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1.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 161-165, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928486

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The COVID-19 pandemic has caused 1.4 million deaths globally and is associated with a 3-4 times increase in 30-day mortality after a fragility hip fracture with concurrent COVID-19 infection. Typically, death from COVID-19 infection occurs between 15 and 22 days after the onset of symptoms, but this period can extend up to 8 weeks. This study aimed to assess the impact of concurrent COVID-19 infection on 120-day mortality after a fragility hip fracture.@*METHODS@#A multi-centre prospective study across 10 hospitals treating 8% of the annual burden of hip fractures in England between 1st March and 30th April, 2020 was performed. Patients whose surgical treatment was payable through the National Health Service Best Practice Tariff mechanism for "fragility hip fractures" were included in the study. Patients' 120-day mortality was assessed relative to their peri-operative COVID-19 status. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 27.@*RESULTS@#A total of 746 patients were included in this study, of which 87 (11.7%) were COVID-19 positive. Mortality rates at 30- and 120-day were significantly higher for COVID-19 positive patients relative to COVID-19 negative patients (p < 0.001). However, mortality rates between 31 and 120-day were not significantly different (p = 0.107), 16.1% and 9.4% respectively for COVID-19 positive and negative patients, odds ratio 1.855 (95% CI 0.865-3.978).@*CONCLUSION@#Hip fracture patients with concurrent COVID-19 infection, provided that they are alive at day-31 after injury, have no significant difference in 120-day mortality. Despite the growing awareness and concern of "long-COVID" and its widespread prevalence, this does not appear to increase medium-term mortality rates after a hip fracture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1419-1428, abr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285924

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was an effort to assess the mitigation interventions carried out, so far, by the nations to fight the pandemic COVID-19. The novelty of the study was that it had considered the issue of pandemic mitigation strategy as a decision making problem. The performances of the twenty nations were to be ranked. The problem considered in the study was essentially a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) problem. The available alternatives were the 20 countries and the 8 traits were the criteria. The Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used in the present study. The study used Entropy method for assignment of weights to all the criteria. The performance score obtained in respect of the countries considered in the study and the corresponding ranks indicated the relative performances of the countries in their efforts to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that New Zealand is the best performing country and India is the worst one. Brazil ranked 17th, while the rank of UK was 15. The performance of the USA stood at 18th position.


Resumo O presente estudo foi um esforço para avaliar as intervenções de mitigação realizadas, até o momento, pelas nações para combater a pandemia COVID-19. A novidade do estudo é que considerou a questão da estratégia de mitigação da pandemia como um problema de tomada de decisão. As performances das vinte nações deveriam ser classificadas. O problema considerado no estudo era essencialmente um problema de Análise de Decisão Multi-Critério (MCDA). As alternativas disponíveis eram os 20 países e as 8 características eram os critérios. A Técnica de Similaridade de Preferência de Pedido com a Solução Ideal (TOPSIS) foi utilizada no presente estudo. O estudo utilizou o método da Entropia para atribuição de pesos a todos os critérios. A pontuação de desempenho obtida em relação aos países considerados no estudo e as classificações correspondentes indicaram os desempenhos relativos dos países em seus esforços para mitigar a pandemia COVID-19. Os resultados mostram que a Nova Zelândia é o país com melhor desempenho e a Índia o pior. O Brasil ficou em 17º, enquanto o Reino Unido ficou em 15. O desempenho dos EUA ficou na 18ª posição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Entropy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 59-78, mar. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154326

ABSTRACT

Resumo A medicina baseada em evidências (MBE) pretende aumentar a eficiência e qualidade dos serviços de saúde prestados à população e diminuir os custos operacionais dos processos de prevenção, tratamento e reabilitação. Busca identificar problemas relevantes do paciente e promover a aplicabilidade social das conclusões. O artigo ressalta a importância da MBE para o ensino e para as práticas clínicas sociais da atualidade a partir da contribuição de Archibald Cochrane e David Sackett no desenvolvimento e na difusão desse paradigma assistencial e pedagógico durante o século XX. A MBE tem contribuído para ampliar a discussão sobre as relações entre ensino e prática da medicina, assumindo papel de destaque em reformas curriculares e modelos de formação no cuidado e práticas em saúde.


Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is intended to improve the efficiency and quality of health services provided to the population and reduce the operational costs of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation; the objective of EBM is to identify relevant issues and promote the social applicability of conclusions. This article underscores the importance of EBM in modern clinical teaching and social practices from the contributions of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett to the development and dissemination of this paradigm in care and education during the twentieth century. EBM has helped broaden discussions on the relationships between teaching and medical practice, and has taken on an important role in curriculum reforms and training models and practices in health care.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Evidence-Based Medicine/history , Patient Care/history , United States , Canada , United Kingdom
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6002, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154091

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To carry out a scoping review of the meta-analyses published regarding about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), evaluating their main characteristics, publication trends and methodological quality. Methods: A bibliometric search was performed in PubMed®, Scopus and Web of Science, focusing on meta-analyses about COVID-2019 disease. Bibliometric and descriptive data for the included articles were extracted and the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses was evaluated using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Results: A total of 348 meta-analyses were considered eligible. The first meta-analysis about COVID-19 disease was published on February 26, 2020, and the number of meta-analyses has grown rapidly since then. Most of them were published in infectious disease and virology journals. The greatest number come from China, followed by the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. On average, these meta-analyses included 23 studies and 15,200 participants. Overall quality was remarkably low, and only 8.9% of them could be considered as of high confidence level. Conclusion: Although well-designed meta-analyses about COVID-19 disease have already been published, the majority are of low quality. Thus, all stakeholders playing a role in COVID-19 deseases, including policy makers, researchers, publishers and journals, should prioritize well-designed meta-analyses, performed only when the background information seem suitable, and discouraging those of low quality or that use suboptimal methods.


RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de escopo das metanálises publicadas sobre a doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), avaliando suas principais características, tendências de publicação e qualidade metodológica. Métodos: Uma busca bibliométrica foi realizada em PubMed®, Scopus e Web of Science, com foco em metanálises sobre a doença pelo COVID-19. Foram extraídos dados bibliométricos e descritivos dos artigos incluídos, e a qualidade metodológica foi avaliada usando a ferramenta A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Resultados: Um total de 348 metanálises foram consideradas elegíveis. A primeira delas foi publicada em 26 de fevereiro de 2020, e, desde então, o número dessas publicações cresceu rapidamente. A maioria foi publicada em periódicos de infectologia e virologia. Grande parte é proveniente da China, seguida dos Estados Unidos, da Itália e do Reino Unido. Em média, as metanálises incluíram 23 estudos e 15.200 participantes. Em geral, a qualidade metodológica foi baixa, e apenas 8,9% delas podem ser consideradas de algum grau de confiabilidade Conclusão: Embora algumas metanálises bem conduzidas sobre a doença pelo COVID-19 tenham sido publicadas, a maioria apresenta baixa qualidade. Todos os envolvidos na abordagem da doença pelo COVID-19, incluindo formuladores de políticas, pesquisadores, editoras e periódicos, devem dar prioridade a metanálises de alta qualidade, realizadas apenas quando os dados são viáveis, e desencorajar as de baixa qualidade ou conduzidas com métodos subótimos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bibliometrics , COVID-19 , United States , China , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United Kingdom , Italy
7.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 231-236, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888417

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#As COVID-19 spreads globally and affects people's health, there are concerns that the pandemic and control policies may have psychological effects on young people (age from 17 to 35 years). This psychological impact might vary in different countries, and thus we compared the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress, loneliness and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among young people in the United Kingdom (UK) and China at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.@*METHODS@#Data of this study came from two sources. One source was the first wave of COVID-19 study in Understanding Society, a special wave of the UK household longitudinal study, which provided the high-quality, national-wide representative panel data. The sample comprised 1054 young people. The other source was an online survey on the mental health of 1003 young people from Shanghai, a highly developed area in China. The questionnaire included questions on the prevalence of common mental disorders (cut-off score ≥ 4), loneliness and potential PTSS (cut-off ≥ 33). Univariable analyses were conducted to test the differences in the self-reported prevalence of psychological distress and loneliness between the two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were run to explore the predictors of psychological distress and loneliness among all the young people from England and Shanghai.@*RESULTS@#Among the samples with self-reported psychological distress, the UK sample accounted for 34.4% (n=1054) and the Chinese sample accounted for 14.1% (n=1003). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Additionally, 57.1% of people in the UK and 46.7% in China reported that they sometimes or often felt lonely, of which the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Regression analysis of the entire samples showed that nationality, gender, psychotherapy and loneliness were significant predictors of 12-item General Health Questionnaire scores, while the variables of age and living alone were not. Significant predictors of self-reported loneliness were the nationality, gender, age, living alone and psychotherapy. In China, 123 (12.3%) young people, 49 men (11.3%) and 74 women (13.0%), met the criteria of PTSS symptoms (cut-off scores ≥ 33). These scores were only collected in China.@*CONCLUSION@#This evidence suggests that mental health and loneliness reported by young people were lower in China than that in the UK during the studied period. More research is needed to understand these differences. If the differential negative psychological impacts are confirmed, country-specific measures of prevention and intervention should be adopted to improve the mental health of young people under the ongoing impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Prevalence , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888217

ABSTRACT

UK Biobank (UKB) is a forward-looking epidemiological project with over 500, 000 people aged 40 to 69, whose image extension project plans to re-invite 100, 000 participants from UKB to perform multimodal brain magnetic resonance imaging. Large-scale multimodal neuroimaging combined with large amounts of phenotypic and genetic data provides great resources to conduct brain health-related research. This article provides an in-depth overview of UKB in the field of neuroimaging. Firstly, neuroimage collection and imaging-derived phenotypes are summarized. Secondly, typical studies of UKB in neuroimaging areas are introduced, which include cardiovascular risk factors, regulatory factors, brain age prediction, normality, successful and morbid brain aging, environmental and genetic factors, cognitive ability and gender. Lastly, the open challenges and future directions of UKB are discussed. This article has the potential to open up a new research field for the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Brain , Neuroimaging , United Kingdom
9.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677

ABSTRACT

Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.


This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(3): 344-354, Sept.-Dec. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1134674

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: CoV infections can potentially cause from a simple cold to a severe respiratory syndrome, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). The COVID-19 created a new reality for global healthcare modelsOBJETIVE: To evaluate trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the WorldMETHODS: We conducted a population-based time-series study using public and official data of cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Peru, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Russian, between December, 2019 and August, 2020. Data were based on reports from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. COVID-19 was defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (U07.1). A Prais-Winsten regression model was performed and the Daily Percentage Change (DPC) calculated determine rates as increasing, decreasing or flatRESULTS: During the study period, trends in case-fatality rates in the world were flat (DPC = 0.3; CI 95% [-0.2: 0.7]; p = 0.225). In Africa, Morocco had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.1; CI 95% [-1.5: -0.7]; p < 0.001), whereas it were increasing in South Africa (p < 0.05) and flat in Nigeria (p > 0.05). In the Americas, Argentina showed a decreasing trend in case-fatality rates (DPC = -0.6; CI 95% [-1.1: -0.2]; p = 0.005), the U.S. had flat trends (p > 0.05) and all other American countries had increasing trends (p < 0.05). In Asia, Iran had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.5; CI 95% [-2.6 : -0.2]; p = 0.019); China and Saudi Arabia showed increasing trends (p < 0.05), while in India, Japan and South Korea they were flat (p > 0.05). European countries had mostly increasing trends (p < 0.05): Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and Russia; France and Switzerland had flat trends (p > 0.05). Finally, in Oceania, trends in case-fatality rates were flat in Australia (p > 0.05) and increasing in New Zealand (p < 0.05CONCLUSION: Trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the World were flat between December, 31 and August, 31. Argentina, Iran and Morocco were the only countries with decreasing trends. On the other hand, South Africa, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, China, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, Russian and New Zealand had increasing trends in case-fatality rate. All the other countries analyzed had flat trends. Based on case-fatality rate data, our study supports that COVID-19 pandemic is still in progress worldwide


INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções por CoV podem causar desde um simples resfriado até uma síndrome respiratória grave, como a Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave e a Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio (MERS-CoV). O COVID-19 impôs uma nova realidade em termos de modelos globais de saúdeOBJETIVO: Avaliar as tendências das taxas de letalidade do COVID-19 no mundoMÉTODO: Estudo de séries temporais de base populacional usando dados públicos e oficiais de casos e mortes por COVID-19 na Argentina, Austrália, Brasil, Chile, China, Colômbia, França, Alemanha, Índia, Irã, Itália, Japão, México, Marrocos, Nova Zelândia, Nigéria, Peru, Arábia Saudita, África do Sul, Coreia do Sul, Espanha, Suíça, Reino Unido, Estados Unidos (EUA) e Rússia, entre 31 dezembro de 2019 e 31 agosto de 2020. Os dados foram baseados nos relatórios do Centro Europeu de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças. COVID-19 foi definido pela Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 10ª revisão (U07.1). Para análise estatística, foi realizado o modelo de regressão de Prais-Winsten, a partir do qual foi possível calcular a variação percentual de mudança diária (DPC) das taxas, classificadas como crescentes, decrescentes ou estacionáriasRESULTADOS: Durante o período do estudo, as taxas de letalidade no mundo permaneceram estacionárias (DPC = 0,3; IC 95% [-0,2: 0,7]; p = 0,225). Na África, Marrocos teve tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,1; IC 95% [-1,5: -0,7]; p <0,001), enquanto na África do Sul houve tendência crescente (p < 0,05) e estacionária na Nigéria (p > 0,05). Em relação às Américas, a Argentina revelou tendência decrescente nas taxas de letalidade (DPC = -0,6; IC 95% [-1,1: -0,2]; p = 0,005), os EUA demonstraram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05) e todos os outros países americanos demonstraram tendências crescentes (p < 0,05). Na Ásia, o Irã apresentou tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,5; IC 95% [-2,6: -0,2]; p = 0,019); China e Arábia Saudita apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05), enquanto Índia, Japão e Coreia do Sul mantiveram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05). A maioria dos países europeus apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05): Alemanha, Itália, Espanha, Reino Unido e Rússia; França e Suíça demonstraram tendências estacionárias (p > 0,05). Por fim, na Oceania, a tendência nas taxas de letalidade na Austrália foi estacionária (p > 0,05) e aumentou na Nova Zelândia (p < 0,05CONCLUSÃO: A tendência nas taxas de letalidade por COVID-19 no mundo permaneceu estacionária entre 31 de dezembro de 2019 e 31 de agosto de 2020. Argentina, Irã e Marrocos foram os únicos países com tendências decrescentes. Por outro lado, África do Sul, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colômbia, México, Peru, China, Arábia Saudita, Alemanha, Espanha, Reino Unido, Rússia e Nova Zelândia apresentaram tendências crescentes de letalidade. Todos os outros países analisados demonstraram tendências estacionárias. De acordo com dados de letalidade, nosso estudo confirma que a pandemia de COVID-19 ainda está em fase de progressão em todo o mundo


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19/mortality , Peru , Argentina , Saudi Arabia , Australia , South Africa , Spain , Switzerland , United States , Brazil , Chile , China , Russia , Colombia , Republic of Korea , France , Germany , United Kingdom , India , Iran , Italy , Japan , Mexico , Morocco , New Zealand , Nigeria
11.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 515-519, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102937

ABSTRACT

Em 2018, o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) completou 30 anos de sua criação no Brasil. Embora reúna muitas conquistas nessas três décadas, o SUS hoje enfrenta novos desafios, impostos pela agenda liberal e conservadora em curso no país. Nesse contexto, o documentário O Espírito de 45 (2013), dirigido por Ken Loach, que destaca a criação do Serviço Nacional de Saúde (National Health Service - NHS), no Reino Unido, é um filme salutar. Tendo a cidadania e o bem comum como grandes temas, a obra mostra como é possível, revisitando o passado, despertar o espírito combativo em defesa de uma sociedade mais justa e solidária, que privilegie o bem-estar da população em lugar do lucro e que aponte caminhos para a defesa do SUS, enquanto uma conquista do povo brasileiro.


In 2018, the SUS ­ Sistema Unificado de Saúde (Unified Health System) celebrated the 30th anniversary of its setting up in Brazil. Despite its many achievements in these three decades, nowadays SUS faces new challenges which were imposed by a liberal and conservative agenda ongoing in the country. In this context, the documentary The Spirit of '45 (2013), directed by Ken Loach, which highlights the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom, is a very important film. Addressing citizenship and the common good as major themes, the movie shows how it is possible by revisiting the past to awaken the combative spirit in favour of a fairer and more solidary society, in order to prioritize the population's wellbeing instead of the profit and to point out ways to defend SUS as an achievement of the Brazilian people.


En 2018, el SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde (Sistema Único de Salud) completó 30 años de su creación en Brasil. Aunque haya tenido muchos logros en estas tres décadas, el SUS enfrenta hoy nuevos desafíos, impuestos por la agenda liberal y conservadora en curso en el país. En este contexto, la película documental The Spirit of '45 (2013), en la versión brasileña, O Espírito de 45, de Ken Loach, que destaca la creación del Servicio Nacional de Salud (National Health Service ­ NHS); en el Reino Unido, es un buen ejemplo. Con la ciudadanía y el bien común como temas principales, la producción muestra como es posible, reviviendo el pasado, despertar el espíritu combativo en defensa de una sociedad más justa y solidaria, que privilegie el bienestar de la población en lugar de losbeneficios lucrativos, y señale formas de defender el SUS, como un logro del pueblo brasileño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Welfare , Unified Health System , Health Care Reform , Documentaries and Factual Films , National Health Programs , Brazil , Narration , Universal Health Coverage , United Kingdom , Health Policy
12.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(1): 34-38, mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097709

ABSTRACT

Si repensamos a escritores que se ocuparon de la medicina, el presente trabajo pretende destacar a William Shakespeare, como un escritor que prácticamente en toda su obra describe en sus personajes problemas de salud de todo tipo. Se harán ciertas referencias de los aspectos médicos desarrollados en la obra del escritor, advirtiendo que son sólo una parte de su extensa producción. (AU)


If we rethink writers who dealt with medicine, this paper intends to highlight William Shakespeare, as a writer who practically describes all kinds of health problems in his characters. Certain references will be made of the medical aspects developed in the writer's work, warning that they are only part of his extensive production. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , Drama/history , Famous Persons , Medicine in Literature/history , Disease , United Kingdom
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(1): 58-64, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092478

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Cardiovascular complications in Marfan patients include progressive aortic root dilation which can precipitate acute aortic dissection, ruptured aorta, severe aortic regurgitation, or all the aforementioned. Such complications can be fatal and the cause of death prior to any surgical intervention. We set out to identify the Marfan population in England and Wales and present their surgical outcomes. Methods: A total of 306 patients with Marfan syndrome who underwent aortic root surgery were identified between April 2007 and March 2013 from NICOR database. We examined the perioperative characteristics of such cohort along with in-hospital outcomes and survival. Results: Root and ascending segment procedures on Marfan patients performed in 3.3% of the total cohort by NICOR root surgery patients. The median reported age was 40 years (IQR = 29-49 years) and 100 (32.7%) were female. Of the patients analysed, 17.3% were treated non-electively and 68.6% of them received concomitant valve procedure. The in-hospital mortality was 2.0%. Reoperation for bleeding was required in 8.2% of patients and 1.3% of them suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Mortality at 1 year was reported as 5.5%. Conclusion: The outcomes of surgery on the root and ascending aorta in Marfan patients in the United Kingdom are satisfactory; however, the overall complexities of this patient population are not well understood and would benefit from further investigations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Aortic Valve , Reoperation , Stroke Volume , Follow-Up Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom , Marfan Syndrome/complications
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(3): e00222618, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089448

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study reviewed articles originated in Brazil, in the United Kingdom, and in the United States from 1970 to September 2018 in the Web of Science database. Text mining techniques were used, and a predominantly qualitative analysis was performed, including correspondence analysis and sentiment analysis using the R Software (version 3.5.0) tools. Results show a repathologization of homosexuality in the gerontological knowledge production. This includes studies performed in 51 areas of knowledge in the three countries. That was followed by the depsychiatrization of homosexuality during the peak of deaths caused by AIDS, and its consequent recognition as an epidemiological threat. The article concludes reviewing the collected biomarkers, such as "sexual", "risk", "MSM", and "HIV/AIDS", which prove the progressive impact of sexual panic in gerontology studies and also associates AIDS with masculine homosexuality.


Resumo: O estudo faz uma revisão de artigos publicados por autores brasileiros, britânicos e estadunidenses entre 1970 e setembro de 2018 na base de dados Web of Science. Foram utilizadas técnicas de prospecção de textos, com uma análise predominantemente qualitativa, inclusive análise de correspondência e de sentimentos, usando ferramentas do software R (versão 3.5.0). Os resultados revelam a repatologização da homossexualidade na produção de conhecimento gerontológico, incluindo estudos realizados em 51 áreas de conhecimento nos três países. Seguiu-se a despsiquiatrização da homossexualidade durante o auge de óbitos provocados pela aids e o reconhecimento desta como ameaça epidemiológica. O artigo conclui com uma revisão dos biomarcadores coletados, como "sexual", "risco", "HSH" e "HIV/aids", comprovando o impacto progressivo do pânico sexual sobre os estudos de gerontologia, além de associar a aids à homossexualidade masculina.


Resumen: Este estudio revisó artículos realizados en Brasil, Reino Unido y en los Estados Unidos desde 1970 a septiembre de 2018 en la base de datos Web of Science. Se utilizaron técnicas de mineración de textos, y predominantemente se realizó un análisis cualitativo, incluyendo análisis de correspondencia y análisis de opiniones, usando las herramientas del R Software (version 3.5.0). Los resultados muestran la repatologización de la homosexualidad en la producción de conocimiento gerontológico. Esto incluye estudios realizados en 51 aéreas de conocimiento en los tres países. A todo ello, le siguió la desiquiatrización de la homosexualidad, durante el pico de muertes causado por el SIDA, y su consiguiente reconocimiento como amenaza epidemiológica. Este artículo finaliza revisando los biomarcadores recogidos, tales como: "sexual", "riesgo", "HSH", y "VIH/SIDA", lo que prueba el progresivo impacto del pánico sexual en los estudios de gerontología, así como los asociados al SIDA, con la homosexualidad masculina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aging/physiology , Biomarkers , Geriatrics , Sexual Behavior , United States , Brazil , Homosexuality , HIV Infections , Homosexuality, Male , United Kingdom
18.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(4): e300417, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143438

ABSTRACT

Resumo A medicina regenerativa encontra-se em fase de desenvolvimento dos ensaios clínicos em terapias celulares (TC), na sua manufatura e na sua adoção gradual dentro dos sistemas de saúde. Entretanto, há uma série de lacunas e contradições na governança e regulamentação na área e o objetivo principal deste artigo é sua discussão dentro das tendências globais, já que esses processos afetam de modo substantivo a saúde coletiva global e encontram-se ainda escassamente resolvidos. O texto foca nos processos prevalentes nos ensaios clínicos com TC em duas lideranças internacionais, o Reino Unido e a União Europeia, utilizando a análise bibliográfica e de conteúdo. O texto conclui com uma discussão das principais vantagens e desvantagens para a saúde coletiva global da transição de um modelo científico de comprovação das novas terapias celulares para, eventualmente, outro baseado na inovação médica ou clínica. O último procede desde a fase pré-clínica com animais à aplicação das novas terapias a grupos pequenos de pacientes e, logo a seguir, a sua inserção no mercado. Muitas vezes, esse modelo se associa a flexibilidades regulatórias, a serem ilustradas no artigo, e especialmente desenhadas para aumentar a rapidez no desenvolvimento e aplicação das terapias.


Abstract Regenerative medicine is at present in a stage of development of clinical trials in cell therapies (CT), their manufacture and gradual adoption by health systems. However, there are several gaps and contradictions in governance and regulation in the area and the main aim of this article is their discussion within global trends, as these processes remain still ill- resolved while substantively affecting collective global health. The text focuses on an analysis of prevailing processes in clinical trials with CT by two leading actors, the United Kingdom, and the European Union, and is based upon bibliographical and content analyses. The article concludes with a discussion of the main advantages and disadvantages for collective global health of the transition from a conventional scientific model to test the new therapies to, eventually, one based on medical or clinical innovation. The latter proceeds from the pre-clinical research phase with animals to clinical trials with small groups of patients and subsequently, to the entrance of cell therapies into the market. Often this model is associated to flexible regulations, to be illustrated in the article, which are specifically designed to diminish time-lags between therapy development and its full application.


Subject(s)
Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Regenerative Medicine , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/standards , Health Governance/policies , European Union , United Kingdom
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Omega-5-gliadin (O5G) allergy, also known as wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, is commonly reported in the Western, but not Asian, populations. Although significant differences in O5G allergy presentation across different populations are likely but there have been no previous reports on this important topic.OBJECTIVE: To report on the prevalence and characteristics of O5G allergy in Hong Kong (HK) compared with the United Kingdom (UK).METHODS: O5G allergy patients attending Queen Mary Hospital (HK cohort), and Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London (UK cohort) were studied and compared.RESULTS: A total of 46 O5G allergy patients (16 HK; 30 UK) were studied. In the HK cohort, 55% of all patients previously labeled as “idiopathic anaphylaxis” were diagnosed with O5G allergy. Exercise was the most common cofactor in both cohorts, followed by alcohol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). A higher proportion of the HK cohort reported NSAID as a cofactor (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.048). In the HK cohort, more patients presented with urticaria and cardiovascular manifestations (100% vs. 77%, p = 0.036; 100% vs. 70%, p = 0.015, respectively); the range of presentation was more diverse in the UK cohort. In HK fewer patients adhered to wheat avoidance (50% vs. 87%, p = 0.007) and more patients avoided cofactors only (44% vs. 10%, p = 0.008).CONCLUSION: O5G allergy appears relatively underdiagnosed in HK. Urticaria and cardiovascular manifestations are common; NSAID plays an important role as a cofactor and patients are less concordant with dietary avoidance measures than in the Western population.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Asians , Cohort Studies , United Kingdom , Hong Kong , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Prevalence , Triticum , Urticaria
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828174

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 has been spread to 26 countries around the world since its outbreak. By February 16, 2020, more than 68 000 people had been diagnosed with COVID-19. Researchers from all over the world have carried out timely studies on this public health emergency and produced a number of scientific publications. This review aims to re-analyze and summarize the current research findings in a timely manner to guide scholars in relevant fields to further SARS-CoV-2 research and assist healthcare professionals in their work and decision-making. The SARS-CoV-2 related terms were selected in both English and Chinese and were searched in several major databases, including Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases. The reference list of each search result was screened for relevance, which was further supplemented to the search results. The included studies were categorized by topics with key characteristics extracted, re-analyzed, and summarized. A total of 301 articles were finally included with 136 in Chinese and 165 in English. The number of publications has rapidly increased since mid-January, 2020, and a peak day was 6th February on which 50 articles were published. The top three countries publishing articles were China, the United States and the United Kingdom. The and its specialty journals have published the most articles, with contribution also from journals such as ( ), ( ), and . All articles were categorized into epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and treatment, basic research, pregnant women and children, mental health, epidemic prevention & control, and others. The literatures related to SARS-CoV-2 are emerging rapidly. It is necessary to sort out and summarize the research topic in time, which has a good reference value for staff in different positions. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the judgment of the quality of literatures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bibliometrics , Biomedical Research , China , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral , United Kingdom , United States
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