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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 171-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980994

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of short-term ketogenic diet on the low temperature tolerance of mice and the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: normal diet (WT+ND) group and ketogenic diet (WT+KD) group. After being fed with normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The changes in core temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure of mice under low temperature condition were detected, and the protein expression levels of PPARα and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were detected by Western blot. PPARα knockout mice were divided into normal diet (PPARα-/-+ND) group and ketogenic diet (PPARα-/-+KD) group. After being fed with the normal or ketogenic diet at room temperature for 2 d, the mice were exposed to 4 °C low temperature for 12 h. The above indicators were also detected. The results showed that, at room temperature, the protein expression levels of PPARα and UCP1 in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group were significantly up-regulated, compared with those of WT+ND group. Under low temperature condition, compared with WT+ND, the core temperature and blood glucose of WT+KD group were increased, while mean arterial pressure was decreased; The ketogenic diet up-regulated PPARα protein expression in brown adipose tissue, as well as UCP1 protein expression in liver and brown adipose tissue of WT+KD group. Under low temperature condition, compared to WT+ND group, PPARα-/-+ND group exhibited decreased core temperature and down-regulated PPARα and UCP1 protein expression levels in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. Compared to the PPARα-/-+ND group, the PPARα-/-+KD group exhibited decreased core temperature and did not show any difference in the protein expression of UCP1 in liver, skeletal muscle, white and brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the ketogenic diet promotes UCP1 expression by up-regulating PPARα, thus improving low temperature tolerance of mice. Therefore, short-term ketogenic diet can be used as a potential intervention to improve the low temperature tolerance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , PPAR alpha/pharmacology , Diet, Ketogenic , Uncoupling Protein 1/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Temperature , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Liver , Adipose Tissue/metabolism
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 812-829, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010993

ABSTRACT

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf is a well-established traditional Chinese botanical and culinary resource. It has found widespread application in the management of diabetes. The bioactive constituents of mulberry leaf, specifically mulberry leaf flavonoids (MLFs), exhibit pronounced potential in the amelioration of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This potential is attributed to their ability to safeguard pancreatic β cells, enhance insulin resistance, and inhibit α-glucosidase activity. Our antecedent research findings underscore the substantial therapeutic efficacy of MLFs in treating T2D. However, the precise mechanistic underpinnings of MLF's anti-T2D effects remain the subject of inquiry. Activation of brown/beige adipocytes is a novel and promising strategy for T2D treatment. In the present study, our primary objective was to elucidate the impact of MLFs on adipose tissue browning in db/db mice and 3T3-L1 cells and elucidate its underlying mechanism. The results manifested that MLFs reduced body weight and food intake, alleviated hepatic steatosis, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased lipolysis and thermogenesis in db/db mice. Moreover, MLFs activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) and induced the browning of inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) and 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing the expressions of brown adipocyte marker genes and proteins such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and beige adipocyte marker genes such as transmembrane protein 26 (Tmem26), thereby promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanistically, MLFs facilitated the activation of BAT and the induction of WAT browning to ameliorate T2D primarily through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) signaling pathway. These findings highlight the unique capacity of MLF to counteract T2D by enhancing BAT activation and inducing browning of IWAT, thereby ameliorating glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. As such, MLFs emerge as a prospective and innovative browning agent for the treatment of T2D.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Sirtuin 1/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Morus/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Signal Transduction , Adipose Tissue, White , Plant Leaves , Uncoupling Protein 1/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/metabolism
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