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Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(2): e2021115, 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384890


Objetivo: O objetivo desta revisão narrativa foi elencar alguns aspectos históricos da vigilância epidemiológica, modelo tecnológico de intervenção inicialmente desenhado para auxiliar no controle das doenças transmissíveis, no último século. Métodos: Narrativa construída a partir de textos selecionados, para registrar o desenvolvimento da vigilância epidemiológica nos Estados Unidos e no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Resultados: São apresentadas as origens de algumas das ações componentes do repertório da vigilância epidemiológica, e uma breve história da construção do originalmente nomeado Center for Disease Control, agência dos Estados Unidos exemplar na forma como se faz vigilância em praticamente todo o mundo. Do mesmo modo, são delineados os caminhos que levaram à organização do sistema de vigilância no estado de São Paulo, traçando alguns paralelos com o sistema brasileiro. Conclusão: A narrativa é concluída com uma diferenciação conceitual entre vigilância epidemiológica, monitoramento e vigilância em saúde.

Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es enumerar algunos aspectos históricos de la vigilancia epidemiológica modelo tecnológico de intervención diseñado para apoyar en el control de las enfermedades transmisibles en el último siglo. Métodos: Narrativa construida a partir de textos seleccionados y la experiencia del autor, para registrar el desarrollo dsen en los Estados Unidos y en el estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Resultados: Se presentan los orígenes de algunas de las acciones que componen el repertorio de la vigilancia epidemiológica, así como una breve historia de la construcción del Center for Disease Control, una agencia de Estados Unidos que es ejemplar por la forma en que realiza la vigilancia en, prácticamente, todo el mundo. Asimismo, se delinean los caminos que llevaron a la organización del sistema de vigilancia en el estado de São Paulo, trazando algunos paralelos con el sistema brasileño. Conclusión: Finalmente, concluye con la diferenciación entre vigilancia epidemiológica, monitoreo y vigilancia en salud.

Objective: The objective of this narrative review was to list some historical aspects of epidemiological surveillance, a technological intervention model initially designed to help control communicable diseases in the last century. Methods: This narrative was built based on texts selected to record the development of epidemiological surveillance in the United States and in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Results: The origins of some of the actions that constitute epidemiological surveillance activities are presented, as well as a brief history of the establishment of the originally named Center for Disease Control, a United States agency that is held up as an example in relation to the way surveillance has been performed, practically all over the world. Likewise, we outline the paths that led to the establishment of the surveillance system in the state of São Paulo, drawing some parallels with the Brazilian system. Conclusion: The narrative concludes with a conceptual differentiation between epidemiological surveillance, monitoring and health surveillance.

Humans , Population Surveillance/methods , Epidemics/history , Epidemiological Monitoring , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./history , Health Surveillance System
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 584-590, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927537


BACKGROUND@#The cancer burden in the United States of America (USA) has decreased gradually. However, China is experiencing a transition in its cancer profiles, with greater incidence of cancers that were previously more common in the USA. This study compared the latest cancer profiles, trends, and determinants between China and USA.@*METHODS@#This was a comparative study using open-source data. Cancer cases and deaths in 2022 were calculated using cancer estimates from GLOBOCAN 2020 and population estimates from the United Nations. Trends in cancer incidence and mortality rates in the USA used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and National Center for Health Statistics. Chinese data were obtained from cancer registry reports. Data from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 and a decomposition method were used to express cancer deaths as the product of four determinant factors.@*RESULTS@#In 2022, there will be approximately 4,820,000 and 2,370,000 new cancer cases, and 3,210,000 and 640,000 cancer deaths in China and the USA, respectively. The most common cancers are lung cancer in China and breast cancer in the USA, and lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for lung cancer and colorectal cancer in the USA have decreased significantly recently, but rates of liver cancer have increased slightly. Rates of stomach, liver, and esophageal cancer decreased gradually in China, but rates have increased for colorectal cancer in the whole population, prostate cancer in men, and other seven cancer types in women. Increases in adult population size and population aging were major determinants for incremental cancer deaths, and case-fatality rates contributed to reduced cancer deaths in both countries.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The decreasing cancer burden in liver, stomach, and esophagus, and increasing burden in lung, colorectum, breast, and prostate, mean that cancer profiles in China and the USA are converging. Population aging is a growing determinant of incremental cancer burden. Progress in cancer prevention and care in the USA, and measures to actively respond to population aging, may help China to reduce the cancer burden.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Breast Neoplasms , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Liver Neoplasms , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Registries , United States/epidemiology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(5): 989-996, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286811


ABSTRACT Objective: The big data provided by Google Trends may reveal patterns in health information-seeking behavior on population from Brazil and United States (US). Our objective was to explore and compare patterns of stone disease online information-seeking behaviors in both nations. Materials and Methods: To compare Relative Search Volume (RSV) among different urologic key words we chose "US" and "Brazil" as country and "01/01/2009 - 31/12/2018" as time-range. The final selection included 12 key words in each language. We defined "ureteroscopy" as a reference and compared RSV against it for each term. RSV was adjusted by the reference and normalized in a scale from 0-100. Trend presence was evaluated by Mann Kendall Test and magnitude by Sen's Slope (SS) Estimator. Results: We found an upward trend (p <0.01) in most of the researched terms in both countries. Higher temporal trends were seen for "Kidney Stone" (SS=0.36), "Kidney Pain" (SS=0.39) and "Tamsulosin" (SS=0.21) in the US. Technical treatment terms had little search volumes and no increasing trend. "Kidney Stent" and "Double J" had a significant increase in search trend over time and had a relevant search volume overall in 2018. In Brazil, "Calculo Renal", "Colica Renal", "Dor no Rim" and "Pedra no Rim" had a significant increase in RSV (p <0.001). More common and popular terms as "Kidney Stent" and "Tamsulosin" were highly correlated with "Kidney Pain" and "Kidney Stone" in both countries. Conclusions: In the last decade, there was a significant increase in online search for medical information related to stone-disease. Population from both countries tend to look more for generic terms related to symptoms, the disease, medical management and kidney stent, than for technical treatment vocabulary.

Humans , Kidney Calculi , Search Engine , United States/epidemiology , Ureteroscopy , Information Seeking Behavior , Language
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(8): 1198-1204, ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389584


Telemedicine has had a significant role during the outbreak of COVID-19. The experience in the United States has shown advantages and some challenges that need to be addressed to include telemedicine as an established part of the health system. This article aims to determine the United States' main challenges, associating them with the Chilean reality. In this study, we classify the barriers and difficulties for telemedicine into three areas: accessibility, cyber security, and medical liability.We argue that Chile will have to deal with similar obstacles to include telemedicine as a regular health service for the entire population.

Humans , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Liability, Legal , Pandemics
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 1419-1428, abr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285924


Abstract The present study was an effort to assess the mitigation interventions carried out, so far, by the nations to fight the pandemic COVID-19. The novelty of the study was that it had considered the issue of pandemic mitigation strategy as a decision making problem. The performances of the twenty nations were to be ranked. The problem considered in the study was essentially a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) problem. The available alternatives were the 20 countries and the 8 traits were the criteria. The Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used in the present study. The study used Entropy method for assignment of weights to all the criteria. The performance score obtained in respect of the countries considered in the study and the corresponding ranks indicated the relative performances of the countries in their efforts to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that New Zealand is the best performing country and India is the worst one. Brazil ranked 17th, while the rank of UK was 15. The performance of the USA stood at 18th position.

Resumo O presente estudo foi um esforço para avaliar as intervenções de mitigação realizadas, até o momento, pelas nações para combater a pandemia COVID-19. A novidade do estudo é que considerou a questão da estratégia de mitigação da pandemia como um problema de tomada de decisão. As performances das vinte nações deveriam ser classificadas. O problema considerado no estudo era essencialmente um problema de Análise de Decisão Multi-Critério (MCDA). As alternativas disponíveis eram os 20 países e as 8 características eram os critérios. A Técnica de Similaridade de Preferência de Pedido com a Solução Ideal (TOPSIS) foi utilizada no presente estudo. O estudo utilizou o método da Entropia para atribuição de pesos a todos os critérios. A pontuação de desempenho obtida em relação aos países considerados no estudo e as classificações correspondentes indicaram os desempenhos relativos dos países em seus esforços para mitigar a pandemia COVID-19. Os resultados mostram que a Nova Zelândia é o país com melhor desempenho e a Índia o pior. O Brasil ficou em 17º, enquanto o Reino Unido ficou em 15. O desempenho dos EUA ficou na 18ª posição.

Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Support Techniques , Entropy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(3): 1001-1012, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153847


Resumo A resposta americana à pandemia envolve um proeminente volume de recursos federais, em especial destinados ao desenvolvimento e aquisição de produtos no uso interno, como diagnósticos ou vacinas. As justificativas para esse desembolso se baseiam em mecanismos de investimentos e aspectos históricos. Assim, a construção social do nacionalismo na formação na sociedade americana prejudica o acesso a tecnologias em saúde. A revisão desses aspectos demonstra como os Estados Unidos (EUA) garantiram compra de grande quantitativo de produtos em potencial, inclusive assegurando excessiva produção local. Essa política externa unilateral tem influenciado outros países ou blocos regionais e prejudicado a cooperação e a solidariedade global com impacto na saúde coletiva de diversas nações.

Abstract The American response to the pandemic involves a prominent volume of federal resources, especially for developing and acquiring products for internal use, such as diagnostics or vaccines. Investment mechanisms and historical aspects justify this expenditure. Thus, the social construction of nationalism in American society hinders access to health technologies. The review of such aspects shows how the United States (U.S.) secured a large number of potential products, ensuring excessive local production. This unilateral foreign policy has influenced other countries or regional blocs and undermined global cooperation and solidarity, affecting the collective health of several nations.

Humans , Global Health , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , International Cooperation , Political Systems , United States/epidemiology , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Costs and Cost Analysis , Resource Allocation/economics , Resource Allocation/methods , Developing Countries , Diffusion of Innovation , Economics , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Accessibility
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 313-318, mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154313


Resumen Se examina la gestión de Donald Trump, presidente de los EEUU, en la pandemia de covid-19.

Abstract This article examines President Donald Trump's handling of the covid-19 pandemic in the United States.

Humans , Politics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , United States/epidemiology
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 58-66, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153106


ABSTRACT Purpose: The United States of America has the highest gun ownership rate of all high-income nations, and firearms have been identified as a leading cause of ocular trauma and visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to characterize firearm-associated ocular injury and identify at-risk groups. Methods: Patients admitted with firearm-associated ocular injury were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank (2008-2014) using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes and E-codes for external causes. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 24 software. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Of the 235,254 patients, 8,715 (3.7%) admitted with firearm-associated trauma had ocular injuries. Mean (standard deviation) age was 33.8 (16.9) years. Most were males (85.7%), White (46.6%), and from the South (42.9%). Black patients comprised 35% of cases. Common injuries were orbital fractures (38.6%) and open globe injuries (34.7%). Frequent locations of injury were at home (43.8%) and on the street (21.4%). Black patients had the highest risk of experiencing assault (odds ratio [OR]: 9.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.02-10.11; p<0.001) and street location of injury (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 2.74-3.39; p<0.001), while White patients had the highest risk of self-­inflicted injury (OR: 10.53; 95% CI: 9.39-11.81; p<0.001) and home location of injury (OR: 3.64; 95% CI: 3.33-3.98; p<0.001). There was a steadily increasing risk of self-inflicted injuries with age peaking in those >80 years (OR: 12.01; 95% CI: 7.49-19.23; p<0.001). Mean (standard deviation) Glasgow Coma Scale and injury severity scores were 10 (5.5) and 18.6 (13.0), respectively. Most injuries (53.1%) were classified as severe or very severe injury, 64.6% had traumatic brain injury, and mortality occurred in 16% of cases. Conclusion: Most firearm-associated ocular injuries occurred in young, male, White, and Southern patients. Blacks were disproportionally affected. Most firearm-associated ocular injuries were sight-­threatening and associated with traumatic brain injury. The majority survived, with potential long-term disabilities. The demographic differences identified in this study may represent potential targets for prevention.

RESUMO Objetivo: Os Estados Unidos têm a maior taxa de posse de armas de fogo de todos os países de alta renda e essas armas foram identificados como uma das maiores causas de trauma ocular e deficiência visual. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar as lesões oculares associadas a armas de fogo e identificar grupos de risco. Métodos: Foram identificados pacientes hospitalizados com lesões oculares associadas a armas de fogo no período de 2008 a 2014, a partir do Banco de Dados Nacional de Trauma (National Trauma Data Bank), usando os códigos de diagnósticos da CID9MC e códigos "E" para causas externas. A análise estatística foi efetuada usando o programa SPSS. O nível de significância considerado foi de p<0,05. Resultados: De um total de 235.254 pacientes hospitalizados com trauma associado a armas de fogo, 8.715 (3,7%) tinham lesões oculares. A média de idade foi de 33,8 (DP 16,9) anos. A maioria foi de homens (85,7%), brancos (46,6%) e da região Sul (42,9%); 35% dos pacientes eram negros. As lesões mais comuns foram fraturas de órbita (38,6%) e lesões de globo aberto (34,7%). Os locais mais frequentes foram a residência (43,8%) e a rua (21,4%). Pacientes negros tiveram maior probabilidade de sofrer agressões (RP=9,0, IC 95%=8,02-10,11; p<0,001) e da ocorrência ser na rua (RP=3,05, IC 95%=2,74-3,39; p<0,001), enquanto pacientes brancos tiveram maior probabilidade de lesões autoprovocadas (RP=10,53, IC 95%=9,39-11,81; p<0,001) e da ocorrência ser na residência (RP=3,64, IC 95%=3,33-3,98; p<0,001). A probabilidade de lesões autoprovocadas aumentou com a idade de forma consistente, atingindo o máximo em pacientes com mais de 80 anos (RP=12,01, IC 95%=7,49-19,23; p<0,001). A pontuação média na escala de coma de Glasgow foi 10 (DP 5,5) e na escala de severidade da lesão foi 18,6 (DP 13,0). A maioria das lesões (53,1%) foi classificada como severa ou muito severa. Dentre os pacientes, 64,6% tiveram lesão cerebral traumática e 16% evoluíram a óbito. Conclusão: A maior parte das lesões oculares relacionadas a armas de fogo ocorreu em pacientes jovens, do sexo masculino, brancos e sulistas. Negros foram afetados desproporcionalmente. A maior parte das lesões oculares relacionadas a armas de fogo apresentou riscos à visão e foi associada a lesões cerebrais traumáticas. A maioria dos pacientes sobreviveu, mas com potencial para invalidez no longo prazo. As diferenças demográficas identificadas podem ser potencialmente alvos de ações preventivas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Firearms , Eye Injuries/etiology , Eye Injuries/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , White People , United States/epidemiology , Injury Severity Score , Retrospective Studies
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e36, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252020


ABSTRACT Objectives. To analyze changes in racial/ethnic disparities for unintentional injury mortality from 1999-2016. Methods. Mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for all unintentional injuries, analyzed separately by injury cause (motor vehicle accidents [MVA], poisonings, other unintentional) for white,black, and Hispanic populations within four age groups: 15-19, 20-34, 35-54, 55-74 for males and for females. Results. Rates across race/ethnic groups varied by gender, age and cause of injury. Unintentional injury mortality showed a recent increase for both males and females, which was more marked among males and for poisoning in all race/ethnic groups of both genders. Whites showed highest rates of poisoning mortality and the steepest increase for both genders, except for black males aged 55-74. MVA mortality also showed an increase for all race/ethnic groups, with a sharper rise among blacks, while Hispanics had lower rates than either whites or blacks. Rates for other unintentional injury mortality were similar across groups except for white women over 55, for whom rates were elevated. Conclusions. Data suggest while mortality from unintentional injury related to MVA and poisoning is on the rise for both genders and in most age groups, blacks compared to whites and Hispanics may be suffering a disproportionate burden of mortality related to MVAs and to poisonings among those over 55, which may be related to substance use.

RESUMEN Objetivos. Analizar cambios en las disparidades por raza y grupo étnico en materia de mortalidad por traumatismos no intencionales de 1999 al 2016. Métodos. Los datos de mortalidad de todos los traumatismos no intencionales provienen del Centro Nacional de Estadísticas Sanitarias y se han analizado por separado por causa de traumatismo (colisiones automovilísticas, intoxicaciones y otras causas no intencionales) y por población blanca, negra e hispana, tanto en hombres como en mujeres, en cuatro grupos etarios: de 15 a 19, de 20 a 34, de 35 a 54 y de 55 a 74. Resultados. Las tasas en todos los grupos raciales y étnicos variaron según el sexo, la edad y la causa del traumatismo. La mortalidad por traumatismo no intencional mostró un aumento reciente tanto en hombres como en mujeres, que fue más marcado en el caso de los hombres, y por intoxicación en todos los grupos raciales y étnicos de ambos sexos. La población blanca mostró las tasas más elevadas de mortalidad por intoxicación y el incremento más acentuado en ambos sexos, con excepción de los hombres negros entre 55 y 74 años de edad. La mortalidad por colisión automovilística también registró un aumento en todos los grupos raciales y étnicos, con un incremento mayor en la población negra, mientras que la población hispana mostró tasas inferiores que la blanca o la negra. Las tasas de mortalidad por otros traumatismos no intencionales fueron similares en todos grupos salvo en el caso de las mujeres blancas de más de 55 años, cuyas tasas mostraron un incremento. Conclusiones. Los datos indican que, si bien la mortalidad por traumatismo no intencional relacionada con colisiones automovilísticas e intoxicación está en alza en ambos sexos y en la mayoría de los grupos etarios, la población negra en comparación con la blanca y la hispana puede estar presentando una carga desproporcionada de mortalidad relacionada con colisiones automovilísticas e intoxicación en personas mayores de 55, que podrían estar relacionado con el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas.

RESUMO Objetivos. Analisar as mudanças nas disparidades étnico-raciais da mortalidade por lesões acidentais no período 1999-2016. Métodos. Os dados de mortalidade foram obtidos do Centro Nacional de Estatísticas de Saúde (NCHS) dos Estados Unidos para todos os tipos de lesões acidentais e analisados em separado por causa de lesão (acidentes de trânsito de veículos a motor, envenenamento/intoxicação e outros tipos de acidentes) em grupos populacionais de brancos, negros e hispânicos de ambos os sexos divididos em quatro faixas etárias: 15-19, 20-34, 35-54 e 55-74 anos. Resultados. As taxas de mortalidade nos grupos étnico-raciais variaram segundo sexo, idade e causa de lesão. Houve um aumento recente na mortalidade por lesões acidentais nos sexos masculino e feminino, sendo mais acentuado no sexo masculino e por envenenamento/intoxicação em todos os grupos étnicos-raciais de ambos os sexos. A população branca apresentou as maiores taxas de mortalidade por envenenamento/intoxicação e o aumento mais acentuado na mortalidade em ambos os sexos, exceto por homens negros de 55-74 anos. Ocorreu também um aumento da mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito de veículos a motor em todos os grupos étnico-raciais, sendo mais acentuado em negros, e a mortalidade na população hispânica foi menor que em brancos ou negros. As taxas de mortalidade por outros tipos de acidentes foram semelhantes em todos os grupos, exceto em mulheres brancas acima de 55 anos que apresentaram taxas elevadas. Conclusões. Os dados analisados indicam que, apesar de a mortalidade por lesões acidentais por acidentes de trânsito de veículos a motor e envenenamento/intoxicação estar aumentando em ambos os sexos e na maioria das faixas etárias, em comparação a brancos e hispânicos, os negros possivelmente sofrem um ônus desproporcional de mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito e envenenamento/intoxicação no grupo acima de 55 anos que pode estar associada ao uso de substâncias químicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Accidents/mortality , Mortality/ethnology , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Ethnic Inequality , United States/epidemiology , Accidents/classification , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Health Status Disparities
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154140


Objetivo: Descrever as medidas de contenção de tipo lockdown e a incidência da COVID-19 em sete países: África do Sul, Alemanha, Brasil, Espanha, Estados Unidos, Itália e Nova Zelândia. Métodos: Estudo ecológico descritivo, com dados da incidência diária dos casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 22 de fevereiro e 31 de agosto de 2020, e informações sobre medidas de lockdown implementadas pelo governo de cada país. Resultados: Os países que implementaram lockdown tiveram diminuição da incidência diária de COVID-19 (casos por milhão de habitantes) no período de três semanas, a contar do início da medida: África do Sul (3,7 a 1,7), Alemanha (37,5 a 33,7), Espanha (176,3 a 82,0), Itália (92,0 a 52,1) e Nova Zelândia (7,5 a 1,7). O Brasil e os Estados Unidos, que não implementaram lockdown, não apresentaram uma diminuição considerável. Conclusão: Após a implementação de lockdown, houve uma diminuição considerável do número de casos confirmados.

Objetivo: Describir las medidas de contención tipo lockdown y la incidencia de COVID-19 en los países de Sudáfrica, Alemania, Brasil, España, Estados Unidos, Italia y Nueva Zelanda. Métodos: Estudio ecológico descriptivo con datos de la incidencia diaria de los casos confirmados de COVID-19, del 22 de febrero al 31 de agosto de 2020 e informaciones sobre medidas de contención lockdown implementadas por los gobiernos de cada uno de los países. Resultados: Los países que implementaron lockdown, desde el inicio de su implementación hasta tres semanas después, tuvieron una disminución en la incidencia diaria (casos por millón de habitantes): Sudáfrica (3,7 a 1,7), Alemania (37,5 a 33,7), España (176,3 a 82,0), Italia (92,0 a 52,1) y Nueva Zelanda (7,5 a 1,7). Brasil y Estados Unidos, que no implementaron lockdown, no tuvieron una disminución considerable Conclusión: Luego de la implementación del lockdown, hubo una disminución considerable en el número de casos confirmados.

Objective: To describe lockdown-type containment measures and COVID-19 incidence in South Africa, Germany, Brazil, Spain, United States, Italy and New Zealand. Methods: This is a descriptive ecological study with data on daily incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases from February 22 to August 31 2020, as well as information on lockdown measures implemented by the governments of each country. Results: Daily COVID-19 incidence (cases per 1 million inhabitants) decreased within three weeks after lockdown started in the countries that implemented it: South Africa (3.7 to 1.7), Germany (37.5 to 33.7) Spain (176.3 to 82.0), Italy (92.0 to 52.1) and New Zealand (7.5 to 1.7). As for Brazil and the United States, which did not implement lockdown, there was no considerable decrease. Conclusion: After lockdown implementation, there was a considerable decrease in the number of confirmed cases.

Humans , Psychological Distance , Quarantine/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Health Policy/trends , Italy/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 580-585, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941321


Objective: This study aimed to compare the prevalence and trends of conventional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease(ASCVD) between young Chinese and American adults with first acute myocardial infarction. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis. Hospitalized yang adults (aged from 18 to 44 years old) with first acute myocardial infarction(AMI) from January 2007 through December 2017 were identified from Beijing Anzhen hospital medical record system. Prevalence and trends of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, and dyslipidemia were analyzed and compared with young American adults, whose data were reported by Yandrapalli et al, and the hospitalizations for a first AMI in young adults aged 18 to 44 years were identified from national inpatient sample from January 2005 through September 2015. Results: Chinese cohort included 2 866 young adults with a first AMI (male, n=2 739, female, n=127), the mean age was (39±5) years. Presentation of AMI was more frequently ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (77.3%, 2 214/2 866). American cohort included 280 875 subjects (male, n=203 700, female, n=77 175), the mean age was 39±5 years. Presentation of AMI was more frequently non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (53.6%, 150 549/280 875). In China, dyslipidemia 2 254 (78.6%), smoking 2 084(72.7%), and hypertension 1 170 (40.8%) were most prevalent, and 96.0% (2 752/2 866) of patients had at least 1 risk factor; in the United States, smoking 159 537(56.8%), dyslipidemia 145 212 (51.7%), and hypertension 139 876 (49.8%) were most prevalent, and 90.3% (253 630/280 875) of patients had at least 1 risk factor. Women had a prevalence of diabetes was higher in women, and prevalence of dyslipidemia and smoking was higher in men in China (all P<0.05);prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension was higher in Women, and prevalence of dyslipidemia and smoking was higher in man in the United States (all P<0.001). Prevalence of dyslipidemia and smoking was higher Chinese men (79.3% vs. 54.6%, 75.5% vs. 58.1%,all P<0.001), and prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension was lower (13.1% vs. 18.6%, 14.9% vs. 19.9%, 40.6% vs. 49.3%, all P<0.001)in Chinses cohort than those in the United States cohort. Prevalence of smoking and obesity was lower (12.6% vs. 53.4%, 10.2% vs. 26.9%, all P<0.001) and prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher (63.8% vs. 44.1% P<0.001) in Chinese women than those in the United States women. Patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction had a higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension than patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in China (20.1% vs.10.9%, 17.6% vs. 14.5%, 47.4% vs. 38.9%, all P<0.05). The prevalence of the three risk factors also was higher in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the US (24.0% vs.17.0%, 25.0% vs. 20.0%, 54.6% vs. 44.2%, all P<0.001), prevalence of smoking and dyslipidemia was lower in these patients (53.5% vs. 60.5%,51.4% vs. 52.1%, all P<0.001). The prevalence of hypertension and obesity increased and the rate of smoking reduced in China from 2007 through 2017 (all trend P<0.001). The prevalence of all these five conventional risk factors increased temporally in the United States from 2005 to 2015 (all trend P<0.001). The prevalence of hypertension increased by 15.6% in China and 14.5% in the United States, respectively, accounting the largest increase. Conclusions: Smoking, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are most prevalent in China and United State. Significant sex and AMI subtype difference are observed for individual risk factors. The prevalence of hypertension and obesity increased significantly over time in China and all these five conventional risk factors increased significantly in the United States.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , China/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677


Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.

This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.

Public Policy , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50470, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146257


Objetivo: analisar casos acumulados da COVID-19 em Brasil, Espanha, Itália, China e EUA. Métodos: estudo ecológico, com uso de dados secundários. Realizou-se série temporal de casos cumulativos de COVID-19 por 28 dias, após o 100º caso confirmado de cada país (baseado nas estatísticas do Worldometer 2020). Modelos de tendência linear, exponencial, potencial e logaritmo foram testados, sendo escolhido o melhor coeficiente de determinação (R²). No Brasil, a linha de tendência foi segmentada em 1º-14º dia e 15º-28º dia. Resultados: no 100º dia, os EUA possuíam maior número de casos e o Brasil, o menor. Houve linha de tendência em sua maioria exponencial, com maior velocidade de crescimento nos EUA. No Brasil, houve tendência de crescimento mais lento no segundo período. Conclusão: as linhas de tendência calculadas demonstraram pior prognóstico para os EUA. No Brasil, o crescimento do número cumulativo de casos foi mais lento na no segundo período do estudo.

Objective: to examine cumulative cases of COVID-19 in Brazil, Spain, Italy, China, and USA. Method: in this ecological study, secondary data were used to produce time series of cumulative cases of COVID-19 over 28 days after the 100th case confirmed in each country (from Worldometer 2020 statistics). Linear, exponential, potential and logarithmic trend models were tested, and the best coefficient of determination (R²) was chosen. In Brazil, the trend line was segmented into days 1-14 and 15-28. Results: on day 100, the USA had the highest number of cases and Brazil, the lowest. The trend lines were mostly exponential, with highest growth rate in the USA. In Brazil, the growth trend was slower in the second period. Conclusion: the calculated trend lines showed a worse prognosis for the USA. In Brazil, the cumulative number of cases grew more slowly in the second period of the study.

Objetivo: examinar casos acumulados de COVID-19 en Brasil, España, Italia, China y Estados Unidos. Método: en este estudio ecológico, se utilizaron datos secundarios para producir series de tiempo de casos acumulados de COVID-19 durante 28 días después del 100o caso confirmado en cada país (de las estadísticas del Worldometer 2020). Se probaron modelos de tendencia lineal, exponencial, potencial y logarítmica y se eligió el mejor coeficiente de determinación (R²). En Brasil, la línea de tendencia se segmentó en los días 1-14 y 15-28. Resultados: el día 100, EE.UU. tuvo el mayor número de casos y Brasil, el menor. Las líneas de tendencia fueron en su mayoría exponenciales, con la tasa de crecimiento más alta en los EE. UU. En Brasil, la tendencia de crecimiento fue más lenta en el segundo período. Conclusión: las líneas de tendencia calculadas mostraron un peor pronóstico para EE. UU. En Brasil, el número acumulado de casos creció más lentamente en el segundo período del estudio.

Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Time Series Studies , Ecological Studies , Italy/epidemiology
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(1): 17-21, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249864


Resumen Introducción: En Estados Unidos se dispone de información acerca de la población mexicoamericana por el Estudio de Salud y Envejecimiento del Cerebro en Latinos Mayores (HABLE); en México se dispone de los resultados del Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM). Objetivo: Comparar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular entre hombres y mujeres de HABLE y ENASEM. Método: Se analizó transversalmente la prevalencia de hipertensión, diabetes, hipercolesterolemia y obesidad abdominal en 559 participantes de HABLE y se comparó con datos de 13 663 participantes del ENASEM. La comparación se realizó mediante t de Student y chi cuadrada, según el tipo de variable. Resultados: El análisis demostró que la prevalencia de hipertensión (50 %, IC 95 % = 41.8-51.8), diabetes (35.5 %, IC 95 % = 27.6-43.8) y obesidad abdominal (59.3 %, IC 95 % = 50.5-68.1) fueron significativamente mayores en hombres del HABLE, mientras que las mujeres presentaron una prevalencia más elevada de diabetes (36.8 %, IC 95 % = 32.2-41.5) y obesidad abdominal (89.6 %, IC 95 % = 86.6-92.5). La hipercolesterolemia tuvo una prevalencia más elevada en mujeres del ENASEM (53.3 %, IC 95 % = 50.3-56.2). Conclusión: La prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular fue mayor en mexicoamericanos participantes del HABLE, que en mexicanos participantes del ENASEM.

Abstract Introduction: In the United States, information on the Mexican-American population is available through the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders (HABLE) study; in Mexico, the results of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) are available. Objective: To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between men and women of the HABLE and MHAS studies. Method: The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and abdominal obesity was transversely analyzed in 559 HABLE participants and compared with data from 13,663 MHAS participants. The comparison was made using Student’s t-test and the chi-square test, according to the type of variable. Results: The analysis showed that the prevalence of hypertension (50 %, 95 % CI = 41.8-51.8), diabetes (35.5 %, 95 % CI = 27.6-43.8) and abdominal obesity (59.3 %, 95 % CI = 50.5-68.1) were significantly higher in HABLE males, whereas females had a higher prevalence of diabetes (36.8 %, 95 % CI = 32.2-41.5) and abdominal obesity (89.6 %, 95 % CI = 86.6-92.5). Hypercholesterolemia had a higher prevalence in MHAS females (53.3%, 95% CI = 50.3-56.2). Conclusion: The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in Mexican American HABLE participants, than in Mexican MHAS participants.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Longitudinal Studies , Mexican Americans/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Diabetes Mellitus/ethnology , Obesity, Abdominal/ethnology , Hypercholesterolemia/ethnology , Hypertension/ethnology , Mexico/ethnology , Mexico/epidemiology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135503


Abstract Objective: To determine if there are differences in protein profiles in saliva depending if children of caries-free versus caries affected. Material and Methods: A cohort of 91 children with ages between 6 and 19 years, along clinical status of caries experience. Protein profiles in saliva were determined using electrophoresis and the calculation of the percentage of a specific band at a specific molecular weight in relationship to the total protein in that sample (% of total) using molecular weight standards. This quantification was repeated for each protein band across a range of molecular weights for each sample. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Student t-tests were used to compare the distributions between caries-free and caries affected children (α=0.05). Results: Histatin was more likely to be non-detectable or reduced in caries-free children (OR=7.56; 95% CI 1.62-35.13) and these children had on average one less gel band detected by the assay we used. Conclusion: We have found differences in proteins between caries affected and caries-free children, suggesting that this line of investigation holds the promise of providing new tools for caries management.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Saliva/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Proteomics , Electrophoresis , United States/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Data Interpretation, Statistical
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 20(supl.1): e0131, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135584


Abstract Objective: To describe and compare how three dental schools from different countries (Australia, Brazil, and the USA) have managed experiences in dental education during the COVID-19 crisis. Material and Methods: It is a descriptive study reporting the experience that three distinct dental schools faced during the COVID-19 pandemic. They represent countries that adopted different measures to tackle the pandemic and were undergoing different stages of the disease. Results: After the WHO declared the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal University of Paraíba suspended all on-site teaching, research, and service activities. For the return to teaching activities, the use of information and communications technology resources for distance learning was recommended. At the School of Dental Medicine (University of Pittsburgh), all research activities were suspended or, otherwise, could not be interrupted because of the employment of unique materials or supplies. When the pandemic started, Australia was one of the first countries to introduce strong regulations related to social distancing, travel restrictions, testing and tracking of infected patients. As such, the universities started to be closed from mid-March, cancelling all clinical and pre-clinical activities, maintaining online theoretical activities, such as seminars, lectures, and journal clubs. Conclusion: Numerous and critical difficulties have arisen as a result of the pandemic for individuals, communities and institutions that will have long-lasting effects. Our students face disruption to their education and career; our professional colleagues will be challenged rebuilding their practices, while staff at all Dental Schools are experiencing various hardships.

Social Isolation/psychology , Coronavirus/immunology , Educational Technology/methods , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Education, Dental , Schools, Dental , Australia/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Education, Distance/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200331, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136846


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The acceleration of new cases is important for the characterization and comparison of epidemic curves. The objective of this study was to quantify the acceleration of daily confirmed cases and death curves using the polynomial interpolation method. METHODS: Covid-19 epidemic curves from Brazil, Germany, the United States, and Russia were obtained. We calculated the instantaneous acceleration of the curve using the first derivative of the representative polynomial. RESULTS: The acceleration for all curves was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating acceleration into an analysis of the Covid-19 time series may enable a better understanding of the epidemiological situation.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Normal Distribution , Incidence , Russia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pandemics , Data Analysis , Germany/epidemiology
CoDAS ; 32(4): e20200222, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133508


RESUMO Objetivo descrever a evolução funcional da deglutição em pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos à intervenção fonoaudiológica na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo (UTI). Método participaram do estudo 77 pacientes (ambos os gêneros; idade média 53.4±15.9; escore na Escala de Coma de Glasgow ≥14; e condição respiratória estável). A escala funcional utilizada para a avaliação da deglutição foi a American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). Resultados os resultados indicam que houve recuperação significativa nos padrões funcionais da deglutição na comparação pré e pós-intervenção fonoaudiológica. Conclusão 83% dos pacientes necessitam de até 3 intervenções para a recuperação dos padrões seguros de deglutição.

ABSTRACT Purpose to describe de functional development of swallowing in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, who were submitted to a swallowing intervention. Methods participants of the study were 77 patients (both gender, mean age 53.4±15.9; score on the Glasgow Coma Scale ≥14 and stable respiratory condition). The functional scale of swallowing used for assessment was the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). Results the results indicate that there was a significant recovery of the functional swallowing patterns when comparing the measurements pre and post swallowing intervention. Conclusion 83% of the patients needed up to 3 swallowing interventions to recover a safe swallowing pattern.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Deglutition/physiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , United States/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged