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1.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; 20220608. 176 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378842

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 produziu mudanças relevantes na vida cotidiana ao redor do mundo e, dentre essas mudanças, a visibilidade do trabalho em saúde e da ação das mulheres no enfrentamento à pandemia, nos serviços e sistemas de saúde e também, no cotidiano da vida das famílias e grupos. Desde que foi comemorado pela primeira vez, retomando a greve nas fábricas de Chicago (EUA) do dia 1º de maio de 1886, o foco das comemorações do Dia Internacional do Trabalhador é o trabalho que produz bens de consumo. Nos anos de 2020 e 2021, os aplausos foram para o trabalho em saúde e sua relevância no enfrentamento à pandemia. De forma similar, o Dia Internacional das Mulheres, que vem gerando manifestações desde a jornada pela igualdade de direitos civis e em favor do voto feminino, em 1909 em Nova York. Nos anos do enfrentamento à pandemia a visibilidade foi em relação à saúde das mulheres, sobretudo no trabalho formal e informal. Inicialmente, a data era itinerante, contudo, o dia 08 de março foi instituído formalmente pelas Nações Unidas desde 1975. A participação das mulheres no trabalho em saúde é uma das ênfases da campanha da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) para o ano de 2021, declarado o "Ano Internacional dos Trabalhadores da Saúde e Assistência". Como homenagem e reconhecimento à relevância dos trabalhadores e trabalhadoras de saúde, a OMS lançou a campanha "Proteja, Invista, Juntos". O slogan da campanha lembra que 70% da força de trabalho em saúde e assistência é formada por mulheres e que é necessário investir na igualdade de gênero nas iniciativas de desenvolvimento dos sistemas e serviços de saúde. Entre as iniciativas da campanha no Brasil, foi proposto o Livro Azul, como conceito articulador das estratégias de disseminação de conhecimentos e informações relativas à contribuição da Agenda Brasil para o Ano Internacional dos Trabalhadores da Saúde e Assistência e para compartilhar diferentes abordagens ao tema. Para essa edição do Livro Azul, produzida com a liderança da OPAS Brasil e, em particular, da Unidade Técnica de Capacidades Humanas para a Saúde, mobilizamos a produção de alguns textos de referência, que permitem compreender e tornar visível as diferentes faces da interface das mulheres na saúde, sobretudo em tempos de pandemia. Mobilizamos pesquisadoras e pesquisadores em grupos interinstitucionais em diferentes lugares do país para, com base na produção de pesquisas, elencar questões que permitam contribuir com a agenda de reflexões e iniciativas do Ano Internacional e, em especial, das interfaces das mulheres com a saúde. O resultado superou enormemente a expectativa inicial e o compartilhamos com todas as pessoas que acessarem a produção, numa iniciativa de cooperação com a Editora Rede Unida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Public Health , Health Education , Health Human Resource Training , Health Policy , Pan American Health Organization , United Nations , Women, Working , World Health Organization , Women's Health Services , Women's Health , Health Strategies , Health Personnel , Gender Equity
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(12): 5883-5895, Dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350503

ABSTRACT

Resumo A erradicação das formas contemporâneas de escravidão é uma relevante questão científica, social e institucional. De fato, esforços globais têm sido feitos para compreender, mapear e eliminar a escravidão contemporânea, como um dos objetivos do Desenvolvimento Sustentável das Nações Unidas até 2030. Entretanto, pouca atenção tem sido dada para o lugar da vigilância em saúde do trabalhador (VISAT) nas estratégias e lutas pela erradicação dessas relações de exploração. Para suprir essa lacuna, este artigo discute o trabalho escravo contemporâneo (TEC) e suas especificidades no Brasil, na perspectiva da VISAT. Inicialmente, destacamos as relações entre trabalho escravo, saúde do/a trabalhador/a e a vigilância em saúde e, em seguida, apresentamos três desafios da vigilância para o enfretamento do TEC: o desafio de caracterizar setores econômicos, regiões e populações afetadas; o de identificar determinantes, riscos e efeitos à saúde; e o de fortalecer práticas e serviços de saúde do trabalhador para desencadear ações de formação, informação e intervenção em regiões de maior presença de TEC. Conclui-se que a vigilância em saúde do trabalhador pode trazer contribuições significativas para emancipação de trabalhadores em contextos de trabalho escravo.


Abstract Eradicating modern slavery is a relevant scientific, social, and institutional challenge issue. Indeed, efforts are being made globally to understand, map, and eradicate contemporary slavery as a target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. However, little attention has been given to the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) in the strategies and struggle against exploiting relationships. In order to fill this gap, the paper discusses contemporary slave labor (CSL) and its specificities in Brazil from an occupational health surveillance perspective. We initially highlight the link between CSL, occupational health, and occupational health surveillance (VISAT). We then present three VISAT challenges to addressing CSL: the challenging task of characterizing economic sectors and populations most affected; identifying determinants, risks, and effects on health; and strengthening occupational health practices and services to trigger specific actions regarding formation, information, and intervention in regions of high CSL prevalence. We conclude that Occupational Health Surveillance can play an essential role in the emancipation of workers engaged in slavery relationships.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Health , Enslavement , Enslaved Persons , United Nations , Brazil/epidemiology
3.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(3): 295-298, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339785

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The world population is aging fast and not all cities are prepared to cope with the needs of the elderly people. Cities need to develop strategies for senior citizens including the aspects of health, nutrition, consumer protection, housing, transportation, environment, social welfare, income, employment, safety, and education. The World Health Organization (WHO) created a program dedicated to older adults called the age-friendly city. This program is about creating the environment and opportunities that enable older people to be and do what they value throughout their lives. Most of the elderly population lives in urban spaces, and aging represents a challenge as well as opportunities to the cities all over the world. Recently, only 16 Brazilian cities have received the seal of international certification by meeting the requirements stipulated by the WHO. In the State of Sao Paulo, only two cities have been qualified for this seal. Therefore, the aims of this article are (a) to provide a brief history of this important initiative taken by the WHO and (b) to urge the decision-makers of Brazilian municipalities to develop effective initiatives for their cities to be prepared for this demographic modification.


RESUMO A população mundial está envelhecendo rapidamente, e nem todas as cidades estão preparadas para lidar com as necessidades dessa população. As cidades devem desenvolver estratégias para os idosos, incluindo aspectos de saúde, nutrição, defesa do consumidor, habitação, transporte, meio ambiente, assistência social, renda, emprego, segurança e educação. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) possui um programa denominado "cidade amiga dos idosos", cujos objetivos são preparar as cidades para o envelhecimento da população e minimizar os custos desse processo proporcionando a inserção ativa dos idosos na vida socioeconômica das cidades. A certificação (selo) de cidade amiga dos idosos pela OMS. A maioria da população idosa vive nos espaços urbanos, o que isso representa um desafio e um ambiente de oportunidades para as cidades. Um desafio, pois ao envelhecer ocorre uma maior demanda pelos cuidados em saúde e instituições de longa permanência. Por outro lado, a população idosa apresenta um potencial de ambiente de negócios específicos para essa faixa etária, como os setores de alimentação, educação, e setores de entretenimento. No Brasil, a população idosa responde por cerca de 20% do consumo nacional. Apenas 16 cidades brasileiras receberam esse selo de certificação internacional para atender aos requisitos estipulados pela OMS. No estado de São Paulo, apenas duas cidades foram qualificadas para a obtenção do selo. Portanto, os objetivos do presente artigo são a) fornecer um breve histórico desse importante programa da OMS; b) despertar nos gestores das cidades a vontade de desenvolver iniciativas efetivas para que as cidades estejam preparadas para um rápido envelhecimento populacional, que tenha potencial para contribuir com a sociedade em suas diferentes capacidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , World Health Organization , Aged , United Nations , Aging
4.
Rev. ADM ; 78(4): 209-214, jul.-ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292705

ABSTRACT

Las Escuelas de Odontología como espacios educativos universitarios son un lugar idóneo para trabajar de manera urgente los procesos de ambientalización curricular que permitan realizar de forma horizontal y vertical temáticas y contenidos para crear y recrear un tipo de cultura y conciencia más amigable con el medio ambiente, y contribuir con conductas y actitudes sustentables en los estudiantes, docentes y trabajadores administrativos hacia una reducción significativa en la contaminación del ambiente local, regional y mundial, colaborando en ello con la solución a la regularización del clima y el control de los desastres ocasionados por el cambio climático. Además de esto, a ser las Escuelas de Odontología instituciones educativas que pueden funcionar bajo el paradigma de la sustentabilidad, se lograría contribuir al aseguramiento de los recursos naturales renovables y no renovables para las nuevas generaciones, además del logro de un importante ahorro económico en el gasto corriente de las escuelas (AU)


The Dental School as university educational spaces are an ideal place to urgently work on the curricular greening processes that allow working horizontally and vertically with themes and contents that allow creating and recreating a type of culture and awareness that is more friendly to the environment and contribute with sustainable behaviors and attitudes in students, teachers and administrative workers a more significant reduction in pollution of the local, regional and global environment, collaborating in this with the solution to the regularization of the climate and the control of disasters caused by change climate. In addition, being the School of Dentistry educational institutions that can function under the paradigm of sustainability, it would be possible to contribute to the assurance of renewable and non-renewable natural resource for the new generations, in addition to achieving significant economic savings in current spending from school (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Dental/trends , Climate Change , Environmental Health Education , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Sustainable Development , United Nations , Curriculum , UNESCO , Mexico
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 211-230, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134086

ABSTRACT

Abstract Economic development and good health depended on access to clean water and sanitation. Therefore, because economic development and good health depended on access to clean water and sanitation, beginning in the early 1970s the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others began a period of sustained interest in developing both for the billions without either. During the 1980s, two massive and wildly ambitious projects showed what was possible. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade and the Blue Nile Health Project aimed for nothing less than the total overhaul of the way water was developed. This was, according to the WHO, "development in the spirit of social justice."


Resumo Crescimento econômico e boa saúde dependem de acesso a saneamento e água limpa. Assim, o Banco Mundial, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e outros órgãos, a partir do início da década de 1970, inauguraram um período de contínuo interesse no desenvolvimento de ambos para bilhões de pessoas desprovidas de tais necessidades. Durante a década de 1980, dois projetos monumentais e extremamente ambiciosos demonstraram o que era viável fazer. A International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade e o Blue Nile Health Project visavam à total reestruturação do modelo de desenvolvimento da água. Tratava-se, segundo a OMS, do "desenvolvimento do espírito de justiça social".


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Water Supply/history , Public Health Practice/history , Sanitation/history , Global Health/history , United Nations/history , World Health Organization/history , Africa
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787280

ABSTRACT

Cancer remains a leading cause of death, despite multimodal treatment approaches. Even in patients with a healthy immune response, cancer cells can escape the immune system during tumorigenesis. Cancer cells incapacitate the normal cell-mediated immune system by expressing immune modulation ligands such as programmed death (PD) ligand 1, the B7 molecule, or secreting activators of immune modulators. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells were originally designed to target cancer cells. Engineered approaches allow CAR T cells, which possess a simplified yet specific receptor, to be easily activated in limited situations. CAR T cell treatment is a derivative of the antigen-antibody reaction and can be applied to various diseases. In this review, the current successes of CAR T cells in cancer treatment and the therapeutic potential of CAR T cells are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Carcinogenesis , Cause of Death , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Immune System , Ligands , Receptors, Antigen , T-Lymphocytes , United Nations
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 20(supl.1): e0146, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135576

ABSTRACT

Abstract WHO reported that viral diseases remain as an international public health concern. Quite a lot of viral outbreaks such as the SARS coronavirus from 2002 to 2003, H1N1 influenza in 2009, and the MERS syndrome coronavirus in 2012, in the last two decades. The recent outburst of COVID-19 disease has to turn out a global public health catastrophe that has a profound consequence on every aspect of human life. Currently, national governments, international health agencies, UN different bodies are working relentlessly to find the best way to save and mitigate our world from the shattering effects of COVID-19. Simultaneously, all related scientists around the planet determinedly made enormous efforts to find the COVID-19 transmission process, clinicopathological issues, diagnostics tools, and prevention policy planning and pharmacological intervention approaches. There are many problems that are not resolved regarding COVID-19, like the virus-host relations and the development and progression of the pandemic, with precise reference to the times when the current pandemic will reach its ultimate level to produce maximum damage. At this moment in time, yet we do not possess and definite and specific treatment options to fight with the COVID-19 viral infectious diseases. Currently, the majority of the scientist is involved in finding a way through drug repurposing. Up to the present time lot of medicines were identified that possess definite antiviral effects against COVID-19 but need to go a long way with well-designed study to obtain the best possible answer. After that, to this point, supportive and preventive remain as the best weapon.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Disease Outbreaks , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus , SARS Virus , United Nations , World Health Organization , Public Health , Communicable Diseases , Malaysia/epidemiology
8.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25022, jan.- dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047938

ABSTRACT

O presente ensaio objetiva analisar o paradigma da aptidão física e da promoção da saúde como perspectiva da Educação Física (EF), a partir das diretrizes da Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura (UNESCO), que regulam a EF em âmbito internacional. Tomamos como ponto de referência o documento "Diretrizes em Educação Física de Qualidade: para gestores de políticas". Dois aspectos são destacados nessas Diretrizes: o caráter da EF na formação dos indivíduos e a relação causa-efeito da atividade física e saúde. Tais elementos nos permitem indicar que a perspectiva da EF e a do esporte como promotores de saúde e disciplinamento são fatores significativos para a formação do capital humano. Portanto, mais importante do que realizar atividades físicas é aprofundar os conhecimentos das práticas corporais, para que se eleve o patamar de compreensão acerca dos fenômenos, com caráter emancipador


This essay analyzes the paradigm of physical fitness and health promotion as a perspective in Physical Education (PE), based on the guidelines of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), which regulate PE at international level. Our reference was the document "Quality Physical Education (QPE): guidelines for policy makers". Two aspects are highlighted in these Guidelines: the nature of PE in the formation of the individuals and the cause-effect relationship between physical activity and health. Such elements allow us to point out that PE and sports as promoters of health and discipline are significant for the formation of human capital. Therefore, more important than performing physical activities is to elaborate on knowledge of bodily practices so that it increases the level of understanding about the phenomena, with an emancipatory character


El presente ensayo tiene por objetivo analizar el paradigma de la aptitud física y de la promoción de la salud como perspectiva de la Educación Física (EF) a partir de las directrices de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO), que regulan la EF en el ámbito internacional. Tomamos como punto de referencia el documento "Directrices en Educación Física de Calidad: guía para los responsables políticos". Dos aspectos se destacan en esas Directrices: el carácter de la EF como medio de formación del individuo y la relación causa efecto de la actividad física y salud. Tales elementos nos permiten indicar que la perspectiva de la EF y del deporte como fomentadores de salud y disciplina son factores significativos para la formación del capital humano. Por lo tanto, más importante que realizar actividades físicas es profundizar los conocimientos de las practicas corporales, para que se eleve el nivel de comprensión sobre los fenómenos con carácter emancipador


Subject(s)
Humans , Physical Education and Training , Physical Fitness , United Nations , Health Promotion , Motor Activity
9.
Rev. crim ; 61(3): 265-278, sep.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138834

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo revisa las posiciones de algunos autores acerca del concepto seguridad humana en los estudios de seguridad. Plantea una mirada a dicho concepto en términos instrumentales. Visto de esa manera, propone mirarlo no tanto a partir de lo que dice cuando es meramente enunciado, sino a partir de los usos concretos, los fines con los que ciertos actores se han valido de él y los efectos que ha producido dicho aprovechamiento en campos como el político o el académico. Se trata de una revisión documental que pretende situar algunos de los debates que ha suscitado el concepto seguridad humana en los campos académico y político a nivel internacional, como también de la apropiación que en términos locales tuvo para un caso local como el del Observatorio de Seguridad Humana de Medellín. Para ello, por un lado, se efectuó una selección de artículos con base en los criterios de análisis bibliométrico de Scopus y, por otro, se realizaron algunas entrevistas semiestructuradas en la ciudad de Medellín. El artículo concluye con comentarios sobre la importancia de comprender que, como ocurre con cualquier otro concepto en la política, el significado de la seguridad humana está necesariamente vinculado a sus usos políticos.


Abstract This article reviews the positions of some authors about the concept of human security in security studies. Considers a look at this concept in instrumental terms. Seen this way, proposes to look at it not so much from what it says when it is merely stated, but from the concrete uses, the purposes for which certain actors have used it and the effects that such exploitation has produced in fields like the political or the academic. It is about a documentary review that aims to place some of the debates that the concept of human security has raised in the academic and political fields at international level, as well as the appropriation that it had in local terms for a local case such as the Human Security Observatory from Medellin. For this, on one hand, a selection of articles was made based on the criteria of Scopus bibliometric analysis and, on the other, some semi-structured interviews were conducted in the city of Medellín. The article concludes with comments on the importance of understanding that, as happens with any other concept in politics, the meaning of human security is necessarily linked to its political uses.


Resumo Este artigo revisa as posições de alguns autores sobre o conceito segurança humana nos estudos de segurança. Expõe uma olhada ao referido conceito em termos instrumentais. Visto de essa maneira, propõe olhar para este não tanto a partir do que diz quando é meramente enunciado, sino a partir das utilizações específicas, os fins com os que certos atores se valeram deste e os efeitos que tem produzido referido aproveitamento em campos como o político ou o académico. Trata-se de uma revisão documental que pretende situar alguns dos debates que tem suscitado o conceito segurança humana nos campos académico e político a nível internacional, como também da apropriação que em termos locais teve para um caso local como o do Observatório de Segurança Humana de Medellín. Para isso, por um lado, foi efetuada uma seleção de artigos com base nos critérios de análise bibliométrico de Scopus e, por outro, foram realizadas algumas entrevistas semiestruturadas na cidade de Medellín. O artigo conclui com comentários sobre a importância de compreender que, como ocorre com qualquer outro conceito na política, o significado da segurança humana está necesariamente vinculado aos seus usos políticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Safety , Human Rights , United Nations , Human Development
10.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (31): 28-56, enero-abr. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004711

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo, pretendemos seguir o curso da ideia de 'direitos LGBT' na ONU, tomados como direitos humanos relacionados com a orientação sexual e com a identidade de gênero. Nosso argumento consiste em que esses direitos são acionados pelos atores políticos como 'direitos morais' e a ONU tem dado uma contribuição importante para torná-los direitos postos. Pressupomos que, justamente por tais direitos não estarem consagrados no direito internacional, ações e reações no debate acerca de 'direitos LGBT' se dão nas fissuras deste arcabouço. Neste artigo, assinalamos quais são essas fissuras e abordamos como os atores políticos as têm explorado. Os dados analisados aqui foram coletados mediante pesquisa documental e bibliográfica.


Abstract In this article, we intend to follow the course of the idea of 'LGBT rights' in the UN, understood as human rights related to sexual orientation and gender identity. Our argument is that these rights are used by political actors as 'moral rights', and the UN has given an important contribution to establish them in the international framework. We assume that, precisely because such rights are not established in international law, actions and reactions in the debate about 'LGBT rights' occur in the fissures of this framework. In this article, we highlight these fissures and discuss how they have been explored by political actors. The analyzed data was collected through document and bibliographic research.


Resumen En este artículo, pretendemos seguir el curso de la idea de 'derechos LGBT' en la ONU, tomados como derechos humanos relacionados con orientación sexual e identidad de género. Nuestro argumento consiste en que esos derechos son accionados por los actores políticos como 'derechos morales' y la ONU ha dado una contribución importante para hacerlos derechos puestos. Suponemos que, justamente por tales derechos no estén consagrados en el derecho internacional, acciones y reacciones en el debate acerca de 'derechos LGBT' se dan en las fisuras del ordenamiento. En este artículo, señalamos cuáles son esas fisuras y abordamos cómo los actores políticos las han explorado. Los datos analizados aquí fueron recolectados mediante investigación documental y bibliográfica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Religion , Social Control, Informal , United Nations/trends , Civil Rights/trends , Sexual and Gender Minorities/legislation & jurisprudence , Civil Rights , Gender Identity
12.
Estud. av ; 33(95): 113-132, 2019. ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008267

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho tem por objeto abordar os aspectos de regulação internacional do petróleo, mais precisamente aqueles previstos na Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre o direito do mar de 1982, que definem a obrigatoriedade do pagamento de royalties às Nações Unidas advindos da exploração dos hidrocarbonetos nas plataformas estendidas. Utiliza o método dedutivo e o tipo de pesquisa exploratório e comparativo, o artigo dividiu-se em três capítulos. Após introduzir o leitor ao tema, abordando-se as particularidades do direito do mar e seu viés de exploração econômica, os autores discorrem sobre a questão com uma dimensão da regulação quase sempre ausente da formulação de políticas energéticas. Essa discussão é apresentada a partir do estudo de caso do Brasil. Para tanto, cuida de apresentar a importância do setor petrolífero e o histórico da exploração offshore no Brasil. Adentra-se em seguida a temática da distribuição dos royalties entre o estado nacional e as nações unidas. No desenvolvimento da questão são trazidos à tona o possíveis cenários entre o futuro da exploração petrolífera no Brasil e os resultados da aplicação da regulação internacional pela Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre o Direito do Mar de 1982. Por fim, chegou-se à conclusão de que algumas plataformas de petróleo já estão localizadas próximas do limite das 200 milhas marítimas e o polígono do pré-sal também encontra-se adentrando as 200 milhas marítimas, o que demonstra uma necessidade de uma abordagem imparcial sobre os prós e contras do posicionamento brasileiro, analisando os possíveis cenários futuros.


This papers seeks to verify aspects of the international regulation of oil, specifically those contained in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea that refer to the obligation to pay royalties to the United Nations on the exploration by the Brazilian government of hydrocarbons in extended platforms. The deductive method and exploratory and comparative research were used. After identifying how the work was carried out, it discusses the issue of law of the sea and the economic exploitation discourses on the theme, their motivation and the context of work to be investigated. The authors also discuss the issue within the dimension of regulation being almost always absent from the formulation of energy policies. The discussion is grounded on a case study of Brazil and presents the importance of the oil industry, the history of offshore exploration in Brazil, and even the distribution of royalties between the national state and the United Nations. In the development of this issue, possible scenarios are brought to light regarding the future of offshore oil exploration in Brazil and the results of enforcement of international regulation by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Finally, we reach the conclusion that some oil rigs are already located near the 200 nautical miles limit and that the polygon of the pre-salt oils reserves is also entering this limit, demonstrating the need for an impartial reckoning of the pros and cons of Brazil's position by analyzing possible future scenarios.


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , United Nations , Petroleum , Maritime Rights , Commerce , Natural Resources Exploitation
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 218 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023398

ABSTRACT

Partindo da percepção de uma proliferação do uso da palavra sustentabilidade e uma série de variações que direcionam para a noção de Desenvolvimento Sustentável estabelecida pelo ONU em 1987, este trabalho procura analisar os documentos provenientes dessa institução, especificamente a Conferência de Estocolmo de 1972; o Relatório de Brundtland - Nosso Futuro Comum; a Eco92 de 1992; a Rio+10 de 2002; a Rio+20 de 2012; os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio (ODM) de 2000; e os Objetivos do Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS) de 2015. Dentro de abordagem metodológica psicanaliticamente orientada em que participam os momentos transferência-construção-ensaio, a tese toma o relatório Nosso Futuro Comum como ponto de partida para pensar o mal-estar na sociedade de risco, cujos pressupostos teóricos iniciais são o mal-estar da psicanálise e as definições da teoria social de risco de Ulrich Beck. O caminho metológico permitiu a construção do contexto que remete às Guerras Mundiais como importantes eventos que tornariam possível a institucionalização do conceito de Desenvolvimento Sustentável. Além das condições para seu nascimento, a tese se debruça também para uma análise dos efeitos de sua aplicação. Esse percurso permitiu compreender a influência de um mundo assombrado por um catastrofismo que começa a ser transformado nas décadas de 1970 e 1980, vindo a se consolidar em uma perspectiva gerencial em 1990, movimento que pode ser depreendido dos documentos analisados. O trabalho evidencia o conflito colocado entre a finitude e o ilimitado presentes na crise ambiental e como o discurso econômico, prevalente em nossa sociedade, mostra-se incapaz de lidar com os problemas atuais e do tempo por vir. A análise sugere a necessidade de pensar não somente em uma sociedade de riscos, mas também em uma sociedade de refúgios.


Starting from the perception of a proliferation of the use of the word sustainability and a series of variations that lead to the concept of Sustainable Development established by the UN in 1987, this work examines the documents coming from that institution, specifically the Stockholm Conference of 1972; the Brundtland Report - Our Common Future; Eco92 of 1992; Rio + 10 of 2002; Rio + 20 of 2012; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of 2000; and the Sustainable Development Objectives (SDO) of 2015. Within the psychoanalytically oriented methodological approach in which transfer-construction-essay moments take part, the thesis takes the report Our Common Future as a starting point for thinking of malaise in the society of risk, whose initial theoretical assumptions are the malaise of psychoanalysis and the definitions of the social theory of risk of Ulrich Beck. The metological path allowed the construction of the context that refers to the World Wars as important events that would make possible the institutionalization of the concept of Sustainable Development. In addition to the conditions for its birth, the thesis also examines the effects of its application. This path allowed us to understand the influence of a world haunted by a catastrophism that began to be transformed in the 1970s and 1980s, becoming consolidated in a managerial perspective in 1990, a movement that can be seen from the documents analyzed. The work shows the conflict between the finitude and the limitless present in the environmental crisis and how the economic discourse prevalent in our society proves incapable of dealing with the current problems and the time to come. The analysis suggests the need to think not only of a society of risks, but also of a society of refuges.


Subject(s)
United Nations , Environmental Health , Catastrophization
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dating violence refers to violence occurring between people in an intimate relationship. Forms of dating violence are often categorized into physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and most existing literature has followed this frame. However, few studies have focused on the phenomenon of living under the perpetrator's coercive control in victims of dating violence, although those experiences are known to be signs of severe forms of violence later on. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of being coercively controlled in female victims who had experienced dating violence. METHODS: For this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 14 female victims, and all interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed using the phenomenological analysis method suggested by Colaizzi. RESULTS: Three themes were derived in chronological order: idealizing the relationship (period of potential control), facing severer tyranny (period of coercive control), and escaping from the unending trap (period of post-control). The results showed that the victims experienced perpetrators' control with specific patterns. The perpetrators' controlling behaviors were invisible, literally benevolent, at the beginning; however, severe forms of violence seemed to appear as their relationship deepened and the perpetrators failed to control the victims. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study presented vivid experiences of female victims who needed help and care. Hopefully, the results can benefit in terms of developing evidence-based prevention strategies for victims as well as assessing the risks of severe forms of dating violence, such as physical attack or murder.


Subject(s)
Crime Victims , Female , Homicide , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence , Methods , Physical Abuse , Qualitative Research , Sex Offenses , United Nations , Violence
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764750

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant of the methylxanthine class. Among adolescents, high-dose of caffeine consumption has increased rapidly over the last few decades due to the introduction of energy drinks. However, little is known about the time-dependent effect of high doses of caffeine consumption in adolescents. The present study aims to examine the short- and long-term influence of high-dose caffeine on behavior of adolescence. METHODS: The animals were divided into three groups: a “vehicle” group, which was injected with 1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline for 14 days; a “Day 1” group, which was injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg), 2 h before the behavioral tests; and a “Day 14” group, which was infused with caffeine for 14 days. An open-field test, a Y-maze test, and a passive avoidance test were conducted to assess the rats'activity levels, anxiety, and cognitive function. RESULTS: High-dose caffeine had similar effects in short-and long-term treatment groups. It increased the level of locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior, as evidenced by the increase in the number of movements and incidences of rearing and grooming in the caffeine-treated groups. No significant differences were observed between the groups in the Y-maze test. However, in the passive avoidance test, the escape latency in the caffeine-treated group was decreased significantly, indicating impaired memory acquisition. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that high-dose caffeine in adolescents may increase locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior and impair learning and memory, irrespective of the duration of administration. The findings will be valuable for both evidence-based education and clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Anxiety , Behavior Rating Scale , Caffeine , Cognition , Education , Energy Drinks , Grooming , Humans , Incidence , Learning , Locomotion , Memory , Models, Animal , Motor Activity , United Nations
16.
Immune Network ; : e30-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764030

ABSTRACT

Our current knowledge of mycobacterial infections in humans has progressively increased over the past few decades. The infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis (TB) disease, which has reasoned for excessive morbidity and mortality worldwide, and has become a foremost issue of health problem globally. Mycobacterium leprae, another member of the family Mycobacteriaceae, is responsible for causing a chronic disease known as leprosy that mainly affects mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, skin, peripheral nerves, and eyes. Ample amount of existing data suggests that pathogenic mycobacteria have skilled in utilizing different mechanisms to escape or offset the host immune responses. They hijack the machinery of immune cells through the modulation of microRNAs (miRs), which regulate gene expression and immune responses of the host. Evidence shows that miRs have now gained considerable attention in the research, owing to their involvement in a broad range of inflammatory processes that are further implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases. However, the knowledge of functions of miRs during mycobacterial infections remains limited. This review summarises recent findings of differential expression of miRs, which are used to good advantage by mycobacteria in offsetting host immune responses generated against them.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Chronic Disease , Gene Expression , Humans , Leprosy , Macrophages , MicroRNAs , Mortality , Mucous Membrane , Mycobacteriaceae , Mycobacterium leprae , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Peripheral Nerves , Respiratory System , Skin , Tuberculosis , United Nations
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study are to find out the effect of the implementing reform in three Central Asian countries, identify its impact on health status and health care delivery systems. This study address to identify strong and weak points of the health systems and provide a recommendation for further health care organization. METHODS: A comparative analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of implemented policy on health care system efficiency and equity. Secondary data were collected on selected health indicators using information from the World Health Organization Global Health Expenditure Database, European Health Information Platform, and World Bank Open Data. RESULTS: In terms of population status, countries achieved relatively good results. Infant mortality and under-5 mortality rate decreased in all countries; also, life expectancy increased, and it was more than 70 years. Regulations of the health systems are still highly centralized, and the Ministry of Health is the main organ responsible for national health policy developing and implementation. Among the three countries, only Kyrgyzstan was successful in introducing a national health system. Distribution of health expenditure between public expenditure and out-of-pocket payments was decreased, and out-of-pocket payments were less the 50% of total health expenditure in all countries, in 2014. CONCLUSION: After independent, all three countries implemented a certain number of the policy reform, mostly it was directed to move away from the old the Soviet system. Subsequent reform should be focused on evidence-based decision making and strengthening of primary health care in terms of new public health concepts.


Subject(s)
Asians , Decision Making , Delivery of Health Care , Global Health , Health Expenditures , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Life Expectancy , Mortality , Primary Health Care , Public Health , Social Control, Formal , United Nations , Uzbekistan , World Health Organization
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763723

ABSTRACT

Disinfectants including polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG) and mixtures of chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (CMIT/MIT) have been widely used in Korea to prevent microbial growth in the humidifier water, which triggered an outbreak of serious respiratory diseases. In addition to the respiratory syndrome, disease-related symptoms including liver toxicity, asthma, and skin allergies were also found after extensive survey of people exposed to the humidifier disinfectants (HDs). In this study, eye irritation tests were performed based on the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) test guidelines 492 using EpiOcular™ which is a tissue model of reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium. As results, the raw materials of PHMG (26% as active ingredient) and CMIT/MIT (1.5% as active ingredient) were classified under UN globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemical (GHS) category 1 or category 2. However, aqueous dilutions of raw materials such as market products of HDs that contain 0.13% of PHMG and 0.03% of CMIT/MIT or further dilutions of the market products for humidifier that contain 0.0013% of PHMG and 0.0003% of CMIT/MIT were classified under any category, which suggested absence of eye irritation at the test concentration.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Classification , Disinfectants , Epithelium , Guanidine , Humans , Humidifiers , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Liver , Skin , United Nations , Water
19.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 232-235, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760513

ABSTRACT

An observational study was conducted at the Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, to assess the iodine status using the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) consensus criteria, which state that >3% prevalence of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥10 mIU/L in the population is an indicator of iodine deficiency. Serum neonatal TSH was analyzed from January to December 2013. In a period of one year, a total of 11,597 neonates with the mean (25 percentile, 75 percentile value) age of 2.0 days (0.5–3.5) were tested for serum TSH. The overall mean TSH level was 3.38 mIU/L (5.63–1.96), with optimal levels (1–39 mIU/L) in 93%, <1 mIU/L in 6.3%, and ≥40 mIU/L in 0.3% neonates. Of all the neonates, 7.9% (N=916) showed TSH ≥10 mIU/L which is higher than the recommended WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria for mild endemicity for iodine deficiency in the population. These results suggest that iodine deficiency is still prevalent in our population, indicating a need for effective intervention programs and increasing awareness regarding the use of iodized salt and supplementation in all reproductive-aged women to prevent iodine deficiency in neonates.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Consensus , Emergencies , Female , Financial Management , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Iodine , Observational Study , Pathology , Prevalence , Thyrotropin , United Nations , World Health Organization
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759915

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to describe how Hansen's disease patients experienced the modern system of control of Hansen's disease introduced by Japan, and the inimical attitude of society against them in colonial Korea. The study also seeks to reveal the development of the system to eliminate Hansen's disease patients from their home and community to larger society and leprosarium in this era. Sorokdo Charity hospital (SCH), a hospital for Hansen's disease patients, was built in 1916, and vagrant Hansen's disease patients began to be isolated in this hospital beginning in 1917 by the Japanese Government-General of Korea (JGGK). Once the police detained and sent vagrant Hansen's disease patients to SCH, stigma and discrimination against them strengthened in Korean society. Because of strong stigma and discrimination in Korean society, Hansen's disease patients suffered from daily threats of death. First, their family members were not only afraid of the contagiousness of Hansen's disease but also the stigma and discrimination against themselves by community members. If a family had a Hansen's disease patient, the rest of community members would discriminate against the entire family. Furthermore, because Hansen's disease patients were excluded from any economic livelihood such as getting a job, the existence of the patients was a big burden for their families. Therefore, many patients left their homes and began their vagrancy. The patients who could not leave their homes committed suicide or were killed by their family members. The victims of such deaths were usually women, who were at the lower position in the family hierarchy. In the strong Confucian society in Korea, more female patients were killed by themselves than male patients. Moreover, all of patients victims in the murder were women. This shows that the stigma and discrimination against Hansen's disease patients within their families were stronger against women than men. Strong stigma and discrimination made the patients rely on superstition such as cannibalism. Patients believed that there were not any effective medicine. There were a few reports of patients who were cured, and many were treated with chaulmoogra oil in the modern Hansen's disease hospitals. Eating human flesh was known as a folk remedy for Hansen's disease. As such, patients began to kill healthy people, usually children, to eat their flesh. Increased stigma led to increased victims. Hansen's disease patients who left their homes faced many threats during their vagrancy. For survival, they established their own organizations in the late 1920's. The patients who were rejected to be hospitalized in the Western Hansen's disease hospital at Busan, Daegu, and Yeosu organized self-help organizations. The purpose of these organizations was first to secure the medicine supply of chaulmoogra oil. However, as stigma and discrimination strengthened, these organizations formed by Hansen's disease patients demanded the Japanese Government-General of Korea to send and segregate them on Sorok island. They did not know the situation of the inside of this island because news media described it as a haven for patients, and very few patients were discharged from this island to tell the truth. On this island, several hundreds of patients were killed by compulsory heavy labor, starvation, and violence. They were not treated as patients, but as something to be eliminated. Under strong suppression on this island, the patients resisted first by escaping this island. However, in 1937, some patients tried to kill a Korean staff but failed. Attempted murderers were all put in the jail, also located on this island. In 1941, a patient murdered another patient who had harassed other patients, and in 1942, Chunsang Lee, a patient, killed the director of Sorok island. These instances show that there was a system to eliminate Hansen's disease patients in colonial Korea.


Subject(s)
Asians , Cannibalism , Charities , Child , Discrimination, Psychological , Eating , Female , Homicide , Humans , Japan , Korea , Leprosy , Male , Medicine, Traditional , Police , Starvation , Suicide , Superstitions , United Nations , Violence
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