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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(3): 1-14, sept. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292471

ABSTRACT

The accuracy of internal organ volume estimation done with ultrasound (US) was found to be multifactorial. Hence, we aimed to describe and validate the volume assessment of ultrasound and standard volume estimation formulae for different shaped intra-abdominal organs using spleens and kidneys.Dissected cadaveric kidneys (n=25) and spleens (n=29) were scanned to obtain linear measurements and ultrasound auto-generated volumes (USV). Linear measurements were used to calculate the volumes manually with ellipsoid, prolate, and Lambert volume estimating formulae. The actual volumes (AV) of organs were obtained by the water displacement method. Volume assessment accuracy of USV and different formulae were compared by comparing bias, precision and Bland-Altman plot analysis. The US linear and volume measurement procedure was reliable with high inter and intra-observer agreements (linear: Chronbach's α=0.983 to 0.934; volumes: Chronbach's α=0.989). USV estimates were accurate with a high correlation to AV and low estimation bias (-5.9%). Also, prolate (bias=-0.75%) and ellipsoid formulae (bias=-3.75%) were reliable with a negligible bias in estimated volumes. Contrary, the Lambert formula was unreliable due to a high bias (41.6%). For all evaluated methods, the estimation error found to be related to the organ size (T=3.483; p=0.001), mainly when the assessed organ is larger than 50 ml. Also, the shape related estimation error found to be related to the volume estimation formula used.This study has validated the USV for kidney and splenic volume assessments while describing volume-calculating formula employed, organ size and shape as significant contributors for volume estimation accuracy.


Se encontró que la precisión de la estimación del volumen de órganos internos realizada con ultrasonido (US) es multifactorial. El objetivo fue describir y validar la evaluación de volumen mediante ecografía y las fórmulas estándar de estimación de volumen para órganos intraabdominales de diferentes formas utilizando bazos y riñones.Se evaluaron riñones cadavéricos disecados (n = 25) y bazos (n = 29) para obtener medidas lineales y volúmenes autogenerados por ultrasonido (USV). Se utilizaron medidas lineales para calcular los volúmenes manualmente con fórmulas de estimación de volumen elipsoide, prolate y Lambert. Los volúmenes reales (AV) de los órganos se obtuvieron mediante el método de desplazamiento de agua. Se comparó la precisión de la evaluación del volumen de USV y diferentes fórmulas comparando el sesgo, la precisión y el análisis de la gráfica de Bland-Altman. El procedimiento de medición lineal y de volumen mediante US fue confiable con alta concordancia inter e intraobservadores (lineal: α de Chronbach = 0,983 a 0,934; volúmenes: α de Chronbach = 0,989). Las estimaciones de USV fueron precisas con una alta correlación con AV y un bajo sesgo de estimación (-5,9%). Además, las fórmulas prolate (sesgo= -0,75%) y elipsoide (sesgo = -3,75%) fueron confiables con un sesgo insignificante en los volúmenes estimados. Por el contrario, la fórmula de Lambert no fue confiable debido a un alto sesgo (41,6%). Para todos los métodos evaluados, se encontró que el error de estimación estaba relacionado con el tamaño del órgano (T = 3.483; p = 0.001), principalmente cuando el órgano evaluado es mayor de 50 ml. Además, se encontró que el error de estimación de forma está relacionado con la fórmula de estimación de volumen utilizada.Este estudio ha validado el USV para evaluaciones de volumen renal y esplénico al mismo tiempo que describe la fórmula de cálculo de volumen empleada, el tamaño y la forma de los órganos como contribuyentes significativos de la precisión de la estimación de volumen.


Subject(s)
Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Spleen/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology
2.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42: e20200014, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289599

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the frequency of urinary complaints, bladder globe, and need for bladder relief catheterization according to ultrasound; to investigate the relationship between the urinary volume estimated by ultrasound and the one drained in catheterization; and to describe the relationship of patient's complaints and detection of bladder globe with the diagnosis of urinary retention. Method A cross-sectional study with clinical patients with suspected urinary retention in a tertiary hospital, conducted from February to September 2018. Urinary volume ≥500 mL in ultrasound was considered urinary retention. Results Two hundred and five evaluations were performed in 44 patients. Urinary retention was detected by ultrasound in 33.2% of the evaluations. There was a strong correlation between ultrasound and bladder catheterization. There was a higher frequency of identification of bladder globe in urinary volumes ≥300 mL. Conclusion The incidence of urinary retention was higher when ultrasound was used for the diagnosis, when compared to patient's complaint and physical examination. Ultrasound showed to be accurate in establishing urinary volume.


RESUMEN Objetivo Describir la frecuencia de las quejas urinarias, el globo vesical y la necesidad del cateterismo de la vejiga por ultrasonido; verificar la relación entre el volumen urinario estimado por ultrasonido y drenado en el cateterismo y describir la relación entre las quejas de los pacientes y la detección de globo vesical y el diagnóstico de retención urinaria. Método Estudio transversal con pacientes clínicos con sospecha de retención urinaria, realizado entre febrero y septiembre de 2018 en un hospital de nivel terciario. El volumen urinario ≥500 mL en el ultrasonido se consideró retención urinaria. Resultados Se realizaron 205 evaluaciones en 44 pacientes. La retención urinaria se detectó por ultrasonido en el 33,2% de las evaluaciones. Hubo una fuerte correlación entre el ultrasonido y el cateterismo vesical. Se registró una mayor frecuencia de identificación de globo vesical en volúmenes urinarios superiores a 300 mL. Conclusión La incidencia de la RU fue mayor cuando se empleó ultrasonografía para el diagnóstico, comparado con la queja del paciente y el examen físico. La ultrasonografía se mostró precisa en determinar el volumen urinario.


RESUMO Objetivos Descrever frequência de queixas urinárias, globo vesical e necessidade de cateterismo vesical de alívio a partir da realização da ultrassonografia; verificar relação entre volume urinário estimado pela ultrassonografia e drenado no cateterismo e descrever relação entre queixas dos pacientes e detecção de globo vesical com o diagnóstico de retenção urinária. Método Estudo transversal com pacientes clínicos com suspeita de retenção urinária, no período de fevereiro a setembro de 2018, em um hospital terciário. Volume urinário ≥500mL na ultrassonografia foi considerado retenção urinária. Resultados Realizaram-se 205 avaliações, em 44 pacientes. Detectou-se retenção urinária pela ultrassonografia em 33,2% das avaliações. Houve forte correlação entre ultrassonografia e cateterismo vesical. Verificou-se maior frequência de identificação de globo vesical em volumes urinários ≥300mL. Conclusão Incidência de retenção urinária foi maior quando a ultrassonografia foi empregada para o diagnóstico, quando comparado à queixa do paciente e exame físico. Ultrassonografia mostrou-se precisa em determinar volume urinário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Physical Examination , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Retention/diagnosis , Ultrasonography/methods , Hospitals, University , Nurses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Safety
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2609-2620, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150041

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de tiroides representa un 1% del total de todos los tipos de cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres. Se utilizan medios diagnósticos para definir que paciente operar y la estrategia terapéutica a seguir. Objetivo: evaluar el resultado de los medios diagnósticos en los pacientes operados de cáncer de tiroides. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y observacional que incluye todos los pacientes operados de cáncer tiroides en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Universitario "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández", en el período desde enero de 1993 a diciembre del 2018. Se confeccionó una planilla pararecopilar la información para el estudio de la base de datos y los resultados se presentaron en tablas de frecuencia, números y porciento. Resultados: el cáncer de tiroides fue más frecuente en el grupo etario de 31 a 50 años, predomino el sexo femenino, la variedad histológica papilar fue la más frecuente, el ultrasonido y la citología con aguja fina aportan resultados favorables para definir la estirpe biológica de los tumores del tiroides, no comportándose de igual forma la biopsia por congelación. Conclusiones: el cáncer de tiroides es más frecuente en pacientes relativamente jóvenes, del sexo femenino y de variedad papilar. El ultrasonido y la citología con aguja fina aportan criterios beneficiosos para definir conducta terapéutica (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: thyroid cancer represents 1% of the total of all kinds of cancer. Its incidence seems to increase 4% every year, and at the present time it is the eighth more frequent cancer in women. Diagnostic means are used to determine what patient undergoes a surgery and the therapeutic strategy to follow. Objective: to evaluate the results of the diagnostic means used in patients who undergo a thyroid cancer surgery. Materials and methods: a retrospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out including all patients who underwent a surgery of thyroid cancer in the service of General Surgery of the University Hospital ¨Comandante Faustino Perez Hernandez¨ in the period from January 1993 to December 2018. A form was elaborated to collect the information for the study of the database; the results were presented in charts of frequency, numbers and percentages. Results: the thyroid cancer was more frequent in the age group of 31 to 50 years; the female sex prevailed; the most frequent variety was the histological papillary one; ultrasound and fine needle cytology yield favourable results to define the biological stock of the thyroid cancers unlike the behaviour of the biopsy by freezing. Conclusions: thyroid cancer of the papillary variety is more frequent in relatively young, female patients. Ultrasound and fine needle cytology yield beneficial criteria to define the therapeutic behaviour (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Patients , Cell Biology/instrumentation , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 336-339, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sclerochoroidal calcifications (SC) are a rare and benign ocular condition characterized by yellow-white irregular subretinal lesions usually found in the supero-temporal arcade of the midperipheral fundus in middle-aged elderly men. We present a clinical case of a 79- year-old patient who during a fundus examination presented raised whitish nodules in the supero-temporal arcade in the right eye. After performing optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, ocular computed tomography and laboratory analysis, she was diagnosed with idiopathic sclerochoroidal calcifications The pathogenesis of sclerochoroidal calcifications remains unclear but systemic conditions should be discarded. It is important to distinguish sclerochoroidal calcifications from other conditions such as tumors.


Resumo Calcificações esclerocoroidais (SC) são uma condição ocular rara e benigna caracterizada por lesões sub-retinianas irregulares amarelo-brancas, geralmente encontradas na arcada superotemporal do fundo médio-periférico em homens idosos de meia-idade. Apresentamos um caso clínico de uma paciente de 79 anos que durante exame de fundo apresentou nódulos esbranquiçados elevados na arcada superotemporal do olho direito. Após realizar tomografia de coerência óptica, ultra-sonografia, tomografia computadorizada ocular e análise laboratorial, ela foi diagnosticada com calcificações esclerocoroidais idiopáticas A patogênese das calcificações esclerocoroidais permanece incerta, mas as condições sistêmicas devem ser descartadas. É importante distinguir calcificações esclerocoroidais de outras condições, como tumores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Scleral Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Choroid Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Metabolic Diseases
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(5): 2388-2397, sept.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144742

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los quistes de los conductos de Gartner, generalmente pequeños, benignos y asintomáticos, son vestigios del canal mesonéfrico de Wolff. Representan el 11 % de los quistes vaginales, esta es su localización más frecuente según la literatura consultada. Se presentó un caso operado en el Hospital Militar de Matanzas "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy", de localización en la cara posterior del istmo uterino (AU).


ABSTRAC Gartner's duct cyst, mostly little, benign and asymptomatic, are vestiges of the Wolffian mesonephric duct representing 11 % of the vaginal cysts; this location is the most frequently reported and published one up to date. The authors presented the case of a patient who underwent a surgery in the Military Hospital "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy¨ with a cyst in the posterior side of the uterine isthmus (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Wolffian Ducts/abnormalities , Cysts/epidemiology , Uterus/abnormalities , Wolffian Ducts/surgery , Ultrasonography/methods , Cysts/surgery , Cysts/diagnosis
6.
Medisan ; 24(5) tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1135208

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El diagnóstico eficaz y precoz del cáncer vesical es de extrema importancia para lograr un tratamiento potencialmente curativo y, con ello, elevar la supervivencia de los afectados. Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos ecográficos y tomográficos en pacientes con tumores malignos de vejiga. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 250 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de cáncer vesical a los cuales se les había realizado previamente ecografía y tomografía en el Servicio de Imagenología del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2017. Resultados: En la serie resultaron más frecuentes los hombres mayores de 60 años. Al analizar los hallazgos ecográficos se obtuvo un predominio de la estructura ecogénica, así como de los tumores bien definidos, mayores de 3 cm y vascularizados, además de otras características como calcificaciones, necrosis, adenopatías e infiltración en estructuras vecinas. En la tomografía se observaron mayormente la estructura mixta, los tumores captantes y prácticamente las mismas características encontradas en la ecografía, de manera que hubo una coincidencia casi absoluta entre ambos medios diagnósticos. Conclusiones: La imagen ecográfica del cáncer de vejiga es ecogénica y mixta en comparación con la tomográfica, lo que posibilita un diagnóstico indiscutible de la enfermedad; no obstante, la tomografía perfila las características y los detalles coherentes en correspondencia con los hallazgos aportados por otras técnicas imagenológicas.


Introduction: The effective and early diagnosis of vesical cancer is of extreme importance to achieve a potentially healing treatment and, with it, to elevate the survival in those affected. Objective: To describe the echographic and tomographic findings in patients with bladder malignancies. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 250 patients with confirmed diagnosis of vesical cancer was carried out to whom had been previously performed echography and tomography in the Imagenology Service of the Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2013 to December, 2017. Results: In the series men over 60 years were more frequent. When analyzing the echographic findings there was prevalence of the echogenic structure, as well as of the bigger than 3 cm and vascularized very well defined tumors, besides other characteristics as calcifications, necrosis, adenopathies and infiltration in close structures. In the tomography the mixed image, captant tumors and practically the same characteristics found in the echography were mostly observed, so that there was an almost absolute coincidence between both diagnostic means. Conclusions: The echographic image of bladder cancer is echogenic and mixed in comparison with the tomographic image, what facilitates an unquestionable diagnosis of the disease; nevertheless, the tomography profiles the characteristics and the coherent details in correspondence with the findings contributed by other imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Neoplasm Metastasis
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 243-246, July-Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Endometriosis is defined as endometrial glands and stroma that occur outside the uterine cavity. Although not malignant, ectopic endometrial tissue and the resulting inflammation can cause dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, chronic pain, and infertility. The diagnostic imaging tests most used are nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) and ultrasonography (USG). Methods: Correlate the findings of three-dimensional anorectal ultrasound with the NMR findings of the pelvis with intestinal preparation in women with deep endometriosis, through a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study, evaluating 63 female patients with suspected deep endometriosis with probable involvement intestinal. The evaluation period was from March 2016 to April 2018. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa agreement to assess the degree of agreement between 3D NMR and USG in relation to the degree of infiltration in the rectal muscle layer, with a confidence interval of 0.272-0.579, p < 0.001. Results and conclusion: According to the results presented, three-dimensional anorectal ultrasonography proved to be a good diagnostic test in the evaluation of the middle and posterior compartments of deep lesions of endometriosis, and there was a correlation between the NMR findings of the pelvis with intestinal preparation in relation to injuries that invade the muscularis propria of the rectum.


Resumo Introdução: A endometriose é definida como glândulas endometriais e estroma que ocorrem fora da cavidade uterina. Embora não maligno, tecido endometrial ectópico e a inflamação resultante podem causar dismenorreia, dispareunia, dor crônica e infertilidade. Exames de diagnóstico por imagem mais utilizados são Ressonância Nuclear Magnética e ultrassonografia. Métodos: Correlacionar os achados da ultrassonografia anorretal tridimensional com os achados da ressonância magnética nuclear de pelve com preparo intestinal em mulheres portadoras de endometriose profunda, através de um estudo retrospectivo, observacional, transversal, avaliou 63 pacientes do sexo feminino com suspeita de endometriose profunda com provável acometimento intestinal. O período de avaliação foi Março de 2016 a Abril de 2018. Foi realizada análise estatística por meio do Coeficiente de Concordância de Kappa para se avaliar o grau de concordância entre RNM × USG 3D em relação ao grau de infiltração na camada muscular retal com cálculo de intervalo de confiança de 0,272-0,579; p < 0,001. Resultados e conclusão: Segundo os resultados apresentados a ultrassonografia anorretal tridimensional mostrou-se um bom exame diagnóstico na avaliação dos compartimentos médio e posterior de lesões profundas de endometriose e há correlação entre os achados da ressonância magnética nuclear de pelve com preparo intestinal em relação a lesões que invadem a muscular própria do reto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Endometriosis/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
8.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e976, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126769

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las malformaciones congénitas renales y de las vías urinarias, constituyen la causa más frecuente de la enfermedad renal crónica en niños menores de 5 años. La ultrasonografía renal, se contempla en la actualidad, en el estudio inicial ante la sospecha de enfermedad renal crónica secundaria a malformaciones congénitas renales y de vías urinarias. Objetivo: Identificar los hallazgos sonográficos sugestivos de anomalías renales en los primeros seis meses de vida. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal en niños nacidos entre julio de 2014 y junio de 2015 en el municipio de Santa Clara, con ultrasonido renal prenatal normal. A los 672 niños estudiados, previo consentimiento informado, se les realizó ultrasonido renal en algún momento dentro de los seis primeros meses de vida, lo que permitió identificar a los niños con alteraciones sonográficas sugerentes de algún tipo de anomalías del desarrollo renal. Se continuaron los estudios, según protocolos establecidos, para definir el tipo de malformación congénita renal y de vías urinarias. Resultados: El 5,95 por ciento (40 pacientes) presentaron alguna alteración sonográfica. La hidronefrosis se identificó en el 27,50 por ciento. La ectopia renal y la asimetría renal estuvieron presentes en el 15,00 por ciento de los pacientes. El 10,00 por ciento presentó agenesia renal. El 22, 5 por ciento de los pacientes con hidronefrosis tenían reflujo vesicoureteral. Conclusiones: La hidronefrosis constituye una alteración sonográfica frecuente en pacientes con malformaciones congénitas renales, sobre todo del tipo de reflujo vesicoureteral. Dentro de las alteraciones de tamaño, posición y forma, la ectopia renal constituye la anomalía del desarrollo renal más frecuente(AU)


Introduction: Renal congenital and urinary tract´s malformations represent the most frequent cause of chronical kidney disease in children under five years old. The renal ultrasound it is nowadays included in the initial study while suspecting chronical kidney disease as a consequence of renal congenital and urinary tract´s malformations. Objective: To identify sonographic findings that suggest renal anomalies in the first six months of life. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study in children that were born from July, 2014 to June, 2015 in Santa Clara municipality having a normal prenatal renal ultrasound. The 672 children studied with previous informed consent had a renal ultrasound in the first six months of life which allowed to identify the children with sonographic alterations suggestive to any kind of renal development´s anomalies. The studies were conducted under the established protocols to define the kind of renal congenital and urinary tract´s malformation. Results: 5.5 percent (40 patients) presented any kind of sonographic alteration. Hydronephrosis was identified in 27.50 percent of the patients. Renal ectopy and renal asymmetry were present in the 15.00 percent of the patients. 10.00 percent presented renal agenesis. 22.5 percent of the patients with hydronephrosis had vesicoureteral reflux. Conclusions: Hydronephrosis represents a frequent sonographic alteration in patients with congenital renal malformations, mostly the vesicoureteral reflux type. Among the size, position and shape alterations, renal ectopy is the most frequent renal development´s anomaly(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/abnormalities , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 144-150, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129376

ABSTRACT

El cuadro clínico de la enfermedad conocida como COVID-19, causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 puede variar desde síntomas respiratorios leves hasta una insuficiencia respiratoria severa. Sus efectos en el organismo, especialmente la afección pulmonar, pueden ser visualizados a través de los estudios por imágenes. Si bien el diagnóstico de certeza se confirma mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa reversa (RT-PCR), los estudios por imágenes, especialmente la radiografía y la tomografía computarizada (TC) de tórax, desempeñan un papel fundamental en el manejo clínico de estos pacientes. Conocer su utilidad, casos de uso y hallazgos esperables brinda herramientas para el equipo de salud, temas que serán abordados en esta actualización y guía práctica. (AU)


The clinical pattern of the disease known as COVID-19, caused by the new coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 can range from mild respiratory symptoms to severe respiratory failure. Its effects on the body, especially the lung condition, can be visualized through imaging studies. While the diagnosis of certainty is confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), imaging studies, especially chest xray and computed tomography (CT), play a critical role in the clinical management of these patients. Knowing their usefulness, use cases, and expected findings provides tools for the health care team, topics that will be addressed in this update, and practical guide. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ultrasonography/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
11.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(1): 23-29, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125778

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: el absceso del psoas ilíaco es una entidad poco frecuente y de etiología variable. Su ubicación y cuadro clínico inespecífico la convierte en una entidad de difícil diagnóstico para el cirujano general. La oportunidad de tratar una serie de casos en un período de tiempo relativamente corto para este tipo de patología motivan esta comunicación. Objetivo: a partir de una serie consecutiva de casos, analizar etiología, clínica, y enfoque diagnóstico terapéutico, con especial énfasis en el drenaje percutáneo , como así también una sucinta revisión de la bibliografía reciente. Material y métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo de una serie consecutiva de casos Resultados: la serie consta de 6 casos, 5 de tipo primario y 1 de tipo secundario. La signos más frecuentes fueron el dolor, la impotencia funcional y la leucocitosis. La Tomografía axial computada de abdomen con y sin contraste fue el método diagnóstico de elección. El drenaje percutáneo fue el tratamiento de elección en 5 casos (83,3%) mientras que en el restante se optó por antibioticoterapia y el drenaje de una colección adyacente. La evolución de todos los casos fue favorable. Conclusión: el absceso de psoas ilíaco es una patología que necesita un alto nivel de sospecha dada su clínica inespecífica. Para su diagnóstico, junto acon la clínica la Tomografía es el método de elección. El drenaje percutáneo de las colecciones bajo control tomográfico es un opción segura y eficaz para el tratamiento de esta entidad.


Background: The of the iliopsoas abscess is a rare entity with a variable etiology. Its location and nonspecific clinical features makes it becomes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the general surgeon. The opportunity to treat a series of cases in a relatively short period of time motivates this communication. Objective: From a consecutive case series, we analyze etiology, clinical features , as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, with special emphasis on percutaneous drainage, as well as a brief review of recent literature. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of six patients diagnosed with an ilipsoas abscess in a tertiary care center. Results: The series consists of 6 cases, 5 of primary type and 1 of secondary type. Pain, Limp and leucocitosis were the more prevalent signs; computed tomography of the abdomen was the diagnostic method of choice. Percutaneous drainage was the therapeutic option in 5 cases (83.3%), while in the remaining, antibiotic therapy and the drainage of an adjacent collection were indicated. The evolution of all cases was favorable with no mortality nor morbidity. Conclusion: The iliac psoas abscess is a pathology that needs a high level of suspicion given its nonspecific presentation. For diagnosis, together with the clinic, computed tomography is the method of choice. Percutaneous drainage of collection under tomographic control is a safe and effective option for the treatment of this entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Psoas Abscess/diagnosis , Psoas Abscess/etiology , Psoas Abscess/drug therapy , Argentina/epidemiology , Administration, Cutaneous , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Drainage , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 40-48, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1088936

ABSTRACT

A ultrassonografia é um exame complementar não invasivo ainda pouco utilizado na avaliação prepucial e sem descrições detalhadas da parte livre do pênis (PLP) de bovinos. Este estudo objetivou padronizar a ultrassonografia prepucial em bovinos hígidos da raça Nelore com um ano de idade e, para tanto, descreveu o aspecto da lâmina interna prepucial (LIP) e da PLP, determinando as principais janelas acústicas, a viabilidade da utilização de contraste no lúmen da cavidade prepucial (LCP) e o melhor posicionamento do animal para a realização do exame. O escaneamento foi realizado com os animais na posição quadrupedal e em decúbito lateral direito. Foram determinadas cinco janelas acústicas a partir do óstio até a identificação do recesso prepucial. Os escaneamentos foram realizados nos planos longitudinais, transversais e dorsais, antes e após a infiltração de solução fisiológica a 0,9% no LCP. Como conclusões, o exame ultrassonográfico permitiu identificar a LIP e a PLP em todos os planos e em todas as janelas acústicas propostas. O melhor ponto de referência é a identificação da glande. O posicionamento quadrupedal é mais adequado para a realização do exame e o uso de contraste é recomendado para delimitação topográfica das estruturas.(AU)


Ultrasonography is a noninvasive complementary exam that is still rarely used in the preputial evaluation and without detailed descriptions of the bovine free end of the penis. The purpose of this study was to standardize preputial ultrasonography in one-year-old healthy Nelore cattle, describing the main acoustic windows, the viability of using contrast in the preputial cavity and the best positioning of the animal for performing the ultrasound examination. The scanning was performed with the animals in standing and decubitus position. Five acoustic windows were determined from the preputial ostium to the preputial fornix, at the free end of the penis. The scans were performed in longitudinal, transverse and dorsal planes, before and after infiltration of 0.9% saline solution into the preputial cavity. As conclusions, the ultrasound examination is able to identify the internal layer and the free part of the penis in all proposed planes and acoustic windows. The best landmark is the identification of the glans. Furthermore, standing positioning is the most appropriate to perform the exam and the use of contrast is recommended for topographic delimitation of the structures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Penis/diagnostic imaging , Foreskin/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
13.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 24(3): e20190355, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101152

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo verificar a influência da ultrassonografia vascular, emissão de luz infravermelha e iluminação transdérmica no sucesso da cateterização intravenosa periférica; número de tentativas, tempo para a realização do procedimento, permanência do cateter in situ e ocorrência de complicações em crianças, quando comparadas ao método tradicional. Método trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura realizada no período de 2018 a 2020 na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus e Web of Science. Foram selecionados estudos originais, publicados entre 2007 e 2019, que comparassem o uso dessas tecnologias com o método tradicional da cateterização intravenosa periférica em crianças de 0 - 18 anos. Resultados de 52 estudos potenciais, 25 compuseram a amostra final, 10 relacionados ao uso da ultrassonografia vascular e 11 da luz infravermelha e 4 da iluminação transdérmica. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: o ultrassom parece ser a tecnologia mais eficaz para promover a obtenção bem sucedida da cateterização intravenosa periférica, porém há necessidade de realização de mais estudos que determinem melhor a eficácia das tecnologias estudadas na obtenção e manutenção da cateterização intravenosa periférica. Poderá propiciar práticas clínicas baseadas em evidências recentes, melhorando a qualidade da assistência à criança hospitalizada e sua família, através da promoção da segurança do paciente.


RESUMEN Objetivo verificar la influencia de la ecografía vascular, la emisión de luz infrarroja y la iluminación transdérmica en el éxito del cateterismo intravenoso periférico, el número de intentos, el tiempo para realizar el procedimiento, la permanencia del catéter in situ y la aparición de complicaciones en los niños, en comparación con el método tradicional. Método esta es una revisión de literatura integradora llevada a cabo desde 2018 hasta 2020 en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus y Web of Science. Se seleccionaron estudios originales publicados entre 2007 y 2019 que compararon el uso de estas tecnologías con el método tradicional de cateterización intravenosa periférica en niños de 0 a 18 años. Resultados De 52 estudios potenciales, 25 constituyeron la muestra final, 10 relacionados con el uso de ultrasonido vascular y 11 con luz infrarroja y 4 con iluminación transdérmica. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica el ultrasonido parece ser la tecnología más efectiva para promover el logro exitoso del cateterismo intravenoso periférico, sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios para determinar mejor la efectividad de las tecnologías estudiadas para obtener y mantener el cateterismo intravenoso periférico. Puedese proporcionar prácticas clínicas basadas en evidencia reciente, mejorando la calidad de la atención para niños hospitalizados y sus familias, promoviendo la seguridad del paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective to verify the influence of vascular ultrasound, infrared light emission, and transdermal lighting on the success of peripheral intravenous catheterization, number of attempts, time to perform the procedure, catheter stay in situ and occurrence of complications in children, when compared to the traditional method. Method this is an integrative literature review carried out from 2018 to 2020 at the Virtual Health Library, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. Original studies, published between 2007 and 2019, comparing the use of these technologies with the traditional method of peripheral intravenous catheterization in children aged 0 - 18 years, were selected. Results: of 52 potential studies, 25 made up the final sample. Ten were related to vascular ultrasound use, 11 to infrared light and 4 to transdermal lighting. Conclusion and implications for practice ultrasound seems to be the most effective technology to promote the successful achievement of peripheral intravenous catheterization. However, there is a need for further studies to better determine the effectiveness of the technologies studied in obtaining and maintaining peripheral intravenous catheterization. It may provide clinical practices based on recent evidence, improving the quality of care for hospitalized children and their families, by promoting patient safety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Catheterization, Peripheral , Transillumination , Ultrasonography/methods
14.
Clinics ; 75: e1489, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Histopathology is the 'gold standard' for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma but is limited by sample size. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can differentiate malignant and benign lesions, but the Chinese guidelines on the management of renal cell carcinoma do not include this method. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic parameters of contrast-enhanced ultrasound against those of contrast-enhanced computed tomography for detecting kidney lesions, with histopathology considered the reference standard. METHODS: Patients with suspected kidney lesions from prior grayscale ultrasonography and computed tomography were included in the analysis (n=191). The contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and histopathology data were collected and analyzed. A solid, enhanced mass was considered a malignant lesion, and an unenhanced mass or cyst was considered a benign lesion. The Bosniak criteria were used to characterize the lesions. RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography both detected that 151 patients had malignant tumors and 40 patients had benign tumors. No significant differences in the tumors and their subtypes were reported between contrast-enhanced ultrasound and histopathology (p=0.804). Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was detected through contrast-enhanced computed tomography (n=1), but no such finding was reported by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. A total of 35 cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma were reported through contrast-enhanced ultrasound while 32 were reported through histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound might be safe and as accurate as histopathology in diagnosing kidney lesions, especially renal cell carcinoma. Additionally, this study provides additional information over histopathology and has an excellent safety profile. Level of evidence: III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism
15.
Clinics ; 75: e1500, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Radiographic manifestations of synovitis (e.g., erosions) can be observed only in the late stage of rheumatoid arthritis. Ultrasound is a noninvasive, cheap, and widely available technique that enables the evaluation of inflammatory changes in the peripheral joint. In the same way, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables qualitative and quantitative measurements. The objectives of the study were to compare the sensitivity and accuracy of ultrasound in detecting subclinical synovitis and tenosynovitis with those of contrast-enhanced MRI. METHODS: The ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and proximal interphalangeal joints (n=450) of 75 patients with a history of joint pain and morning stiffness between 6 weeks and 2 years were reviewed. The benefits score was evaluated for each modality. RESULTS: The ultrasonic findings showed inflammation in 346 (77%) joints, while contrast-enhanced MRI found signs of early rheumatoid arthritis in 372 (83%) joints. The sensitivities of ultrasound and contrast-enhanced MRI were 0.795 and 0.855, respectively, and the accuracies were 0.769 and 0.823, respectively. Contrast-enhanced MRI had a likelihood of 0-0.83 and ultrasound had a likelihood of 0-0.77 for detecting synovitis and tenosynovitis at one time. The two imaging modalities were equally competitive for detecting synovitis and tenosynovitis (p=0.055). CONCLUSION: Ultrasound could be as sensitive and specific as contrast-enhanced MRI for the diagnosis of subclinical synovitis and tenosynovitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Synovitis/diagnostic imaging , Tenosynovitis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Wrist Joint
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4662, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056076

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance of the prostate to estimate gland volume, comparing the results with transrectal ultrasound and surgical specimen. Methods A retrospective study of 85 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance and transrectal ultrasound (for fusion image-guided biopsy) before radical prostatectomy. Prostate measurements were obtained from magnetic resonance axial and sagittal T2-weighted images and ultrasound; the prostate volume was determined using the ellipsoid formula. The results were compared with the surgical specimen weight. Maximum interval between multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatectomy was 6 months. Results The prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 18-157cm3 (mean of 49.9cm3) and by transrectal ultrasound, 22-165cm3 (mean of 54.9cm3); the surgical specimen weight was 20-154g (mean of 48.6g), with no statistical differences. Based on the values obtained from imaging examinations, the prostate volume obtained was very close to the real prostatic weight, and the measures by multiparametric magnetic resonance were slightly more precise. Conclusion Prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound showed similar values, and excellent agreement with real prostate weight of the surgical specimens. Prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance has been increasingly used in the clinical practice, and its value enables appropriate therapeutic planning and control of patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia da ressonância magnética multiparamétrica da próstata para estimativa do volume da glândula, comparando seus resultados com a ultrassonografia transretal e correlacionando com o volume obtido da peça cirúrgica. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo incluindo 85 pacientes submetidos à ressonância magnética e, posteriormente, à ultrassonografia transretal (para orientação de biópsia com fusão de imagens) e, a seguir, à prostatectomia radical. As dimensões prostáticas foram obtidas na ressonância a partir das imagens nos planos axial e sagital em sequências ponderadas em T2 e, assim como na ultrassonografia, o volume foi calculado a partir do método da elipsoide. Os valores foram comparados com o peso prostático pós-cirúrgico. O intervalo máximo entre a ressonância e ultrassonografia e prostatectomia foi de 6 meses. Resultados O volume prostático obtido por ressonância magnética foi de 18 a 157cm3(média de 49,9cm3); pela ultrassonografia transretal, foi de 22 a 165cm3(média de 54,9cm3); e o peso da peça cirúrgica foi de 20 a 154g (média de 48,6g), sem diferenças estatísticas. A partir do valor obtido por esses métodos de imagem, provou-se que o volume prostático obtido aproximou-se bastante do peso real da próstata, com discreta maior precisão das medidas obtidas por ressonância magnética multiparamétrica. Conclusão As medidas do volume prostático adquiridas pela ressonância magnética e pela ultrassonografia transretal são semelhantes entre si, com excelente concordância com os pesos reais das próstatas obtidos das peças cirúrgicas. A avaliação desse dado, a partir da ressonância, método cada vez mais utilizado na prática clínica, permite o adequado planejamento terapêutico e o controle dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/anatomy & histology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Organ Size , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(4): 464-473, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058043

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a viabilidade da avaliação por ultrassonografia do quadríceps no pronto-socorro, e avaliar a confiabilidade intra e entre avaliadores para aquisição e análise de imagens de ultrassonografia da espessura e da ecogenicidade muscular em pacientes críticos de trauma. Métodos: Estudo de precisão diagnóstica realizado por meio de exames e avaliações feitos por profissionais de saúde com diferentes níveis de especialização. Dois examinadores (um especialista e um novato) procederam à aquisição de imagens de ultrassom de dez pacientes. Um avaliador experiente, cego quanto aos examinadores, quantificou as imagens obtidas. Em um grupo à parte de dez pacientes, dois avaliadores (um especialista e um novato) quantificaram a espessura do músculo quadríceps femoral, assim como sua ecogenicidade (métodos quadrado ou tracejado) em imagens adquiridas por um examinador. Resultados: Identificou-se excelente confiabilidade quanto à aquisição da imagem e à sua análise (coeficientes de correlação intraclasses > 0,987; p < 0,001). O erro padrão dos valores de mensurações variou de 0,01 a 0,06 cm, para a espessura muscular, e de 0,75 a 2,04 unidades arbitrárias, para ecogenicidade muscular. Os valores de ecogenicidade foram mais elevados quando se utilizou o método quadrado do que quando se utilizou o método tracejado (p = 0,003). Conclusão: A ultrassonografia é um método seguro, viável e confiável para avaliação muscular em pacientes críticos de trauma, independentemente do nível de especialização do avaliador.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the ultrasound assessment of quadriceps in the emergency setting. To assess the intra- and interrater reliability for the acquisition and analysis of ultrasound images of muscle thickness and echogenicity in critically ill trauma patients between health professionals with different levels of expertise. Methods: Diagnostic accuracy study. Two examiners (expert and novice) acquired ultrasound images from ten patients; an experienced, blinded analyst quantified the images. In a separate group of ten patients, two analysts (expert and novice) quantified quadriceps muscle thickness and echogenicity (square or trace method) from images acquired by one examiner. Results: Excellent reliability was found for image acquisition and analysis (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.987; p < 0.001). The standard error of the measurement values ranged from 0.01 - 0.06cm for muscle thickness and from 0.75 - 2.04 arbitrary units for muscle echogenicity. The coefficients of variation were < 6% for thickness and echogenicity. The echogenicity values were higher when using the square technique than when using the tracing technique (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Ultrasound is safe, feasible, and reliable for muscle assessment in critically ill trauma patients, regardless of the assessor's level of expertise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Ultrasonography/methods , Feasibility Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/adverse effects , Critical Illness , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 20(2)jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003859

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la incorporación de la ecografía a los métodos diagnósticos de los aneurismas aórticos abdominales favorece su detección precoz. Objetivo: Describir las características de los pacientes a quienes se les detectó precozmente un aneurisma aórtico abdominal. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 243 pacientes pertenecientes al área de salud del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico "General Freyre de Andrade", clasificados como población de riesgo (hombres > 50 años y mujeres > 60 años). El periodo de estudio: noviembre de 2016 a octubre de 2017. Resultados: Se realizó el diagnóstico de aneurisma aórtico abdominal en 2,1 % (n= 5); en estos pacientes prevaleció el grupo de edad de 70 a79 años (80 %) y el sexo masculino (60 %). Los factores de riesgo predominantes fueron el tabaquismo, la hipertensión arterial y la enfermedad arterial periférica, todos con igual porcentaje (100 %). El segmento aórtico más afectado fue el infrarrenal (100 %), los diámetros aórticos predominantes fueron: transversal (3-3,9 cm), longitudinal (5-10 cm) y antero-posterior (3-3,9 cm). La proteína C reactiva estuvo incrementada (mayor de 5 mg/L) en el 100 % de los casos. La claudicación intermitente fue la más frecuente. Conclusiones: A pesar de la baja prevalencia porcentual encontrada, destaca en todos los pacientes con aneurisma aórtico abdominal la presencia de factores de riesgo relevantes como es el tabaquismo, la hipertensión arterial y la enfermedad arterial periférica; incremento en la concentración de la proteína C reactiva, afectación en el segmento infrarrenal así como alto porcentaje con edades por encima de 70 años.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the population benefits from the incorporation of ultrasound to diagnostic methods due to the importance of their early detection. Objective: To describe the characteristics of patients who are early detected with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 243 patients belonging to the health area of "General Freyre de Andrade" Clinical- Surgical Hospital that were classified as a risk population (men > 50 years and women > 60 years). The study was conducted from November 2016 to October 2017. Results: The diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in 2.1 % (n= 5); in these patients predominated the age group of 70 to 79 years (80 %), male sex (60 %) and white skin color (80 %). The predominant risk factors were smoking habit, arterial hypertension and peripheral arterial disease; all with equal percentage (100 %). The most affected aortic segment was the infrarenal (100 %), the predominant aortic diameters were: transversal (3-3.9 cm), longitudinal (5-10 cm) and anterior-posterior (3-3.9 cm). The C-reactive protein increased (greater than 5 mg/L) in 100 % of the cases. Intermittent claudication was the most frequent. Conclusions: Although the percentage prevalence of the disease was low, it was present in all the patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, risk factors that are favorable to aneurysms, high concentrations of C-reactive protein, affectation in the infrarenal aortic segment, and high percentage of ages of more than 70 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/ultrastructure , Ultrasonography/methods , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 18: 1-22, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095116

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio explora evidencia sobre la evaluación de la deglución, usando la técnica de ultrasonido. En relación a la estrategia búsqueda, la revisión se desarrolló en PubMed y Scielo, utilizando una adaptación de las recomendaciones del manual Cochrane para revisiones sistemáticas. Se seleccionaron los términos "Deglutition" "Swallowing", "Ultrasonography" y "Ultrasound" en inglés y en español. Se incluyeron inicialmente estudios originales publicados entre enero del 2000 y enero del 2019. De acuerdo con los criterios de elegibilidad, se incluyeron 24 artículos originales sobre el uso de ultrasonido para evaluar algún aspecto de la deglución en las etapas oral y faríngeas. Los artículos seleccionados ofrecen datos cuantitativos de parámetros e indicadores de la deglución. A partir de estos estudios, se recogió información cualitativa y cuantitativa sobre la movilidad lingual, la elevación laríngea, la movilidad faríngea lateral, la movilidad del hioides, la movilidad del músculo genihioideo, la apertura del esfínter esofágico superior, el cierre glótico, además de estudios sobre la posibilidad de detectar episodios de penetración laríngea y aspiración. Los resultados sugieren que existe evidencia positiva sobre la utilidad del ultrasonido para evaluar la deglución, sin embargo, se requiere de más estudios que analicen la eficiencia diagnóstica en población con disfagia.


The present study explores evidence on swallowing assessment using ultrasound technique. Regarding the search strategy, the review was carried out in PubMed and Scielo, using an adaptation of the recommendations from the Cochrane manual for systematic reviews. The terms "Deglutition" "Swallowing", "Ultrasonography" and "Ultrasound" were selected in English and Spanish. Original studies published between January 2000 and January 2019 were initially selected. According to the elegibility criteria, 24 original studies dealing with the use of ultrasound to evaluate some aspect of swallowing in both oral and pharyngeal stages. Selected articles offer quantitative data on swallowing parameters and indicators. From these studies, qualitative and quantitative information on lingual mobility, laryngeal elevation, lateral pharyngeal mobility, hyoid mobility, genihyoid muscle mobility, upper esophageal sphincter opening, glotic closure was collected, in addition to studies on the possibility of detecting episodes of laryngeal penetration and aspiration. The results suggest that there is positive evidence on the usefulness of ultrasound to assess swallowing, however, more studies are required to analyze diagnostic efficiency in a population with dysphagia.


Subject(s)
Ultrasonography/methods , Deglutition/physiology
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 423-426, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vascular access and renal biopsy are common procedures in nephrology. In this study, two artisanal simulators of very low cost and excelent image quality are (prented) presented to guide, by ultrasound, the venous access and renal biopsy. Methods: The simulators are constructed using chicken breast slices, Penrose drain, plastic milk shake straw and pig kidney. Results: Both simulators enable immediate identification of the anatomical structures of interest, vessels and kidney, and enable spatial orientation and hand-eye coordination, essential for the development of the necessary skills to safely carry out invasive procedures. Conclusion: The simulators described, were extremely useful for simulating venous access and renal biopsy guided by ultrasonography, enabling training to reduce the failure rate in punctures and the potential complications associated with the described procedures.


RESUMO Introdução: O acesso vascular e a biópsia renal são procedimentos comuns na prática nefrológica. Neste estudo, são apresentados dois simuladores artesanais de baixo custo e excelente qualidade de imagem para guiar, ultrassonograficamente, o acesso venoso e a biópsia renal. Métodos: Os simuladores são construídos utilizando fatias de peito de frango, dreno de Penrose, canudo plástico milk shake e rim de porco. Resultados: Ambos os simuladores permitem a identificação imediata das estruturas anatômicas de interesse, vasos e rim, e possibilitam a orientação espacial e coordenação olho-mão, essenciais para o desenvolvimento das habilidades necessárias para realizar seguramente procedimentos invasivos. Conclusão: Os simuladores descritos, extremamente úteis para as simulações do acesso venoso e a biópsia renal guiados por ultrassonografia, possibilitam o treinamento objetivando a redução do insucesso das punções e das complicações potenciais associadas aos procedimentos descritos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ultrasonography/methods , Simulation Training/methods , Nephrologists/education , Kidney/pathology , Nephrology/education , Swine , Blood Vessels , Punctures , Chickens , Clinical Competence , Muscle, Skeletal , Image-Guided Biopsy
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