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1.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 25: e220005, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365649

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: To calculate and map the health inequalities in the city of São Paulo using the Urban Health Index (UHI) methodology. Methods: Seven indicators were selected from the Brazilian census: (1) proportion of households with access to sewage systems, (2) proportion of households served by regular waste collection, (3) proportion of households with two or more toilets, (4) proportion of households receiving tap water, (5) average income per household, (6) percentage of white people, and (7) literacy rate. Based on the UHI methodology, all health indicators were standardized and aggregated into a single metric at the census tract level. The UHI scores were ranked and plotted. The disparity ratio and the graph slope were calculated. The correlation between indicators was tested. Results were geocoded to produce a map of health risks. Results: The distribution of index values showed a linear middle section and deviations at each end. The disparity ratio found was 2.95, while the slope was 0.30. All indicators were significantly correlated. The map displayed a typical pattern of health inequality between the downtown and the periphery. The tracts located in the city's downtown had higher UHI values than those on the outskirts. Conclusions: The results of this study presented a visual distribution of health disparities in the city of São Paulo, proving to be a valuable method for identifying areas that require public health attention.


Resumo: Objetivo: Calcular e mapear as desigualdades em saúde na cidade de São Paulo por meio da metodologia do índice de saúde urbana (UHI). Métodos: Sete indicadores foram selecionados do censo brasileiro: (1) proporção de domicílios com acesso a esgoto, (2) proporção de domicílios com coleta regular de lixo, (3) proporção de domicílios com dois ou mais banheiros, (4) proporção de domicílios que recebem água encanada, (5) renda média por domicílio, (6) porcentagem de pessoas brancas e (7) taxa de alfabetização. Usando a metodologia UHI, todos os indicadores de saúde foram padronizados e agregados em uma única métrica para o setor censitário. Os valores de UHI foram classificados e plotados. A razão de disparidade e a inclinação do gráfico foram calculadas. A correlação entre os indicadores foi testada. Os resultados foram geocodificados, produzindo um mapa de risco à saúde. Resultados: A distribuição dos valores do índice apresentou uma seção intermediária linear e desvios nas extremidades. A taxa de disparidade encontrada foi de 2,95, enquanto o coeficiente angular foi 0,30. Todos os indicadores apresentaram correlação significativa. O mapa exibiu um arranjo característico de desigualdade em saúde entre o centro e a periferia. Os setores localizados na região central da cidade apresentaram valores de UHI mais elevados do que os da periferia. Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo apresentaram uma distribuição visual das disparidades de saúde na cidade de São Paulo, demonstrando ser um método valioso para a identificação de áreas que requerem atenção da saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urban Health , Health Status Disparities , Brazil , Cities , Income
2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 7-16, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152855

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las alteraciones del intercambio gaseoso se han reconocido en la obesidad mórbida; sin embargo, no se conoce su comportamiento conforme se incrementa el índice de masa corporal. Objetivo: Conocer el comportamiento del intercambio gaseoso a la altura de la Ciudad de México en el desarrollo de obesidad mórbida. Métodos: Mediante un diseño transversal analítico se estudió a sujetos pareados por género y edad de cuatro grupos diferentes de índice de masa corporal (kg/m2): normal (18.5-24.9), sobrepeso (25-29.9), obesidad (30-39.9) y obesidad mórbida (≥ 40). Se obtuvieron sus antecedentes patológicos y demográficos, variables de gasometría arterial y espirometría simple. Las variables se determinaron de acuerdo con las características de la muestra; las diferencias entre grupos se realizaron mediante Anova de una vía con ajuste de Bonferroni, así como la correlación de Pearson para las variables relacionadas. Una p < 0.05 se consideró con significación estadística. Resultados: Se estudió a 560 pacientes en cuatro grupos. La edad promedio fue de 49 ± 11 años. La mayor frecuencia de diabetes mellitus (34.29%), hipertensión arterial (50%) e hiperlipidemia (36.43%) se registró en el grupo de obesidad, y la de roncador (73.57%) en la obesidad mórbida. Se identificaron diferencias desde el grupo normal respecto de la obesidad mórbida: PaCO2 31.37 ± 2.08 vs. 38.14 ± 5.10 mmHg; PaO2 68.28 ± 6.06 vs. 59.86 ± 9.28 mmHg y SaO2 93.51 ± 1.93 vs. 89.71 ± 5.37%, todas con p = 0.0001. Correlación IMC-PaCO2: 0.497, e IMC-PaO2: -0.365, p = 0.0001, respectivamente. Conclusiones: A la altitud de la Ciudad de México y con índice de masa corporal > 30 kg/m2, las variables relacionadas con el intercambio gaseoso y espirometría simple comienzan a deteriorarse; son evidentes con IMC > 40 kg/m2.


Abstract Introduction: Alterations of gas exchange have been recognized in morbid obesity, however, it is not known how their behavior would be as the body mass index increases. Objective: To know the behavior of gas exchange at the level of Mexico City in the development of morbid obesity. Methods: Through analytical design, subjects matched by gender and age were studied from four different groups of body mass index (kg/m2), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), obesity (30-39.9) and morbid obesity (≥ 40). Their pathological and demographic antecedents, arterial blood gas and simple spirometry variables were obtained. The variables were shown according to their sample characteristic. The differences between groups were made using one way Anova with Bonferroni adjustment, as well as Pearson’s correlation for the related variables. Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05. Results: 560 subjects were studied in 4 groups. The average age 49 ± 11 years old. The highest frequency of diabetes mellitus (34.29%), arterial hypertension (50%) and hiperlipidemia (36.43%) was in the obesity group, and being snoring (73.57%) in morbid obesity. There were differences from the normal group versus. morbid obesity: PaCO2 31.37 ± 2.08 versus. 38.14 ± 5.10 mmHg; PaO2 68.28 ± 6.06 versus. 59.86 ± 9.28 mmHg and SaO2 93.51 ± 1.93 versus. 89.71 ± 5.37%, all with p = 0.0001. The IMC-PaCO2 correlation: 0.497, and IMC-PaO2: −0.365, p = 0.0001 respectively. Conclusions: At the altitude of Mexico City and body mass index > 30 kg/m2 the variables related to gas exchange and simple spirometry begin to deteriorate; are evident with BMI > 40 kg/m2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Altitude , Obesity/physiopathology , Urban Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico
3.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 26: 1-8, mar. 2021. tab, il
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282603

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi avaliar o conhecimento sobre locais públicos de esporte e lazer nas capitais brasileiras e sua relação com fatores sociodemográficos e do ambiente urbano.Estudo com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, edição no ano de 2013, inquérito de base domiciliar, representativo da população adulta residente em todas as capitais do Brasil. A variável de desfecho foi conhecimento sobre locais públicos de esporte e lazer. As variáveis de exposição foram sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade e Índice de Bem-Estar Urbano (IBEU), que avalia as condições coletivas de vida na cidade por meio dos dados do Censo Demográfico de 2010. Realizou-se análise bivariada através do teste Qui-quadrado e cor-relação de Pearson. Dos 27.017 entrevistados, 56,6% (IC95%: 55,1 - 58,1) relataram conhecer locais públicos de esporte e lazer, sendo maior entre homens (58,2% vs 55,3%) e mais escolarizados (45,5% de 0 a 4; 49,2% de 5 a 8; 55,2% de 9 a 11; 68,2% de 12 anos ou mais). Não foi observada diferença entre as faixas etárias. Foi observada correlação positiva entre proporção de conhecimento e IBEU (r = 0,709; p < 0,05). As capitais com melhores indicadores de conhecimento e do ambiente urbano foram Vitória, Brasília, Goiânia e Curitiba. Diante disso, a melhoria e criação de espaços públicos de lazer deve considerar as desigualdadesna sua distribuição em relação ao ambiente e as características sociodemográficas da população,para contribuir para a promoção da atividade física e, consequente-mente, para melhorar a saúde e equidade social


The objective was to evaluate the knowledge about public places of sport and leisure in the Brazilian capitals and their relationship with sociodemographic factors and the urban environment. Study with data from the National Health Survey, edition in the year 2013, a household-based survey, representative of the adult population residing in all capitals of Brazil. The outcome variable was knowledge about public places of sport and leisure. The exposure variables were sex, age group, education and Urban Well-Being Index (IBEU), which assesses the collective living conditions in the city troughthout data from the 2010 demographic cen-sus. A bivariate analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Pearson's correlation. Of the 27,017 interviewees, 56.6% (95% CI: 55.1 - 58.1) reported knowing public places of sport and leisure, being higher among men (58.2% vs 55.3%) and more educated (45.5% from 0 to 4; 49.2% from 5 to 8; 55.2% from 9 to 11; 68.2% from 12 years or older). There was no difference between the age groups. A positive correlation was observed between the proportion of knowledge and IBEU (r = 0.709; p < 0.05). The capitals with the best knowledge and urban environment indicators were Vitória, Brasília, Goiânia and Curitiba. Therefore, the improvement and creation of public leisure spaces must take account into the inequalities distribution in relation to the environment and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population, to contribute to the promotion of physical activity and, consequently, to improve health and social equity


Subject(s)
Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Leisure Activities
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878373

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a preliminary subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative and to evaluate its reliability and validity.@*Methods@#The initial items of the scale were determined based on a review of policy documents and consultations with experts. The final items of the scale were confirmed through individual interviews with residents combined with the discretetrend method, critical ratio method, correlation coefficient method, and factor analysis method. Then, the dimensions of the scale were determined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The Cronbach's @*Results@#A scale containing five dimensions with 22 items was established, including urban lifestyle, governance, basic functions, environmental sanitation, and amenities. The Cronbach's @*Conclusion@#The preliminarily subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative demonstrates a high level of reliability and validity. Additional empirical studies should be carried out to further verify the value of the scale in terms of practical application.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Built Environment/psychology , China , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Personal Satisfaction , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Health , Young Adult
5.
Salud colect ; 17: e3358, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290042

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Entre los efectos sociales de la pandemia de COVID-19, el aumento de la pobreza, el desempleo y la desigualdad social en el país agravaron los problemas de salud, principalmente, de la población más pobre. Esta investigación buscó discutir potencialidades y limitaciones del proceso de trabajo en atención primaria de la salud, basado en la Estrategia de Salud Familiar. Para ello, entre enero y febrero de 2020, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a cuatro mujeres residentes de una ocupación urbana del interior del estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Se encontró que presentan sufrimiento relacionado con la precariedad de las viviendas, la provisoriedad, el aislamiento social y el silenciamiento. El modo en que se organiza la atención primaria de la salud y el proceso de trabajo de las y los profesionales dificulta tanto el acceso de una parte de la población a los servicios de salud, como la percepción de las y los profesionales sobre el sufrimiento de la población. Los resultados de la investigación indican la necesidad de una nueva evaluación y perfeccionamiento de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar.


ABSTRACT Among the social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, increased poverty, unemployment, and social inequality in Brazil have led to worsening health problems, especially in the poorest citizens. The purpose of this research was to discuss the potentialities and limitations of the work process in primary health care based on the Family Health Strategy. In order to do so, we conducted semi-structured interviews with four women living in an informal settlement in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between January and February 2020. We found that the women experienced suffering in relation to issues such as housing precariousness, transience, social isolation, and silencing. The way in which primary health care is organized and professionals' work processes make it difficult for this population to access health services and for professionals to perceive their suffering. The findings of this research point to the need to reevaluate and improve the Family Health Strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , Urban Health , Interviews as Topic , Women's Health , Vulnerable Populations , Pandemics , Housing
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51838, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145843

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever e comparar as características sociodemográficas e clínicas dos idosos, e o acesso e a utilização dos serviços de saúde, segundo três microrregionais de saúde de Minas Gerais. Método: inquérito domiciliar transversal realizado com 1.635 idosos residentes nas Microrregionais de Saúde do Triângulo Sul, em Minas Gerais. Procederam-se às análises descritivas e teste qui-quadrado (p<0,05). Resultados: na comparação entre os grupos obteve-se diferença significativa em relação à faixa etária (p<0,001), número de morbidades (p<0,001), uso contínuo de medicamentos (p<0,001) e não realizar consulta com dentista no último ano (p=0,005). Conclusão: as políticas públicas devem considerar os fatores sociodemográficos e as condições clínicas dos idosos, mediante o contexto da territorialização e regionalização em saúde, para proposição de estratégias de ação que favoreçam o acesso e uso dos serviços por essa população.


Objective: to describe and compare the older adults' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and their access to, and use of, health services, by three health micro-regions in Minas Gerais. Method: this cross-sectional household survey interviewed 1,635 older adults living in the Health Micro-regions of the Southern Triangle of Minas Gerais. Descriptive analyses and chisquare test were performed (p<0.05). Results: comparisons among the groups revealed significant differences by age group (p < 0.001), number of morbiditie (p<0.001), continuous medication use (p<0.001) and no dental appointment in the prior year (p = 0.005). Conclusion: in the context of health care territorialization and regionalization, public policies should consider older adults' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical conditions, in order to propose action strategies to favor service access and use by this population.


Objetivo: describir y comparar las características sociodemográficas y clínicas de los adultos mayores y su acceso y uso de los servicios de salud por parte de tres microrregiones de salud en Minas Gerais. Método: esta encuesta de hogares de corte transversal entrevistó a 1.635 adultos mayores residentes en las Microrregiones de Salud del Triángulo Sur de Minas Gerais. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y prueba de chi-cuadrado (p<0.05). Resultados: as comparaciones entre los grupos revelaron diferencias significativas por grupo de edad (p<0.001), número de morbilidades (p<0.001), uso continuo de medicación (p<0.001) y ausencia de consulta dental en el año anterior (p = 0,005). Conclusión: en el contexto de territorialización y regionalización asistencial, las políticas públicas deben considerar las características sociodemográficas y las condiciones clínicas de los adultos mayores, con el fin de proponer estrategias de acción que favorezcan el acceso y uso de los servicios por parte de esta población.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health of the Elderly , Health Services Accessibility , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Urban Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(10): 3857-3868, Out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132995

ABSTRACT

Resumo Quais as repercussões da urbanização mal planejada na saúde da população? Entender a saúde urbana, os riscos acarretados pelas cidades, as repercussões na saúde e as relações sociais auxiliam no planejamento no qual a prevenção deve ser investida. Assim, com o objetivo de verificar a relação entre urbanização e saúde urbana, em especial as infecções ocasionadas pelo vetor "Aedes aegypti", foi realizado um estudo qualitativo e uma investigação descritiva e analítica através de busca documental e bibliográfica. Os resultados apontam que os impactos ambientais decorrentes da falta de infraestrutura resultante da urbanização podem oferecer riscos à saúde humana, visto que a disposição de resíduos em lixões e aterros podem ocasionar exposição a substâncias químicas perigosas à saúde. Além disso, o saneamento ineficaz pode acarretar em doenças veiculadas pela água e propiciar a reprodução de vetores de outras enfermidades, como é o caso do "Aedes aegypti", responsável pela transmissão das arboviroses (dengue, chikungunya e Zika). Dessa forma, estudar saúde ambiental e urbana proporciona embasamento para a promoção de qualidade de vida das pessoas que residem nessas áreas e permite propor medidas que evitem doenças relacionadas à urbanização.


Abstract What are the repercussions of poorly planned urbanization for population health? Understanding urban health, the risks posed by cities, health repercussions, and urban social relations helps urban planners to decide where to target prevention interventions. We conducted a qualitative descriptive analytical study based on a document analysis and bibliographical review to explore the relationship between urbanization and urban health, focusing on diseases transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Our findings show that environmental degradation and inadequate infrastructure pose a serious risk to human health, insofar as the disposal of waste in dumps and landfills can cause exposure to hazardous chemicals. In addition, inadequate urban infrastructure and sanitation is conducive to the transmission of water-borne diseases and the reproduction of vectors of other diseases such as Aedes aegypti, responsible for the transmission of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya, and Zika). Research on environmental and urban health therefore provides an important foundation for improving the quality of life of people living in cities and developing measures designed to prevent diseases related to unplanned urbanization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arboviruses , Aedes , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Quality of Life , Sanitation , Urban Health , Cities , Mosquito Vectors
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 28-36, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138465

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Explorar la asociación entre factores demográficos y clínicos con la presentación de shock séptico en pacientes atendidos en un servicio prehospitalario de emergencias en cinco ciudades colombianas entre los años 2015-2016. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal con recolección retrospectiva de datos. Se recolectó información clínica y demográfica de las historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de sepsis que recibieron atención prehospitalaria en cinco ciudades colombianas en los años 2015 y 2016. Se realizó una verificación del diagnóstico de shock séptico en el 20% de los casos, dando origen a dos escenarios analizados: observado y verificado. Se analizó la asociación con pruebas de Chi cuadrado, t de Student y finalmente con un modelo de regresión logística ajustado. Se consideró covariables significativas aquellas con p < 0,05. Resultados: Se presentó una mayor frecuencia del evento en mujeres (62,6%) y en mayores de 80 años (64,5%), sin ser factores diferenciadores para shock séptico. El foco infeccioso más común fue urinario. En el escenario observado, los mayores de 60 años (RP: 3,22; IC95%: 1,45 - 35,01) y el antecedente de cáncer fueron las características asociadas con el shock séptico (RP: 1,20; IC95%: 1,2 - 12,87), mientras que en el grupo verificado fueron la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (RP: 1,99; IC95%: 1,26 - 7,14), el antecedente de cáncer (RP: 1,15; IC95%: 1,11 - 6,62) y presencia de hipovolemia (RP: 1,41; IC95%: 1,02 - 5,50). Conclusión: Los factores de riesgo más importantes para shock séptico en pacientes de atención prehospitalaria en cinco ciudades colombianas fueron las enfermedades oncológicas, las pulmonares e hipovolemia.


ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the association between demographic and clinical factors and the presentation of septic shock in patients treated by prehospital emergency services in five Colombian cities between 2015 and 2016. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection. Clinical and demographic data were collected from the medical records of patients diagnosed with sepsis who received prehospital care in five Colombian cities in 2015 and 2016. The diagnosis of septic shock was checked in 20% of the cases, generating two analyzed scenarios: observed and verified. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test, Student's t test and an adjusted logistic regression model. Covariates with p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a higher frequency of septic shock in women (62.6%) and in individuals older than 80 years (64.5%), but these were not differentiating factors for septic shock. The most common source of infection was the urinary tract. In the observed scenario, age over 60 (prevalence ratio (PR): 3.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45 - 35.01) and history of cancer (PR: 1.20; 95%CI: 1.2 - 12.87) were the characteristics associated with septic shock, whereas in the verified scenario, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PR: 1.99; 95%CI: 1.26 - 7.14), history of cancer (PR: 1.15; 95%CI: 1.11 - 6.62) and presence of hypovolemia (PR: 1.41; 95%CI: 1.02 - 5.50) were observed. Conclusion: The most important risk factors for septic shock in prehospital care patients in five Colombian cities were oncological and pulmonary diseases and hypovolemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shock, Septic/epidemiology , Urban Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 72-80, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138457

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a distribuição das unidades de terapia intensiva para adultos, segundo a região geográfica e o setor sanitário no Rio de Janeiro, e investigar a mortalidade por infecção respiratória aguda grave no setor público e sua associação com a capacidade de terapia intensiva no setor público. Métodos: Avaliamos a variação da disponibilidade de terapia intensiva e a mortalidade por infecção respiratória aguda grave no setor público em diferentes áreas da cidade em 2014. Utilizamos as bases de dados do Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS. Resultados: Foi ampla a variação na disponibilidade de leitos em unidades de terapia intensiva per capita (desde 4,0 leitos de terapia intensiva por 100 mil habitantes em hospitais públicos na zona oeste até 133,6 leitos em unidades de terapia intensiva por 100 mil habitantes nos hospitais privados na zona central) na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O setor privado respondeu pelo suprimento de quase 75% dos leitos em unidades de terapia intensiva. Uma análise espacial com base em mapas mostrou falta de leitos em unidades de terapia intensiva em vastas extensões territoriais nas regiões menos desenvolvidas da cidade. Houve correlação inversa (r = -0,829; IC95% -0,946 - -0,675) entre a quantidade de leitos públicos em unidade de terapia intensiva per capita em diferentes áreas de planejamento em saúde na cidade e a mortalidade por infecção respiratória aguda grave em hospitais públicos. Conclusão: Nossos resultados mostram disponibilidade desproporcional de leitos em unidades de terapia intensiva na cidade do Rio de Janeiro e a necessidade de uma distribuição racional da terapia intensiva.


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the distribution of adult intensive care units according to geographic region and health sector in Rio de Janeiro and to investigate severe acute respiratory infection mortality in the public sector and its association with critical care capacity in the public sector. Methods: We evaluated the variation in intensive care availability and severe acute respiratory infection mortality in the public sector across different areas of the city in 2014. We utilized databases from the National Registry of Health Establishments, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the National Mortality Information System and the Hospital Admission Information System. Results: There is a wide range of intensive care unit beds per capita (from 4.0 intensive care unit beds per 100,000 people in public hospitals in the West Zone to 133.6 intensive care unit beds per 100,000 people in private hospitals in the Center Zone) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The private sector accounts for almost 75% of the intensive care unit bed supply. The more developed areas of the city concentrate most of the intensive care unit services. Map-based spatial analysis shows a lack of intensive care unit beds in vast territorial extensions in the less developed regions of the city. There is an inverse correlation (r = -0.829; 95%CI -0.946 to -0.675) between public intensive care unit beds per capita in different health planning areas of the city and severe acute respiratory infection mortality in public hospitals. Conclusion: Our results show a disproportionate intensive care unit bed provision across the city of Rio de Janeiro and the need for a rational distribution of intensive care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Urban Health , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Spatial Analysis
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 845-858, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089490

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo investigou a utilização dos serviços de saúde segundo determinantes sociais, comportamentos em saúde e qualidade de vida entre diabéticos. A amostra foi composta por 416 diabéticos cadastrados na Estratégia Saúde da Família de um município do Nordeste do Brasil. A análise dos dados incluiu estatísticas descritivas, bivariadas e multivariada por meio da modelagem de Árvore de Decisão usando o algoritmo Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID). Evidenciou-se expressiva utilização dos serviços públicos de saúde (80,7%). A utilização do serviço público de saúde com regularidade envolveu indivíduos com escolaridade baixa ou média (p < 0,001), empregados ou aposentados e/ou pensionistas (p = 0,019), com alto impacto do diabetes na qualidade de vida (p = 0,032), e que realizavam a quantidade recomendada de exames de glicemia em jejum ao ano (p < 0,001). A utilização dos serviços de saúde pôde ser explicada por diferenças relacionadas aos determinantes sociais, aos comportamentos em saúde e ao impacto do diabetes na qualidade de vida dos usuários.


Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the use of health services according to social determinants, health behaviors and quality of life among diabetics (n = 416) attended by the Family Health Strategy in a northeastern city in Brazil. Data analysis included descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics. Decision Tree modeling was applied using the Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) algorithm. Results showed that public health services were used by 80.7% of the sample. The regular use of public health services involved individuals with low or medium schooling (p < 0.001), employed or retired and/or pensioners (p = 0.019), with a high impact of diabetes on quality of life (p = 0.032), and who performed the number of fasting blood glucose tests per year recommended by the Ministry of Health (p < 0.001). The use of health services could be explained by differences related to social determinants, health behaviors and the impact of diabetes on quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Health Behavior , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Social Determinants of Health , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Urban Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 869-878, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089474

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente estudo tem como objetivo caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico de vítimas de acidentes escorpiônicos e ofídicos e avaliar a adequação das prescrições de soros antivenenos. Estudo transversal cujas fontes de dados foram as fichas de notificação de acidentes por animais peçonhentos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no município de Vitória da Conquista (BA), Brasil. Foram incluídas as informações de acidentes escorpiônicos ou ofídicos no período entre julho de 2016 e junho de 2017 atendidos no município. Os dados obtidos e as variáveis de interesse foram analisadas de acordo com as perguntas deste estudo. No período observado foram atendidas 293 vítimas de acidentes por animais peçonhentos. Destas, 149 (50,9%) foram homens e 114 (38,9%) possuíam entre 20 a 59 anos. Foram 235 (80,9%) casos de escorpionismo e 58 (19,1%) de ofidismo. Destes, 203 (69,3%) foram classificados como leves e em 200 (68,5%) casos foi prescrita soroterapia para estes pacientes. Quanto à adequação das prescrições, 172 (59,7%) foram julgadas inadequadas e destas, o uso de número de ampolas acima do indicado foi a mais frequente. A prescrição inapropriada de soros antivenenos ocorreu em aproximadamente em 60% dos casos avaliados. Apesar disso, a maioria dos acidentes foi classificada como leve, em homens jovens.


Abstract This study aims to characterize the epidemiological profile of victims of scorpion and snakebite envenomations and to evaluate the adequacy of antivenom sera prescriptions. This is a cross-sectional study whose data sources were the envenomation notification information sheets of the Notifiable Diseases Information System in the city of Vitória da Conquista (BA), Brazil. We included information on scorpion or snakebite envenomations attended in the municipality in the period between July 2016 and June 2017. The data obtained and the variables of interest were analyzed according to the questions of this study. In the observed period, 293 victims of envenomations were treated. Of these, 149 (50.9%) were men, and 114 (38.9%) were 20-59 years old. In total, 235 (80.9%) cases of scorpionism and 58 (19.1%) of ophidism were reported. Of these, 203 (69.3%) were classified as mild, and in 200 (68.5%) cases, serum therapy was prescribed for the patients. Regarding the adequacy of the prescriptions, 172 (59.7%) were considered inadequate, and of these, the use of some vials above than indicated was the most frequent. The inappropriate prescription of antivenom sera occurred in approximately 60% of the evaluated cases. Despite this, most accidents were classified as mild - in young men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Snake Bites/drug therapy , Scorpion Stings/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Brazil , Antivenins/therapeutic use , Urban Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Treatment , Hospitals, Public , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 34-45, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092785

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La mortalidad infantil depende del nivel de desarrollo económico, social y cultural del área de residencia. Objetivo: Describir las tasas de mortalidad infantil (TMI) y mortalidad infantil tardía (TMIT) de las comunas de la Región Metropolitana (RM) y evaluar su tendencia en el perio do 2005-2014. Material y Método: Estudio ecológico que describe las tasas en las 52 comunas de la Región Metropolitana (RM). Para el análisis se construyó la TMI y TMIT para cada año y comuna y se compararon mediante riesgo atribuible poblacional (RAP), Riesgo atribuible porcentual (RAP%) y razón de tasas (RT). Las tendencias se evaluaron con el modelo Prais-Winsten. Se consideró una tendencia estadísticamente significativa un valor p < 0,05. Resultados: La comuna de Independencia mostró la TMI y TMIT más altas con 12,7 y 4,05 por mil RNV respectivamente; 1,75 y 2,05 veces comparado con la TMI y TMIT de la RM. Las tasas más bajas se observaron en Las Condes (TMI) y en Vitacura (TMIT). La tendencia de la TMI respecto al 2005 aumentó en Lo Barnechea, Lo Espejo y Recoleta y disminuyó en Las Condes, Macul, Pudahuel y San Bernardo. La TMIT disminuyó en Peñalolén, Puente Alto, Las Condes, Providencia, San Bernardo, Macul, Pudahuel, Talagante, Pedro Aguirre Cerda y Quilicura y aumentó en Peñaflor. Conclusión: La TMI y la TMIT regional ocultan el leve incremento de las tasas y la persistencia de la heterogeneidad entre las comunas, lo que obliga a explorar las causas de estas inequidades en estudios analíticos a futuro.


Abstract: Introduction: Infant mortality depends on the economic, social, and cultural level of development of the place of residence. Objective: To describe the infant mortality rates (IMR) and the late infant mortality rates (LIMR) of the Metropolitan Region (MR) communes and to evaluate their trend between 2005 and 2014. Material and Method: Ecological study that describes the rates of the 52 communes of the MR. For the analysis, the IMR and LIMR were elaborated for each year and com mune and were compared using population attributable risk (PAR), attributable risk percent (AR%), and rate ratio (RR). Trends were analyzed through the Prais-Winsten model. A value p < 0.05 was considered a statistically significant trend. Results: The commune 'Independencia' presented the hig hest IMR and LIMR with 12.7 and 4.05 per 1000 live births respectively, 1.75 and 2.05 times more compared with the IMR and LIMR of the MR. The commune 'Las Condes' and 'Vitacura' presented the lowest IMR and LIMR respectively. The IMR trend regarding 2005 increased in Lo Barnechea, Lo Espejo, and Recoleta, and decreased in Las Condes, Macul, Pudahuel and San Bernardo. The LIMR decreased in Peñalolén, Puente Alto, Las Condes, Providencia, San Bernardo, Macul, Pudahuel, Tala- gante, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, and Quilicura, and increased in Peñaflor. Conclusion: The regional IMR and LIMR hide the slight increase in rates and the persistence of heterogeneity among communes. This forces us to explore the causes of these inequities through future analytical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Infant Mortality/trends , Urban Health/trends , Health Status Disparities , Chile/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886459

ABSTRACT

@#The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of cardiovascular health education on change in blood pressure at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months follow-up. This was a prospective cohort study. Participants were from an urban poor community in Metro Manila. Included were the 98 adults at least 40 years of age with hypertension, without cardiovascular disease. Among those previously diagnosed with hypertension, 20.3% had controlled blood pressures at the time of screening. There were 29.6% newly diagnosed cases of hypertension in the study. During the 18-month intervention phase, cardiovascular disease health education and counseling on risk factor control were given along with medical check-ups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. The decreases in mean systolic blood pressures from the baseline at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months were 11.9, 15.2, 9.1, and 14.1-mm Hg, respectively. The diastolic blood pressures decreased by 6.9, 9.3,.4.6, and 4.4 mm Hg. These differences were statistically significant. For the urban poor, health education on risk factor modification and cardiovascular diseases can be an important tool in improving blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Life Style , Urban Health , Health Education
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058009

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate environmental contamination by helminth eggs with zoonotic potential that were found in dog feces in the vicinity of elementary schools. Seventy-nine samples of dog feces were collected from 28 municipal schools located in five neighborhoods in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. The samples were processed using the Willis-Mollay technique and analyzed using an optical microscope (40X), to identify any parasite eggs present. All neighborhoods were positive and 74.7% of the samples exhibited one or more helminth genera. The agent with the highest prevalence was Ancylostoma spp. (93.2%), followed by Trichuris spp. (18.6%), Toxocara spp. (11.9%) and Toxascaris (1.7%). These data show that there is a need for greater care towards controlling these helminths with zoonotic potential, including responsible pet ownership and daily activities to clean and collect dog feces in the vicinity of schools, because these are places where children play and study.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental por ovos de helmintos com potencial zoonótico, diagnosticados em fezes caninas depositadas nas proximidades de escolas primárias. Setenta e nove amostras de fezes foram colhidas em 28 escolas municipais localizadas em cinco bairros da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. As amostras foram processadas pela técnica de Willis-Mollay e analisadas em microscópio óptico (40X), para identificar quaisquer parasitos presentes. Todos os bairros foram positivos e 74,7% das amostras apresentaram um ou mais gêneros de helmintos. O agente com maior prevalência foi Ancylostoma spp. (93,2%), seguido por Trichuris spp. (18,6%), Toxocara spp. (11,9%) e Toxascaris (1,7%). Esses dados mostram que há necessidade de maior cuidado no controle desses helmintos com potencial zoonótico, incluindo a posse responsável dos animais e atividades diárias de limpeza e colheita de fezes de cães nas proximidades das escolas, porque esses são locais onde as crianças brincam e estudam.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Parasite Egg Count , Soil/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Schools , Brazil , Urban Health , Prevalence
15.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(1): e2018399, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090253

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a prevalência e fatores associados a não realização de consulta médica nos 12 meses anteriores à entrevista, em Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, 2016. Métodos: estudo transversal, de base populacional, utilizando regressão de Poisson para análise multivariável. Resultados: participaram 1.297 indivíduos, com idade média de 46 anos (desvio-padrão [DP]=17, variando de 18 a 96) e mediana de renda familiar per capita no último mês de R$ 1.000 (IIQ: 600 a 1.760); a prevalência de não consulta nos últimos 12 meses foi de 20,0% (IC95% 17,5;22,6); revelaram-se fatores associados, após ajustes para potenciais fatores de confusão, o sexo masculino, ser solteiro, ter baixa escolaridade, consumir álcool excessivamente, ser tabagista, ter menos comorbidades e não dispor de plano de saúde. Conclusão: um em cada cinco indivíduos não consultou médico nos últimos 12 meses; a utilização desse serviço foi menor entre os mais pobres e naqueles com pior estilo de vida.


Objetivo: investigar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la no realización de consulta médica, en los últimos 12 meses en Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, 2016. Métodos: estudio transversal, de base poblacional utilizando la regresión de Poisson para realizar un análisis multivariable. Resultados: participaron del estudio 1.297 individuos, con edad promedio de 46 años (DP=17, variando de 18 a 96) y con promedio de ingreso familiar per cápita el último mes de R$1.000 (IIQ: 600 a 1760); la prevalencia de no consulta en los últimos 12 meses fue del 20.0% (IC95%: 17,5 a 22,6); se revelaron factores asociados, después de ajustados por posibles factores de confusión, que fueron sexo masculino, ser soltero, tener baja escolaridad, consumir alcohol excesivamente, tabaquismo, tener menos comorbilidades y no tener plan de salud. Conclusión: uno de cada cinco individuos no consultaron médico en los últimos 12 meses; el uso de este servicio fue menor entre los más pobres y en aquellos con peor estilo de vida.


Objective: to investigate prevalence and factors associated with not consulting a physician in the last 12 months in Rio Grande, RS, Brazil, 2016. Methods: this was a population-based cross-sectional study, using Poisson regression for multivariate analysis. Results: a total of 1,297 individuals took part in the study; average age was 46 years old (SD=17, ranging from 18 to 96); and median per capita family income was BRL 1,000 in the last month (IQR: 600 - 1,760); prevalence of non-consultation in the last 12 months was 20.0% (95%CI 17.5;22.6); associated factors, after adjusting for potential confounders, were male sex, being single, having low schooling, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, having fewer comorbidities, and having no health plan. Conclusion: one in five individuals did not consult a doctor in the last 12 months; use of this service was lower among the poorest and those with a poorer lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Behavior , Medical Care , Health Status Disparities , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Physicians' Offices , Brazil , Urban Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 1165-1174, mar. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989627

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Programa Vila Viva (PVV) corresponde a uma política de inclusão social com ações integradas de urbanização, desenvolvimento social e regularização fundiária. Suas ações são planejadas pelo Plano Global Específico (PGE), instrumento de diagnóstico local e definição de intervenções. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o PGE de 4 localidades de Belo Horizonte, ocupadas de forma desordenada por população de baixa renda. Os PGE foram submetidos à análise documental, constituída de análise preliminar e de conteúdo, com avaliação de cinco dimensões teóricas: ambiente físico, social, moradia, equipamentos comunitários e públicos. O referencial teórico da Saúde Urbana norteou a análise dos dados. Todas as ZEIS apresentavam características semelhantes nas cinco dimensões analisadas. A participação da população era prevista em todas as etapas do PGE, sendo que suas principais reivindicações, nas 4 localidades, foram: salubridade do meio, abertura e pavimentação de ruas, ampliação do transporte público, melhoria de equipamentos de saúde e educação e regularização fundiária. Foi comum em todos os PGE a inclusão de intervenções não apontadas pela população. A proposta de planejamento do PGE coaduna com o referencial teórico da Saúde Urbana e, sobretudo, com o caráter inclusivo e integrador do PVV.


Abstract The Vila Viva Program (PVV), a social policy integrated by activities of urbanization, social development and land regularization of Belo Horizonte in Minas Gerais (BH), has its shares planned through the Specific Global Plan (PGE), instrument of local diagnosis and definition of interventions. The aim of the study was the analysis of PGE of four localities in BH occupied in a disorderly manner by low-income population. The PGE were submitted to documental analysis, consisting of preliminary analysis and documents and content analysis, with evaluation of theoretical dimensions: physical environment, social, housing, community and public facilities, which refer to the conceptual model of the Urban Health and Installment Law, Occupation and use of BH soil. All localities were similar in theoretical dimensions analyzed. The participation of the population was provided in all stages of PGE and the major claims in the four locations were: health environment, opening and street paving, expansion of public transport, improvement of health and education equipment and land regularization. The proposal planning of PGE line is consistent with the theoretical reference of Urban Health and, above all, with the inclusive and integrative character of the PVV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Social Change , Urban Population , Urban Health , Poverty , Urbanization , Brazil
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish the norms of Sub-Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) for Chinese urban residents.@*METHODS@#Using a multistage stratified sampling method, we conducted a large-scale epidemiological investigation among 15 066 urban residents sampled from 6 regions in China, including Tianjin City (north China), Guangdong Province (south China), Anhui Province (central south China), Sichuan Province (southwest China), Lanzhou City (northwest China) and Harbin City (northeast China). The mean, percentile and threshold norms were established based on the characteristics of SHMS V1.0 scores for Chinese urban residents.@*RESULTS@#The mean and percentile norms of total, physical, mental and social sub-health of Chinese urban residents were established according to gender and different age groups (14-19, 20-29, 30-49, 50-64 and ≥65 years). The threshold norms of SHMS V1.0 divided 5 health states, namely disease, severe sub-health, moderate subhealth, mild sub-health and healthy states according to the ± and ±0.5 of the converted scores.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The norms of Sub-Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) for Chinese urban residents were established, which provides a reference for rapid screening and diagnosis of sub-health status in Chinese urban residents and facilitates further study of the prevalence and contributing factors of sub-health.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Health Status , Humans , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Health , Urban Population
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The effects of prenatal exposure to toxic elements on birth outcomes and child development have been an area of concern. This study aimed to assess the profile of prenatal exposure to toxic elements, arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), mercury (total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MHg), inorganic mercury (IHg)), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn), and essential trace elements, copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), using the maternal blood, cord blood and placenta in the Tohoku Study of Child Development of Japan (N = 594-650).@*METHODS@#Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these elements (except mercury). Levels of THg and MeHg were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the maternal blood were 4.06 (2.68-6.81), 1.18 (0.74-1.79), 10.8 (8.65-13.5), 0.2 (0.06-0.40) and 0.2 (0.1-0.38) ng mL and 5.42 (3.89-7.59) ng g, respectively. Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the cord blood were 3.68 (2.58-5.25), 0.53 (0.10-1.25), 9.89 (8.02-12.5), 0.39 (0.06-0.92) and 0.2 (0.2-0.38) ng mL and 9.96 (7.05-13.8) ng g, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#THg and Sb levels in the cord blood were twofold higher than those in the maternal blood. Cord blood to maternal blood ratios for As, Cd and Sb widely varied between individuals. To understand the effects of prenatal exposure, further research regarding the variations of placental transfer of elements is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Fetal Blood , Chemistry , Humans , Japan , Maternal Exposure , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Metals , Blood , Placenta , Chemistry , Pregnancy , Blood , Trace Elements , Blood , Urban Health
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