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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1456-1468, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352125

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación sobre la universidad médica en Cuba, incluyendo la enseñanza de la Medicina y la Estomatología, con el objetivo de explicar su evolución histórica durante la etapa colonial. Se enfatizó en las principales figuras que ejercieron en este período, las primeras publicaciones médicas, y las instituciones y centros asistenciales que regían la práctica de la medicina. Se concluye que la universidad médica en Cuba se fundó sobre una base escolástica y tradicionalista. A partir de 1842, la enseñanza de la Medicina se desarrolló con la creación de nuevos planes de estudios, el incremento de profesionales capacitados, la publicación de revistas científicas de alto prestigio, y la aparición de centros docentes de gran calidad (AU).


ABSTRACT A research was carried out on the medical university in Cuba, including the teaching of Medicine and Dentistry, with the aim of explaining its historical evolution during the colonial period. The authors emphasized the main figures who worked during this period, the first medical publications, and the institutions and healthcare centers that implemented the practice of medicine. It is concluded that the medical university in Cuba was founded on a scholastic and traditionalist basis. From 1842, the teaching of Medicine developed with the creation of new curricula, the increase of trained professionals, the publication of high-quality scientific journals, and the emergence of high-quality teaching centers (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Schools, Medical/history , Colonialism/history , Universities/history , Cuba , General Practice/history
2.
Barbarói ; (59,n.esp): 113-154, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1359173

ABSTRACT

Na entrevista, o professor Marcos Moura Baptista dos Santos considera sua experiência na gestão da UNISC, tanto na condição de Pró-Reitor do Planejamento quanto na condição de Chefe do Departamento de Ciências Humanas, para analisar as mudanças que ocorreram, ao longo da história, nas experiências das Universidades Comunitárias. Contextualiza o processo político que resultou na criação da UNISC, no início da década de 1990, avalia as mudanças que ocorreram nas diferentes gestões da UNISC e problematiza as mudanças recentes, ocorridas num contexto de crise econômica e política que repercute na própria experiência histórica de Universidade no Brasil. Ao mesmo tempo, o professor Marcos considera as mudanças que ocorrem no processo de formação universitária, em especial nas Universidades Comunitárias, considerando essas mudanças desde os compromissos assumidos pelas Universidades Comunitárias em suas histórias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Teaching , Universities/history , Universities/organization & administration , Humanities
3.
Barbarói ; (59,n.esp): 279-286, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1359482

ABSTRACT

Em sua reflexão, a professora Suzana resgata aspectos do debate sobre Universidade que orientou o processo político que antecedeu a concretização de um movimento político em favor da criação da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul. No decorrer de sua análise, defende que a memória daquela reflexão e daquele processo político tem valor para a compreensão do significado e do papel das Ciências Humanas na Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul.(AU)


In her reflection, Professor Suzana recovers aspects of the reflection on the University that guided the political process that preceded the realization of a political movement in favor of the creation of the University of Santa Cruz do Sul. In the course of her analysis, she argues that the memory of that reflection and that political process has value for understanding the meaning and role of Human Sciences at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul.(AU)


Subject(s)
Universities/history , Humanities/education , Universities
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(5): 2449-2464, sept.-oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150029

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN muy poco se conoce y apenas existe documentación sobre lo que la Federación Estudiantil Universitaria ha realizado en la provincia y en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas. Por ser tan importante esta temática como parte del rescate de la memoria histórica de la organización estudiantil, constituye un reto investigar y escribirla. Describir algunos apuntes históricos del inicio y desarrollo de la Federación Estudiantil Universitaria en la hoy Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas, durante una primera etapa. Se describen algunos de los principales hechos vinculados al trabajo de los miembros de la Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de las carreras de ciencias médicas de Matanzas, se recopiló información sobre sus dirigentes estudiantiles, eventos académicos, científicos, culturales, juegos deportivos, entre otros, desde los años iniciales de la educación médica superior en la provincia hasta el comienzo de la década del 90. La historia de la Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios, en la hoy Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas, refleja el papel desempeñado por la organización, sus miembros y dirigentes, lo que la hace rejuvenecer cada año, con las nuevas generaciones que la integran (AU).


SUMMARY Very little is known and there is hardly any documentation on what the University Students Federation (FEU by its Spanish initialism) has done in the province and at Matanzas University of Medical Sciences. Because this theme is so important as part of the rescue of the historical memory of the student's organization, it is a challenge to investigate and write it. To provide some historical notes on the beginning and development of the University Student Federation in the current University of Medical Sciences of Matanzas, during a first stage. The authors described some of the main facts related to the work of the members of the University Students Federation of the medical sciences degree courses of Matanzas; they collected information about its student leaders, academic, scientific, cultural events, sports games, among others, from the initial years of higher medical education in the province until the beginning of the 90s.The history of the University Students Federation at Matanzas University of Medical Sciences mirrors the role played by the organization, its members and leaders, rejuvenating it every year, with the new generations joining it in (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Organizations/history , Students, Public Health/history , Universities/history , Models, Organizational , Education/history , Education/methods
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1074-1089, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124899

ABSTRACT

Los conocimientos anatómicos luego de impartirse en los primeros 200 años de nuestra historia de manera extrauniversitaria, pasan a enseñar en 1978 desde la Real Universidad de San Felipe, al Instituto Nacional en 1833 y de éste, a la actual Universidad de Chile, en 1842. Siguiendo los preceptos de las Primas de Medicina españolas, el desarrollo de la disciplina se realizaba en condiciones deplorables, llenas de riesgos asociados a infecciones y heridas durante las prácticas, haciendo mención al origen de los primeros cadáveres utilizados para la docencia, en un periodo que va entre el año de 1842 cuando nace la Universidad, y 1920, año en que el Instituto de Anatomía se traslada a su actual ubicación, periodo en el cual son franceses los primeros profesores, recibiendo posteriormente influencia alemana, para luego recibir el influjo norteamericano. Este trabajo describe la continuación de la enseñanza de la Anatomía Humana, dependiente de la institución más antigua en fucionamiento del país, la Universidad de Chile, origen y alma mater de muchos anatomistas, quienes desarrollaron la enseñanza de la anatomía en el resto del país.


After 200 years of informal anatomical science education in Chile, the anatomy studies program of the Spanish Royal University of San Felipe (1758), is passed on to Chile's National Institute in the year 1833. Subsequently in 1842, the studies program is transferred to the current Universidad de Chile, and following the percepts of Spanish Medicine, records indicate the development of this discipline was carried out under wretched conditions, that included serious risks associated with infections and injuries during practices. There is also reference to the origin of the first corpses used in education between the year 1842, when the University was established, and 1920, the year in which the Institute of Anatomy moved to its present location. During this initial period, our professors were of French origin, which was followed by German influence, and later featured North American influence. Therefore, the objective of this work is to describe the continuity of Human Anatomy teachings, currently reliant on the Universidad de Chile. This being the oldest educational institution in the country, it constitutes the origin and alma mater of many anatomists, who will be responsible for the teaching and instruction of anatomy in the rest of the country.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Universities/history , Anatomy/history , Chile
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 888-895, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055200

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The establishment of modern medicine in Brazil was marked by the arrival of the Portuguese Court in 1808, when the Bahia and Rio de Janeiro Faculties of Medicine were founded. The French School of Medicine exerted a strong influence on Brazilian medicine and on the main pioneers of Brazilian neurology. The elite of "Parisian neurology" trained students and doctors from around the world, and were mentors to the pioneers of Brazilian neurology in the early 20th century. In this article, the authors review the origins of neurology faculties in Brazilian medicine and the main pioneers of Brazilian neurology. Neurology is certainly a continuously changing field and has always adapted to new advances and discoveries, and it is an honor for the authors to pay homage to their pioneers.


RESUMO O estabelecimento da medicina moderna no Brasil foi marcado pela chegada da corte portuguesa em 1808, quando foram fundadas as faculdades de medicina da Bahia e do Rio de Janeiro. A Escola Francesa de Medicina exerceu forte influência na Medicina Brasileira e nos principais pioneiros da Neurologia Brasileira. A elite da "Neurologia parisiense", treinou estudantes e médicos de todo o mundo e foram os mentores dos pioneiros da neurologia brasileira no início do século XX. Neste texto, os autores revisam as origens das faculdades de Neurologia na Medicina Brasileira e os principais pioneiros da Neurologia Brasileira. A neurologia é certamente um campo em constante mudança e sempre se adaptou a novos avanços e descobertas, e é uma honra para os autores homenagear seus pioneiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Schools, Medical/history , Psychiatry/history , Universities/history , Brazil , Literature, Medieval/history , Neurology/history
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 705-711, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038730

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) is one of the pillars of Brazilian Medicine and, in Neurology, has always shown prominence, with notable professors such as Antônio Austregésilo and Deolindo Couto. Historically, practitioners of the UFRJ Medical School have discovered neurological signs that, although used in medical and academic practice, have never been published. Objective Our aim was to bring these signs to the forefront so that they become properly recognized and studied. Methods We conducted our search by questioning 49 professors and physicians by e-mail about neurological signs that they remembered having had contact with at UFRJ. Results We report on the unpublished pillow sign in progressive supranuclear palsy; the Brazilian sandal sign in functional or malingering patients; the dermographism sign in acute meningitis; the reverse forearm rolling sign in functional palsies; the cycling maneuver in parkinsonian syndromes and the Sá Cavalcanti sign, a Babinski equivalent. We have also recollected the following published signs for their historical relevance: the Austregésilo sign (Antônio Austregésilo), another Babinski equivalent; the digiti quinti rolling sign in subtle palsies (Péricles Maranhão) and the digiti quinti sign in hemiplegic migraine (Maurice Vincent). These signs are easily reproduced and have potential clinical applicability, deserving to be more thoroughly studied. Conclusions Through a qualitative methodology, we have identified six original unpublished neurological signs known by the academic community, establishing the contribution of these individuals to the expansion of neurological semiology.


RESUMO A Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro é um dos pilares da Medicina brasileira. Na Neurologia sempre se destacou com notáveis professores, como Antônio Austregésilo e Deolindo Couto. Historicamente, professores da Faculdade de Medicina da UFRJ descreveram sinais neurológicos que, embora utilizados na prática médica e acadêmica, nunca foram publicados. Objetivo Fazer ressurgir sinais clínicos neurológicos nunca antes publicados, para que possam ser devidamente reconhecidos e estudados. Métodos Quarenta e nove professores e médicos foram contactados por e-mail. Dez responderam questionário semi-estruturado acerca de sinais neurológicos conhecidos pelos profissionais, porém nunca publicados. Resultados Foram relatados: 1- Sinal do Travesseiro - na Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva; 2- Sinal da sandália- nos pacientes funcionais ou simuladores; 3- Sinal do dermografismo- nas meningites agudas da infância; 4- Sinal do rolamento reverso do antebraço- nas paralisias funcionais; 5- Manobra do pedalar- nas síndromes parkinsonianas; 6- Sinal de Sá Cavalcanti- um sucedâneo de Babinski. Revisamos também os seguintes sinais publicados, por sua relevância histórica: o sinal Austregésilo, outro sucedâneo de Babinski; sinal do rolamento do quinto dedo- nas paralisias sutis e o sinal do quinto dedo- na enxaqueca hemiplégia. Conclusão Por meio de metodologia qualitativa, identificamos seis sinais neurológicos inéditos originais. Esses sinais são de fácil reprodutibilidade e têm aplicabilidade clínica potencial, merecendo estudos adicionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Universities/history , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/history , Neurology/history , Universities/trends , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Faculty, Medical/history , Neurologists/history , Neurology/trends
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(2): 385-405, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012193

ABSTRACT

Resumo O ensaio avalia o impacto da Reforma Cabanis na configuração do modelo de formação em saúde que se tornou hegemônico no Brasil. Primeiro, discute o processo de construção social, ideológica e institucional do modelo de assistência à saúde da França pós-revolucionária. Em seguida, introduz os principais elementos da Reforma Cabanis, analisando aspectos curriculares e pedagógicos da nova proposta de ensino médico baseado em profissionalismo, disciplinaridade e especialização que resultou num sistema de ensino superior sem universidades. Depois avalia o processo histórico que resultou no "afrancesamento" do sistema educacional brasileiro, resultando num modelo de formação em saúde baseado em faculdades, hospitais, aulas, disciplinas, especialidades e diplomas.


Abstract This text assesses the impact of the Cabanis reform on the formation of the health training model which became hegemonic in Brazil. First, we shall briefly discuss the process of constructing the social, ideological, and institutional framework for healthcare in post-revolutionary France. Next the main elements of the Cabanis reform are introduced, analyzing curricular and pedagogical aspects of the new plan for medical education based on professionalism, disciplines, and expertise that resulted in a system of higher education without universities. This is followed by assessment of the historical process which resulted in the "Francization" of the Brazilian educational system, particularly in higher education and more specifically medical education, producing a model of health training based on colleges, hospitals, classrooms, disciplines, skills, and diplomas.


Subject(s)
History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Health Care Reform/history , Education, Medical/history , Schools, Medical/history , Universities/history , Brazil , Curriculum , Education, Professional/history , France
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(1): 283-291, ene.-feb. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1046630

ABSTRACT

Rememorar medio siglo de rica historia de la docencia médica matancera nos conduce inexorablemente a la génesis de las condiciones socioeconómicas y políticas que marcaron el surgimiento de la Revolución Cubana, las cuales motivaron y conllevaron al surgimiento de la formación médica revolucionaria, su impronta, su ética signada por la equidad y justicia, el humanismo, la solidaridad y el internacionalismo, su nuevo modelo de formación, sus predios, sus escenarios, sus profesores y estudiantes, así como el impacto social que conllevó tan trascendental hecho para la historia de la Salud Pública en nuestro país y en particular, para nuestra provincia, la cual ha trascendido en el contexto internacional. Iniciemos un breve recorrido por la historia, a propósito de los fructíferos 50 años de docencia médica superior revolucionaria en la provincia de Matanzas. Sirva, pues, este modesto empeño, para reconocer a todos los que han participado en tan noble y grandiosa obra...(AU)


Summoning up half a century of the rich history of Matanzasan high medical education inexorably leads to the genesis of socio-economical and political conditions characterizing the beginning of the Cuban revolution; they motivated and led to the emergence of the revolutionary medical training, its imprint, its ethics signed by equity and justice, solidarity and internationalism, its new training model, its settings, its professionals and students; the social impact of that transcendental fact for the history of Public Health in our country and specially in our province is very important, and extends to the international context. Then, let's begging a short journey through the history on the purpose of these 50 years of high revolutionary medical teaching in the province of Matanzas, serving also as a recognition for all the people that has took part in this virtuous and outstanding task...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Universities/history , Education, Medical/history , History of Medicine , Universities
13.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 131(4): 21-24, Dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009727

ABSTRACT

El movimiento estudiantil que se inició con la lucha de los estudiantes de Córdoba por la reforma de la universidad señala el nacimiento de una nueva generación latinoamericana. La reforma universitaria se distinguió por instalar la autonomía, el cogobierno, las cátedras libres y la extensión universitaria y, además, produjo dos grandes corrientes culturales, el movimiento reformista y el intelectual reformista. Otros cambios universitarios fueron la asistencia libre complementada con docencia libre y con la periodicidad de cátedra. El movimiento reformista se originó en el rechazo a una forma de enseñanza dominada por el clero y enteramente dependiente del Estado, con el objetivo de alcanzar una universidad autónoma, gratuita y libre. Tuvo, además dos efectos colaterales, uno de los cuales fue la continuidad de los congresos estudiantiles donde se debatían los temas de interés de los propios estudiantes de distintos países del continente. En estas reuniones se afirmó la unión y la solidaridad entre sus diferentes componentes. El segundo efecto fue la defensa de la independencia y la soberanía de los países de América Latina. (AU)


The student movement that began with the struggle of the students of Córdoba for the reform of the university marks the birth of a new Latin American generation. University reform was distinguished by installing autonomy, co-government, free chairs and university extension and, in addition, produced two major cultural currents, the reformist movement and the reformist intellectual. Other university changes were free attendance complemented with free teaching and with the periodicity of chair. The reformist movement was originated in the rejection of a form of education dominated by the clergy and totally dependent on the State, in order to achieve an autonomous, free and free university. It also had two side effects, one was the continuity of the student congresses where the topics of interest of the students from different countries of the continent were discussed. In these meetings the union and solidarity among its different components was affirmed. The second effect was the defense of the independence and the sovereignty of the Latin American countries. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Universities/history , Universities/organization & administration , Education/history , Education/organization & administration , Argentina , Students/history , Curriculum , Latin America
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1459-1465, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991357

ABSTRACT

The accrual of anatomical preparations since the nineteenth century in Santiago, Chile, became the so called "anatomical cabinet" under the supervision of professor Julio F Lafargue. Afterwards, this cabinet evolved to form an anatomical museum in the mid twentieth century. It contained preparations using corpses whose identification was not known. Now, the corpses are donated through a body donation program that started thirty years ago. The collection contains, among other interesting items, a situs inversus preparation, Juan Martel's mummy, Tramond house wax preparations and a jibarized head. Nowadays, the museum is open to the community, its collection is recognized as a national historical monument, and has links with other university museums in the country and abroad.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Universities/history , Anatomy/education , Museums/history , Chile , Dissection
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(4): 1282-1287, jul.-ago. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1103691

ABSTRACT

Julio Miguel Aristegui Villamil se gradúa de Doctor en Medicina en la Universidad de La Habana en 1929 y regresa a Cárdenas, su ciudad natal, a ejercer su profesión. Sus ideas progresistas lo afilian a la Izquierda Médica, dentro de la Federación Médica de Cuba. Por el ejercicio desinteresado de su profesión la población le llega a nombrar "el médico de los pobres" (AU).


Julio Miguel Aristegui Villamil graduated as doctor in Medicine in the University of Havana in 1929 and came back to Cardenas, his home city, to practice his profession. His progressive ideas led him to enroll in the Izquierdad Médica (Medical Left translated in English), a group inside the Medical Federation of Cuba. Because of the selfless practice of his profession, the people began to call him "the doctor of the poors" (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physicians/history , Health Care Costs/ethics , Physicians/ethics , Universities/history , Medical Care/history , Policy , Health Services/ethics
18.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 557-565, mar.-abr. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1103332

ABSTRACT

El movimiento de la Reforma Universitaria de Córdoba en Argentina, a un siglo de su proclamación, constituye un referente obligado al abordar el tema de la función y proyección social de las Universidades y en especial la cubana. El propósito del presente trabajo es realizar un análisis crítico del significado, trascendencia y vigencia del mismo en el contexto de la Universidad cubana contemporánea, con énfasis en el proceso de Extensión Universitaria en la Educación Médica cubana revolucionaria. Se realizó una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica y documental, con énfasis en el análisis de artículos y documentos sobre el tema en cuestión a partir del uso del método histórico-lógico, el cual permitió discurrir entre los hitos fundamentales del devenir histórico de dicho proceso reformista. La autora considera que este movimiento posee una connotación especial en el contexto que se refiere, el cual marcó cambios esenciales en los aspectos teórico-conceptuales, prácticos y de valores en la formación de los profesionales de la salud cubanos a partir del modelo de formación, así como la proyección social y humanística que caracterizó la etapa revolucionaria, por lo que amerita significar en el devenir histórico sus aportes como un digno homenaje en su centenario (AU).


The movement of the Cordova University Reform in Argentina, after a century of its proclamation, is an unavoidable reference when approaching the theme of the function and social projection of the Universities, specially the Cuban one. The purpose of the current work is carrying out a critical analysis of that movement's significance, transcendence and force in the context of Cuban contemporary university, emphasizing in the university extension process in the Cuban revolutionary medical education. An exhaustive bibliographic and documental review on the treated theme was carried out using the historical-logical method that allowed discussing the main landmarks of the historical development of that reforming process. The author considers that movement has an special connotation in the referred context, which led to essential changes in theoretical-conceptual, practical and values training of Cuban health professionals, beginning with the training model, and also the social and humanistic projection characterizing the revolutionary period; therefore, it deserves explaining the meaning of its contributions in the historical development as a worthy homage in its centenary (AU).


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Universities/history , Community-Institutional Relations/trends , Modernization of the Public Sector , Education, Medical/history , Teacher Training/ethics , Argentina/ethnology , Schools, Medical , Universities/trends , Program Development , Cuba/ethnology , Education, Medical/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Teacher Training/history , History of Medicine , Latin America/ethnology
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