escore médio da Escala de Avaliação Numérica (NRS) foi 1. O consumo médio de tramadol foi de 40 ± 33,4 mg nas primeiras 24 horas. Nenhuma das pacientes apresentou complicações relacionadas ao bloqueio US-ESP.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Breast Implantation/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Paraspinal Muscles , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(3): 284-291, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020964


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography is currently used in investigating many vascular diseases, especially for guiding vascular access. OBJECTIVE: The objective here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the effects of ultrasound-guided vascular access as an intervention approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the effects of ultrasound guidance as a therapeutic approach towards performing any vascular access. The key characteristics and results of all the reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Three SRs on venous access at all ages and one review on arterial access in pediatric participants were included. There was low to moderate certainty of evidence that ultrasound increased the success rate from the first puncture and the overall success rate of the procedure; and reduced the total rate of perioperative and postoperative adverse events, number of punctures, time needed to achieve success and rate of failure to place catheters. CONCLUSION: Evidence of low to moderate quality showed that ultrasound-guided vascular access seems to reduce the total rate of perioperative and postoperative complications/adverse effects, number of punctures, time needed to achieve success and rate of failure to perform venous catheterization in adults and arterial punctures in children. There is a lack of information regarding ultrasound-guided arterial puncture in adults. Further studies are still imperative for reaching solid conclusions, especially regarding arterial ultrasound-guided access.

Humans , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Vascular Access Devices , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 204-207, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003396


Abstract Objective: The aim of this report is to represent the role of the use of bedside ultrasound by the anesthesiologist, offering an individualized approach to the specific condition of the patient, without unnecessary postponement of femur fracture surgical repair in the elderly. Case report: Female patient, 86 years old, hypertensive, victim of trochanteric fracture of the femur, taken to the operating room after being released by cardiology service. A bedside ultrasound exam allowed the identification of aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, carotid stenosis, and signs of hypovolemia. From these findings, it was decided to use an ultrasound-guided block of the nerves femoral and lateral cutaneous of the thigh as an anesthetic technique. Conclusions: The use of ultrasound guidance by the anesthesiologist can provide relevant information for individualizing the anesthetic technique, without postponing the surgical intervention, which usually occurs when the patient is referred for complete examination by the specialist.

Resumo Objetivo: Exemplificar o papel do emprego da ultrassonografia à beira do leito pelo anestesiologista e oferecer uma abordagem individualizada para a condição específica do paciente, sem que haja postergação desnecessária de correções cirúrgicas de fraturas de fêmur em idosos. Relato do caso: Paciente feminina, 86 anos, hipertensa, vítima de fratura trocantérica de fêmur, levada ao bloco cirúrgico após liberação cardiológica. O exame ultrassonográfico à beira do leito possibilitou a identificação de estenose aórtica, hipertrofia ventricular esquerda, estenose de carótida e indícios de hipovolemia. A partir desses achados, decidiu-se pelo bloqueio nos nervos femoral e cutâneo lateral da coxa guiado pela ultrassonografia como técnica anestésica. Conclusão: O uso da ultrassonografia direcionada à beira do leito pelo anestesiologista pode fornecer informações relevantes para a individualização da técnica anestésica, sem que haja postergação da intervenção cirúrgica, a qual comumente ocorre quando o paciente é referenciado para exame completo pelo especialista.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Ultrasonography/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Preoperative Care/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Nerve Block/methods
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 144-151, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003406


Abstract Background and objective: Thoracic paravertebral blockade is an alternative regional technique for comforting post-thoracotomy pain, thereby decreasing opioid consumption, postoperative nausea and vomiting, dizziness, respiratory depression and health care costs. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bupivacaine and bupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain score and analgesic consumption in thoracotomy patients who had undergone ultrasonography-guided paravertebral blockade. Material and method: 93 ASA I-II patients aged 18-65 years were included in the study and scheduled for thoracic surgery. Prior to anesthesia induction, the paravertebral blockade procedure was performed by an anesthetist with ultrasonography. Cases were randomly stratified into three groups. The paravertebral blockade procedure was performed with 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine injection in Group B (n = 31) and 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 1 mL dexmedetomidine (100 µg) injection in Group BD. Group C received postoperative i.v. morphine via patient-controlled analgesia without paravertebral blockade. Post-operative pain scores were recorded in the recovery room and post-operatively using a VAS. Hemodynamic parameters, adverse effects and morphine consumption were also recorded. Results: No significant difference was determined between Group B and Group C regarding intra-operative adverse effects such as bradicardia and hypotension, while these adverse effects were significantly higher in Group BD (p = 0.04). VAS scores with rest and upon movement were significantly lower in Group BD compared to Group C (p < 0.001). Total morphine consumption was significantly lower in both Group B and Group BD in comparison with Group C (p < 0.001). In Group BD, HR and MAP were lower, but this was not clinically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine lowers postoperative pain scores and morphine consumption in thoracotomy patients who receive ultrasonography guided paravertebral blockade.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: O bloqueio paravertebral torácico é uma técnica regional opcional para o alívio da dor pós-toracotomia, deste modo diminui o consumo de opioides, náuseas e vômitos no pós-operatório, tontura, depressão respiratória e custos com saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos de bupivacaína isolada e bupivacaína + dexmedetomidina no escore de dor pós-operatória e no consumo de analgésicos em pacientes submetidos à toracotomia sob bloqueio paravertebral guiado por ultrassom. Material e método: Noventa e três pacientes, ASA I-II, com idades entre 18 e 65 anos, foram incluídos no estudo e programados para cirurgia torácica. Antes da indução anestésica, o procedimento de bloqueio paravertebral foi realizado por um anestesista com o uso de ultrassom. Os casos foram estratificados aleatoriamente em três grupos. O procedimento de bloqueio paravertebral foi realizado com injeção de 20 mL de bupivacaína a 0,5% no Grupo B (n = 31) e de 20 mL de bupivacaína a 0,5% + 1 mL de dexmedetomidina (100 µg) no Grupo BD. O Grupo C recebeu morfina intravenosa via analgesia controlada pelo paciente sem bloqueio paravertebral. Os escores de dor pós-operatória foram registrados na sala de recuperação e no pós-operatório usando a escala VAS. Parâmetros hemodinâmicos, efeitos adversos e consumo de morfina também foram registrados. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos B e C em relação a efeitos adversos intraoperatórios, como bradicardia e hipotensão, enquanto esses efeitos adversos foram significativamente maiores no Grupo BD (p = 0,04). Os escores VAS em repouso e movimento foram significativamente menores no Grupo BD em relação ao Grupo C (p < 0,001). O consumo total de morfina foi significativamente menor nos grupos B e BD em comparação com o Grupo C (p < 0,001). No Grupo BD, a frequência cardíaca e a pressão arterial média foram menores, mas esse resultado não foi clinicamente significativo (p < 0,05). Conclusão: A adição de dexmedetomidina à bupivacaína reduz os escores de dor pós-operatória e o consumo de morfina em pacientes submetidos à toracotomia sob bloqueio paravertebral guiado por ultrassom.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Thoracotomy/methods , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/administration & dosage , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Morphine/administration & dosage
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 458-464, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014247


Background: Placing central venous lines under ultrasonographic guidance reduces the complications of the procedure. Aim: To compare prevalences of complications of central venous line placements with or without ultrasonographic guidance. Material and Methods: Descriptive study that contemplated the comparison of two groups of patients subjected to a central venous line placement at a nephrology service for renal replacement therapy. In one group of 100 patients, the line was placed without ultrasonographic guidance between 2008 and 2012. Between 2015 and 2017 the line was placed in 138 patients using ultrasonographic guidance. The prevalences of complications with both types of procedures were recorded. Results: The frequency of complications of procedures with and without ultrasonographic guidance was 0.7 and 18% respectively (prevalence ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval 0-0.3). Ninety five percent of recorded complications were arterial puncture, followed by hematomas in 10% and pneumothorax in 5%. The higher prevalence of complications was observed in emergency line placement without ultrasonographic guidance. There was a direct association between the number of line placement attempts in a single procedure and the prevalence of complications. Conclusions: Ultrasonographic guidance is associated with a reduction in the prevalence of central venous line complications.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/instrumentation , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Dialysis/instrumentation , Renal Dialysis/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Sex Distribution , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/epidemiology
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 45-53, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004748


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Both postoperative pain control and range of motion are important in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, in the literature, there is little comparison of peripheral nerve blocks and periarticular infiltration techniques using levobupivacaine. The aim of our study was to measure pain with visual analogue scale (VAS) and knee range of motion (ROM) between in patients undergoing adductor canal block (ACB) for TKA using levobupivacaine compared to periarticular levobupivacaine infiltration (PAI-L). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized clinical trial in a university hospital. METHODS: Patients aged 40-85 years who underwent unilateral TKA were included; 39 were treated withperiarticular infiltration using 40 ml (0.125 mg) of levobupivacaine (PAI-L group); and 40 were treated with ACB using 20 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine (ACB-L group). Postoperative pain scores at rest and during active physical therapy were assessed using a VAS, along with knee ROM in flexion and extension. In addition, 100-foot walking time results, total morphine consumption and time of first analgesia requirement were recorded postoperatively. RESULTS: VAS scores at rest and during active physical therapy and the total amount of morphine consumed were lower in the ACB-L group than in the PAI-L group (P < 0.05). In contrast, knee ROM in flexion and extension and 100-foot walking times were greater in the PAI-L group than in the ACB-L group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: ACB-L was superior to PAI-L regarding pain treatment after TKA; however, PAI-L was superior to ACB-L regarding postoperative ROM and walking ability. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ACTRN-12618000438257.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Levobupivacaine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Range of Motion, Articular/drug effects , Range of Motion, Articular/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Walk Test/methods , Injections, Intramuscular
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(3)2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053180


One of the rarest complications of the hepatic trauma is a biloma, defined as an abnormal bile collection outside the biliary tree, with intra or extrahepatic localization. Patients with biloma do not present with specific clinical features, which demands a challenging radiological diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of biloma due to blunt hepatic trauma, in which the patient experienced a changing symptomatic spectrum after surgery and had an interesting radiological investigation. The clinical course, imaging features, and management of this case are discussed. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Biliary Tract/injuries , Suction/methods , Biliary Tract/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods