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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44289, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1104374

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: discutir as vivências dos motoristas de ônibus através de suas percepções acerca do trânsito e os impactos à saúde sofridos por eles. Método: estudo qualitativo fenomenológico realizado em uma garagem de ônibus situada no Rio de Janeiro. As entrevistas fenomenológicas foram realizadas com 24 motoristas que responderam perguntas semiestruturadas e foram gravadas em dispositivo mp3, posteriormente, transcritas para obtenção das unidades de significado, a coleta de dados ocorreu entre 2017 e 2018. O projeto foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Resultados: da análise fenomenológica das unidades de significados dos depoimentos emergiram duas categorias: o trânsito é instável e estressante e a falta de educação das pessoas afeta os aspectos psíquicos. O ambiente de trabalho determina, expressivamente, o bem-estar dos trabalhadores que nele atuam. Conclusão: diante de tantos limites impostos pela sociedade contemporânea e pelo sofrimento no trabalho, necessário é motiva-los, e também dar-lhes condições de realizar seu trabalho de forma plena.


Objective: to discuss the experience of bus drivers through their perceptions regarding traffic and the health impacts they suffer. Method: in this qualitative phenomenological study conducted at a bus garage in Rio de Janeiro, data were collected in 2017 and 2018 by way of phenomenological interviews of 24 drivers, who answered semi-structured questions. The resulting mp3 recordings were later transcribed to obtain the units of meaning. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: from phenomenological analysis of the units of meaning in the responses, two categories emerged: traffic is unstable and stressful, and people's lack of education has adverse psychological effects. The work environment substantially determines the well-being of those working in it. Conclusion: given all the many constraints imposed by contemporary society and by their suffering at work, it is necessary to motivate them and also assure them the conditions necessary to carry out their work fully.


Objetivo: discutir la experiencia de los conductores de autobuses a través de sus percepciones sobre el tráfico y los impactos en la salud que sufren. Método: en este estudio fenomenológico cualitativo realizado en un garaje de autobuses en Río de Janeiro, se recopilaron datos en 2017 y 2018 a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas a 24 conductores, que respondieron preguntas semiestructuradas. Las grabaciones mp3 resultantes se transcribieron posteriormente para obtener las unidades de significado. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: del análisis fenomenológico de las unidades de significado en las respuestas, surgieron dos categorías: el tráfico es inestable y estresante, y la falta de educación de las personas tiene efectos psicológicos adversos. El ambiente de trabajo determina sustancialmente el bienestar de quienes trabajan en él. Conclusión: dadas las muchas restricciones impuestas por la sociedad contemporánea y por su sufrimiento en el trabajo, es necesario motivarlos y también asegurarles las condiciones necesarias para llevar a cabo su trabajo plenamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Automobile Driving , Working Conditions , Occupational Health , Occupational Stress , Social Perception , Urban Population , Brazil , Qualitative Research
2.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 21: 42458, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1053243

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a existência de disparidade urbano-rural na utilização de serviços de saúde por pessoas vivendo em um município de pequeno porte. Métodos: estudo epidemiológico transversal com amostra representativa e aleatória de pessoas com 18 anos ou mais de idade na área urbana (n=1.235) e toda a população de um distrito rural (n=190). Utilizou-se o questionário sobre utilização de serviços da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios. A análise considerou modelos de regressão logística para examinar fatores associados à utilização nos 30 dias anteriores ao estudo. Resultados: a taxa de utilização pelas pessoas da área urbana foi significativamente maior que da área rural (45,0% vs 15,8%). Mulheres e aqueles que reportaram sintomas de doenças no período e hipertensão arterial tiveram mais chances de utilização. Conclusão: pessoas residentes em área rural utilizam menos serviços de saúde quando comparadas àquelas da área urbana quando estão sob a mesma organização municipal de saúde.(AU)


Subject(s)
Rural Population , Urban Population , Child Health Services
3.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 32: e223876, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1101340

ABSTRACT

Resumo O texto acompanha algumas categorizações criadas para nomear os habitantes da rua, ao ponto de chamarmos no Brasil por "População em Situação de Rua". A categoria expressa um dos limites da pobreza urbana e, de modo transversal, a expropriação burguesa, branca e patriarcal. No plano urbano, é resultado dos movimentos de dispersão, segmentação, periferização e rualização da cidade. Os habitantes da rua, por outro lado, animam um sistema filantrópico que cria seus códigos e técnicas de enquadramento e salvação. Apesar das nomeações, uma vida perene e incapturável surge das ruas, com estratégias de sobrevivência e proteção que desafiam a maldição dos nomes e as políticas da cidade.


Abstract The text follows some categorizations created to name the homeless, to the point of being called in Brazil "População em Situação de Rua" (Population in a Homeless Situation). Said category expresses one of the limits of urban poverty and, in a transversal way, the bourgeois, white and patriarchal expropriation. At the urban level, it is the result of the city's dispersion, segmentation and peripheralization movements. The homeless, on the other hand, animate a philanthropic system that creates its codes and techniques of framing and salvation. Despite the nominations, a perennial and uncapturable life emerges from the streets, with survival and protection strategies that defy the weight that the names given to them bring, as well as city policies.


Resumen El texto sigue algunas categorizaciones creadas para nombrar a la gente que vive en las calles, hasta el punto en que los llamamos en Brasil "Población en situación de calle". La categoría expresa uno de los límites de la pobreza urbana y, de manera transversal, la expropiación burguesa, blanca y patriarcal. A nivel urbano, es el resultado de los movimientos de dispersión, segmentación, 'periferización' y 'callerización' de la ciudad. Los habitantes de la calle, por otro lado, animan un sistema filantrópico que crea sus códigos y técnicas de encuadre y salvación. A pesar de los nombres, una vida perenne e insondable emerge de las calles, con estrategias de supervivencia y protección que desafían la maldición del nombre y las políticas de la ciudad.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Urban Population , Homeless Persons , Poverty Areas , Social Marginalization
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e018119, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1058016

ABSTRACT

Abstract Currently, there are 21 species of Angiostrongylus that parasitize the pulmonary or mesenteric arteries of wild and domestic rodents, felids, canids and human. Species of Angiostrongylus have cosmopolitan distribution covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The procyonid Nasua nasua (coati) is a reservoir host for a wide variety of parasites that may be harmful to its populations or may contain etiological agents with zoonotic potential. In urban areas, coatis are usually found in close association with humans and domestic animals. We morphologically and molecularly characterized a new species of Angiostrongylus found in N. nasua in a protected area within Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The new species of Angiostrongylus differs from other species of the same genus in terms of the length and bifurcation level of the lateral and ventral rays, the length of spicules and female tail morphology. Molecular phylogenetic results based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene suggest that the newly identified species belongs to a genetic lineage that is separate from other species of Angiostrongylus. This new species was collected from the mesenteric arteries of N. nasua. It was named Angiostrongylus minasensis n. sp..


Resumo Existem 21 espécies de Angiostrongylus que parasitam as artérias pulmonares ou mesentéricas de roedores silvestres e domésticos, felídeos, canídeos e homem. Espécies de Angiostrongylus têm uma distribuição cosmopolita que abrange regiões tropicais, subtropicais e temperadas. O procionídeo Nasua nasua (quati) é hospedeiro de vários parasitos que podem ser prejudiciais para suas populações ou conter agentes etiológicos com potencial zoonótico. Nas áreas urbanas, os quatis podem ser encontrados em estreita associação com seres humanos e animais domésticos. Nós caracterizamos morfológica e molecularmente uma nova espécie de Angiostrongylus encontrada em N. nasua de uma área protegida na cidade de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. A nova espécie de Angiostrongylus difere de outras espécies do mesmo gênero pelo comprimento e nível de bifurcação dos raios lateral e ventral, o comprimento dos espículos e a morfologia da cauda da fêmea. Resultados moleculares e filogenéticos baseados no gene mitocondrial citocromo c oxidase subunidade 1 indicam que a espécie recém-identificada pertence a uma linhagem genética separada de outras espécies de Angiostrongylus. O presente relato descreve uma nova espécie de Angistrongylus coletada das artérias mesentéricas de N. nasua, denominada Angiostrongylus minasensis n. sp..


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Procyonidae/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/anatomy & histology , Angiostrongylus/classification , Angiostrongylus/genetics , Phylogeny , Urban Population , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(4): 152-159, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054724

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Es sabido que los malos hábitos alimentarios contribuyen a la aparición de enfermedades crónicas, como la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus, sin embargo, no existe información actualizada respecto a la alimentación de la población urbana en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de la población costarricense incluida en el Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS). Métodos: Se incluyó una muestra de 798 participantes entre 15 y 65 años del área urbana de Costa Rica. Se determinó el consumo diario promedio de alimentos y la frecuencia por tiempo de comida de acuerdo al sexo, el grupo de edad y el nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los grupos de alimentos más consumidos en el desayuno fueron café y panes, en la merienda de la mañana frutas, en la merienda de la tarde café y panes y en el almuerzo y la cena arroz blanco, bebidas con azúcar y leguminosas. Se determinaron algunas diferencias en los alimentos incluidos en los diferentes tiempos de comida entre hombres y mujeres, según el grupo de edad y el nivel socioeconómico de los participantes. Conclusión: Los hábitos alimentarios de la población costarricense se caracterizaron por ser poco variados, y poseer un alto consumo de café, panes, arroz blanco y bebidas con azúcar y un consumo insuficiente de leguminosas, frutas, vegetales no harinosos y pescado. Esta información puede ser utilizada para la implementación de programas nutricionales tendientes a mejor los hábitos de alimentación en el país.


Abstract Objective: It is known that poor eating habits contribute to the onset of chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, among others, however there is no recent information regarding the diet of the urban population in Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to analyze the dietary habits of the Costa Rican population included in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS). Methods: A sample of 798 participants between 15 and 65 years of urban areas of Costa Rica was included. The average daily consumption of food and the frequency per meal time were determined according to sex, age group and socioeconomic level. Results: The most consumed food groups at breakfast were coffee and bread, in the morning snack fruits, in the afternoon snack coffee and bread and at lunch and dinner white rice, sweetened beverages and legumes. Some differences were determined in the foods included in the different meal times between according to sex, age group and socioeconomic status of the participants. Conclusion: The dietary habits of the Costa Rican population were characterized by having little variety, a high consumption of coffee, bread, white rice and sweetened beverages and insufficient consumption of legumes, fruits, non-starchy vegetables and fish. This information can be used for the implementation of nutritional programs aimed at improving eating habits in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Urban Population , Food Consumption , Costa Rica , Feeding Behavior
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 27(4): 168-178, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1052928

ABSTRACT

Analisar o equilíbrio e o risco de quedas de idosos ribeirinhos e urbanos no contexto amazônico. A amostra foi composta de 78 idosos, 43 residentes na ilha ribeirinha de Jacaré Xingu e 35 do município de Belém. Foi realizada entrevista com questionário próprio para fins de levantamento de dados sociodemográfico das regiões estudadas, teste funcional de equilíbrio por meio da Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg que possui 14 itens pontuados de 0 a 4 somando um total de 56 pontos, e entrevista com questionário Falls Efficacy Scale International- FES-1 que pode ser pontuado numa escala ordinal de 1 a 4 pontos e a pontuação máxima obtida neste questionário é de 64 pontos. Foi realizada a análise descritiva, o Teste t student para comparar os grupos estudados, além do teste de correlação de Pearson. O nível de significância foi de 0,05 (p<0,05) para todas as análises estatísticas. Idosos ribeirinhos tiveram maior frequência de quedas que os urbanos, apresentaram índice de equilíbrio superior aos dos urbanos (p=0,000), e nas provas por tarefas obtiveram significância estatística para atividades de bases de sustentação (p=0,000), componentes rotacionais (p= 0,013) e provas estacionárias (p=0,014). Na avaliação do risco de quedas (FES-1) não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados mostram que os idosos ribeirinhos possuem maior frequência de quedas, melhor equilíbrio postural, isto pode ser apontado devido às tarefas realizadas diariamente em seu meio ambiente, na qual mesmo possuindo medo de cair igual aos idosos da região urbana, seu estilo de vida favorece a uma melhor capacidade funcional...(AU)


To analyze the balance and risk of falls in the elderly and the urban population in the Amazonian context. The sample consisted of 78 elderly, 43 from the Jacaré Xingu river region and 35 from the city of Belém. An interview was conducted with a questionnaire for the purpose of collecting sociodemographic data from the studied regions, functional balance test by the Equilibrium Scale of Berg that has 14 items scored from 0 to 4 totaling 56 points, and an interview with Falls Efficacy Scale International-FES-1 that can be scored on an ordinal scale of 1 to 4 points and the maximum score obtained in this questionnaire is of 64 points an interview was conducted with a questionnaire to characterize the sample, functional balance test using the Berg Balance Scale and interview with Falls Efficacy Scale International- FES-1 questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was made, as well as the T Student Test to compare the studied groups, and the Pearson correlation test. The level of significance was 0.05 (p <0.05) for all statistical analyzes. Ribeirinhos had a higher frequency of falls than urban ones, had a higher equilibrium index than the urban ones (p = 0.000), and in the tests by tasks they obtained statistical significance for activities of support bases (p = 0.0004), rotational components (p = 0.013) and stationary tests (p = 0.014). In the assessment of the risk of falls (FES-1) there was no significant difference between the groups. The results show that the Ribeirinhos elderly have a higher frequency of falls and a better postural balance. This can be pointed out due to the daily tasks in their environment, in which, even though they are afraid to fall just like the living in the urban area, their lifestyle favors better functional capacity...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Physical Education and Training , Rural Population , Urban Population , Accidental Falls , Postural Balance , Fractures, Bone , Lower Extremity
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 245-251, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054928

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Debido a la fuerte industrialización de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores, la población podría estar expuesta a metales. Para poder evaluar el nivel de exposición de los niños al cromo y al mercurio, es fundamental tener valores de referencia (VR) propios. El objetivo fue determinar los VR pediátricos para cromo y mercurio en la muestra aislada de orina. Población y métodos: Se incluyeron niños y niñas no expuestos a los contaminantes evaluados que concurrieron al Servicio de Bajo Riesgo y al Consultorio del Jardín Maternal del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". Se cuantificó cromo (UCr), mercurio (UHg) y creatinina urinarios. Se calcularon los p95 con su intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC 95 %] según el concepto para VR de la German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Resultados: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes en el estudio. Se obtuvieron 144 muestras de niños y niñas de entre 1 y 17 años (mediana: 7 años). Se cuantificó UCr a 137 muestras y UHg a 129. La mediana y rango de cromo fue 0,54 (indetectable -3,06) µg/g de creatinina y la de mercurio fue 0,49 (indetectable -7,57) µg/g de creatinina.Conclusiones: Los VR fueron, para UCr, hasta 1,5 µg/l [1,2-2,8] y hasta 2,2 µg/g de creatinina [1,8-3,0] y para UHg, hasta 2,5 µg/l [1,8-4,8] y 3,2 µg/g de creatinina [2,5-4,7


Introduction. Due to the heavy industrialization of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires, the population may have become exposed to metals.To assess the level of exposure to chromium and mercury in children, it is critical to have local reference values (RVs). Our objective was to determine pediatric RVs for chromium and mercury in a single urine sample.Population and methods: Children who were not exposed to the studied contaminants and who attended the Department of Low Risk Conditions and the Daycare Center Office of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" were included. Urinary chromium (UCr), urinary mercury (UHg), and urinary creatinine were measured. The p95 and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were estimated based on the RV concept proposed by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission.Results: The study included 160 patients. A total of 144 samples from children aged 1-17 years (median: 7 years) were collected. UCr was measured in 137 samples and UHg, in 129 samples. The median value of chromium was 0.54 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 3.06), while that of mercury was 0.49 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 7.57). Conclusions: The RVs for UCr were up to 1.5 µg/L [1.2-2.8] and up to 2.2 µg/g of creatinine [1.8-3.0], and for UHg, up to 2.5 µg/L [1.8-4.8] and 3.2 µg/g of creatinine [2.5-4.7]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Chromium/urine , Mercury/urine , Urban Population , Urine , Environmental Exposure/analysis
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 298-305, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1012614

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe and analyze indicators of feeding practices related to breastfeeding and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in a subnormal urban cluster (slums) in Pernambuco, Brazil. Methods: Four breastfeeding indicators were used to interview mothers of children under 3 years of age. An inventory of the families' socioeconomic and environmental factors, maternal obstetric history, and basic health care access was undertaken. The sample consisted of all 310 children under the age of 3 years from Coelhos, PE, Brazil. Spearman's correlation was carried out, as well as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for a final statistical model that showed associated factors with the main outcome at a level of 0.05. Results: The prevalence of breastfeeding in the first hour of life, exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months, continued breastfeeding at 1 year, and continued breastfeeding at 2 years were 60.2%, 32.9%, 45.9, and 35.9%, respectively. A correlation was observed between start of pacifier use and duration of either exclusive (r s = 0.358 [p < 0.001]) or non‐exclusive breastfeeding (r s = 0.248 [p = 0.006]). Maternal age over 35 years (p < 0.001), home visit in the first week after birth (p = 0.003), having had a male baby (p = 0.029), and not using a pacifier (p < 0.001) remained protective factors in the final model. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months were well above the results obtained by other Brazilian authors. Home visit and maternal age prevailed as protective factors, while pacifier use was shown to be a discouraging practice.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever e analisar indicadores das práticas relacionadas ao aleitamento materno e fatores associados ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em um aglomerado urbano subnormal (favela) em Pernambuco. Métodos: Foram usados quatro indicadores do aleitamento materno mediante entrevista com as mães de menores de três anos. Fez-se um inventário de fatores socioambientais das famílias, antecedentes obstétricos e acesso às ações básicas de saúde. A amostra inclui todas as 310 crianças da Comunidade de Coelhos, PE, Brasil. Feitas correlação de Spearman e razões de prevalências brutas e ajustadas que compuseram um modelo estatístico final que evidenciou os fatores associados ao principal desfecho ao nível de 0,05. Resultados: A prevalência do aleitamento materno na primeira hora de vida, aleitamento materno exclusivo aos 6 meses, amamentação continuada até um ano e dois anos foram, respectivamente, 60,2%, 32,9%, 45,9% e 35,9%. Na correlação entre o início do uso de chupeta e a duração do aleitamento, exclusivo ou não, obtiveram-se respectivamente os coeficientes rs = 0,358 (p < 0,001) e rs = 0,248 (p = 0,006). No modelo final permaneceram como fatores de proteção: a idade materna acima de 35 anos (p < 0,001), a visita domiciliar na primeira semana de vida (p = 0,003), o sexo masculino (p = 0,029) e o não uso da chupeta (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Os índices de prevalência do aleitamento materno exclusivo aos 6 meses foram bem superiores aos resultados obtidos por outras pesquisas nacionais. A visita domiciliar e a idade materna prevaleceram como fatores de proteção e o uso de chupeta como uma prática desestimulante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Family Health , National Health Programs , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pacifiers
9.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 238-244, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1011494

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of mental health services utilization (overall and by type of service sector), the adequacy of treatment provided, and sociodemographic correlates in the Argentinean Study of Mental Health Epidemiology (ASMHE). Methods: The ASMHE is a multistage probability household sample representative of adults in urban areas of Argentina. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used to evaluate psychiatric diagnosis and service utilization. Results: Among those with a disorder, 27.6% received any treatment in the prior 12 months. Of these, 78.3% received minimally adequate treatment using a broad definition and only 43.6% using a stringent definition. For individuals with a disorder, more services were provided by mental health professionals (17.7%) than by general medical professionals (11.5%) or non-healthcare sectors (2.6%). Younger individuals with low education and income were less likely to receive treatment; those never married and those with an anxiety or mood disorder were more likely to receive treatment. Among those in treatment, treatment was least adequate among younger individuals with low education and low income. Conclusions: Policies to increase access to services for mental health disorders in Argentina are needed, as is training for primary care practitioners in the early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Psychiatry/education , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , General Practitioners/education , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Middle Aged
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 238-246, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002465

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate ApoB/ApoA1 ratio and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 258 children aged 8 and 9 years old, enrolled in all urban schools in the city of Viçosa-MG. Anthropometric and body composition assessment, as well as biochemical profile of the children was performed. Socioeconomic variables and sedentary lifestyle were evaluated through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Many children had excess weight (35.2%), abdominal adiposity (10.5%), and body fat (15.6%), as well as increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (14.7%), total cholesterol (51.8%), and triglycerides (19.8%). Children with excess weight and total and central fat had a higher prevalence of having a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, as well as those with atherogenic lipid profile (increased LDL-c and triglycerides and low HDL-c). A direct association was found between the number of cardiovascular risk factors and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (p = 0.001), regardless of age and income. Conclusion: The increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio was associated with excess weight, body adiposity (total and central), and altered lipid profile in children. Children with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors had higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, in both genders.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a razão ApoB/ApoA1 e sua relação com fatores de risco cardiovascular em crianças. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 258 crianças de 8 e 9 anos, matriculadas em todas as escolas urbanas de Viçosa-MG. Foi feita avaliação antropométrica, da composição corporal e bioquímica das crianças. As variáveis socioeconômicas e o sedentarismo foram avaliados por questionário semiestruturado. Resultados: Muitas crianças apresentaram excesso de peso (35,2%), de adiposidade abdominal (10,5%) e de gordura corporal (15,6%), bem como a razão ApoB/ApoA1 (14,7%), colesterol-total (51,8%) e triglicerídeos (19,8%) aumentados. Crianças com excesso de peso e de gordura total e central apresentaram maiores prevalências de maior razão ApoB/ApoA1, bem como as com perfil lipídico aterogênico (LDL-c e triglicerídeos aumentados e baixo HDL-c). Foi encontrada associação direta entre o número de fatores de risco cardiovascular e a razão ApoB/ApoA1 (p = 0,001), independente da idade e renda. Conclusão: A razão ApoB/ApoA1 aumentada esteve associada ao excesso de peso, de adiposidade corporal (total e central) e ao perfil lipídico alterado nas crianças. As crianças com maior número de fatores de risco cardiovascular apresentaram maior razão ApoB/ApoA1, em ambos os sexos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Arteriosclerosis/blood , Apolipoprotein A-I/blood , Apolipoprotein B-100/blood , Lipids/blood , Obesity/blood , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Body Composition , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Adiposity , Sedentary Behavior , Obesity/complications
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 291-297, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1013743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Molecular characterization of these pathogens in sewage may provide insight on their occurrence and prevalence in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in raw and treated sewage from Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Samples were collected every two weeks during a year. Samples were concentrated, then DNA was extracted and subjected to a nested PCR targeting the Giardia 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene. Species of Cryptosporidium were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). All raw sewage and 76% of the treated sewage were positive for Giardia; 84% of raw sewage samples and 8% of treated sewage were positive for Cryptosporidium. C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. parvum and C. suis were detected in 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% and 4% of raw sewage, respectively. C. muris was the only species found in treated sewage. Multiple species of Cryptosporidium were present in 19.04% of the raw sewage. Treated sewage water can pose a threat to human health. The speciation of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of non-common zoonotic species as C. suis and C. muris.


Resumo Cryptosporidium e Giardia são protozoários causadores de diarreia em animais e humanos. A caracterização molecular destes protozoários em esgoto pode prover dados ainda desconhecidos da ocorrência de espécies. O objetivo do presente estudo foi monitorar a ocorrência de Giardia e espécies de Cryptosporidium em esgoto bruto e tratado em uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) de Londrina, Paraná. Amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado foram coletadas no período de um ano, com periodicidade quinzenal. A ocorrência destes protozoários foi caracterizada por meio de concentração das amostras e posterior extração de DNA seguida de nested-PCR para amplificação de fragmentos dos genes 18S rRNA de Giardia e 18S rRNA de Cryptosporidium. A caracterização das espécies de Cryptosporidium foi realizada por meio de análise por polimorfismo de comprimento do fragmento de restrição (RFLP) dos produtos obtidos. Foram coletadas no total 25 amostras de cada, esgoto bruto e esgoto tratado. Para Giardia, todas as amostras de esgoto bruto e 76% das de esgoto tratado foram positivas. Cryptosporidium esteve presente em 84% das amostras de esgoto bruto e em 8% do tratado. No esgoto tratado foi encontrado apenas C. muris, já nas amostras de esgoto bruto foram encontradas cinco espécies: C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. suis e C. parvum em 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% e 4%, respectivamente. A presença de espécies mistas foi observada em 19,04% das amostras. A presença de Giardia e Cryptosporidium em esgoto tratado pode pôr em risco a saúde humana. A discriminação de espécies de Cryptosporidium revelou a presença de espécies zoonóticas incomuns como C. suis e C. muris.


Subject(s)
Sewage/parasitology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Giardia/isolation & purification , Urban Population , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Giardia/genetics
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 221-228, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1013741

ABSTRACT

Abstract Geese, ducks, mallards, and swans are birds of the order Anseriformes, which are found in the wild, in zoos and parks, and raised for meat consumption. Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp., and Neospora caninum are protozoans of several species of animals. Wild and domestic birds can serve as intermediate hosts, disseminators and potential sources of infection of these protozoa to humans through contaminated meat. The aims of this study were: (i) to perform a serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese (Anser sp.) from public parks and from captivity and (ii) to compare seroprevalence between these two locations. Antibodies were detected by Immunofluorescence antibody test using the serum of 149 geese. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp., T. gondii, and N. caninum were detected in 28.18%, 18% and 0.67% of geese, respectively; 57% of geese from urban parks and 26.53% of geese from captivity were seropositive for at least one protozoa. The results indicate environmental contamination, particularly for the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii - a zoonosis that causes toxoplasmosis and is transmitted through oocyte ingestion. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese from urban parks in Curitiba, Brazil.


Resumo Gansos, patos, marrecos e cisnes são aves da ordem Anseriformes, encontrados em vida livre, zoológicos, parques e criados para consumo da carne. Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp. e Neospora caninum são protozoários capazes de infectar diversas espécies animais. Aves domésticas e silvestres podem ser hospedeiras intermediárias e servir como disseminadoras e potenciais fontes de infecção para seres humanos por meio da carne. O objetivo do estudo foi 1) realizar a soroprevalência de T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. e N. caninum em gansos (Anser sp.) provenientes de parques públicos e de um cativeiro e 2) comparar a soroprevalência entre os locais. Foi realizada sorologia de 149 Anser sp. pelo método da reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Anticorpos para Sarcocystis sp., T. gondii e N. caninum foram encontrados em 28,18%, 18%, e 0,67% dos animais, respectivamente; 57% dos gansos dos parques públicos e 26,53% dos animais cativos foram soropositivos para algum dos protozoários. A ocorrência de anticorpos para tais protozoários indica contaminação ambiental, ressaltando a alta prevalência de anticorpos para T. gondii, zoonose transmitida por ingestão dos oocistos. Sugere-se investigação da água e medidas ambientais para reduzir a contaminação dos animais e do ambiente. Este é o primeiro trabalho que avaliou sorologicamente gansos provenientes de parques urbanos de Curitiba, Paraná para T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. e N. caninum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Toxoplasma/immunology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Sarcocystis/immunology , Neospora/immunology , Geese/parasitology , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 113-118, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-990804

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa). This is the first study from urban synanthropic rodent species that involved serological and molecular diagnosis of T. gondii and N. caninum infection, and genotyping of T. gondii in Argentina. A total of 127 rodent samples were trap captured: Mus musculus (n = 78), Rattus norvegicus (n = 26) and Rattus rattus (n = 23). Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected by IFAT in 32.8% (40/122) and 0.8% (1/122) of rodent samples, respectively, demonstrating contact with these protozoans. Additionally, T. gondii DNA was detected in 3.3% (4/123) of rodent central nervous system samples and 2 samples were genotyped by multilocus nPCR-RFLP. Neospora caninum DNA was not detected by PCR. The 2 genotyped samples were type III allele for all markers except for SAG-1 (type I for Rat1Arg and type II/III for Rat2Arg) and were identified as #48 and #2 (likely) according to the allele combinations reported on Toxo DB (Toxo-DB). The results of the present study revealed a wide distribution of T. gondii and less for N. caninum, in synanthropic rats and mice in the studied area.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum são parasitas coccídeos intimamente relacionados (filo Apicomplexa). Este é o primeiro estudo de espécies de roedores sinantrópicos urbanos, o qual envolveu diagnósticos sorológicos e moleculares da infecção por T. gondii e N. caninum e genotipagem de T. gondii na Argentina. Um total de 127 amostras de roedores foram obtidas: Mus musculus (n = 78), Rattus norvegicus (n = 26) e Rattus rattus (n = 23). Anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum foram detectados pela IFAT em 32,8% (40/122) e 0,8% (1/122) das amostras de roedores, respectivamente, demonstrando contato com esses protozoários. Adicionalmente, o DNA de T. gondii foi detectado em 3,3% (4/123) das amostras do sistema nervoso central de roedores e duas amostras foram genotipadas por nPCR-RFLP multilocus. O DNA de N. caninum não foi detectado por PCR. As 2 amostras genotipadas eram do tipo III para todos os marcadores, exceto para SAG-1 (tipo I para Rat1Arg e tipo II / III para Rat2Arg) e foram identificadas como # 48 e # 2 (provavelmente) de acordo com as combinações de alelos relatadas no Toxo DB (Toxo-DB). Os resultados do presente estudo indicam uma ampla distribuição de T. gondii e menor para N. caninum , em ratos e camundongos sinantrópicos na área estudada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rodentia/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Neospora/genetics , Neospora/immunology , Argentina , Rodentia/classification , Urban Population , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/blood , Genotype , Mice
14.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4771, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-998251

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the impact of untreated dental caries on the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children from low social class in an urban Nigerian population. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among 6 to 15-year-old pupils from low social class in randomly selected primary schools in Ibadan. An interviewer-administered Child Oral Impact on Daily Performances (C-OIDP) questionnaire was used to obtain required information. Oral examination was conducted by calibrated examiners. Data obtained were analyzed with SPSS and test of association done with Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: A total of 1286 pupils participated in the study and 130 (10.1%) had untreated dental caries, out of which 26 (20.0%) had pain from carious tooth. The C-OIDP of children with dental caries was similar to that of children without caries [median 0.0 vs. median 0.0; r = -0.025; p=0.368]. The median COIDP (3.0) of those with untreated dental caries and pain was higher than that of participants with painless caries [0.0; r=-0.768; p<0.001]. There were significant impacts on all eight domains of the OHRQoL of those with untreated dental caries and pain (71.4 ­ 100.0%) when compared to those with painless caries (0.0 ­ 28.6%; p<0.05). Conclusion: Untreated dental caries significantly impacts on OHRQoL of pupils from low social class only when associated with pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Social Class/history , Toothache , Child , Africa , Dental Caries , Urban Population , Chi-Square Distribution , Oral Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric
15.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4652, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-998252

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine relationship between access to dental health services with dental health conditions of adult communities in urban areas represented by Somba Opu and rural districts represented by Patalassang subdistrict in Gowa subdistrict. Material and Methods: This was pilot pathfinder survey, conducted in Gowa District in April 2018 with 420 subjects. Data were collected using a CoHRE questionnaire. Information regarding gender, age and location (rural and urban), transportation (public and private), toothache in past one year, dental treatment in past one year, dental treatment frequency (regular and irregular), smoking, alcohol consumption, routine activity, drugs intake, oral problems, driving car, distance to health facility (near and far) were collected. The number of teeth was dichotomized to less than 20 and 20 or more. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: In the urban area there was an association between routine activities with dental health conditions (p=0.002). There is no significant association between distance or access to health care facility with dental condition in adult society in urban area (p>0.05). In rural area there is a significant association between distance or access to health care facility with dental condition (p=0.046). Conclusion: There is an association between access to dental health services with dental health conditions of adult communities in urban areas represented by Somba Opu and rural disparities represented by Patalassang subdistrict in Gowa district.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Conditions , Dental Care , Dental Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Indonesia , Rural Population , Urban Population , Chi-Square Distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(1): 42-48, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1058864

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Establecer la relación entre parasitismo intestinal en niños menores de 6 años y vivienda en áreas de protección ambiental, sin servicio de acueducto, en El Codito -Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal que incluyó 144 niños entre los 4 y 70 meses de edad. Se recolectaron datos sociodemográficos encuestando a los padres y se tomaron muestras fecales de los niños. Se calcularon medidas descriptivas de las variables por tipo de población (parasitada y no parasitada) estableciendo diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Utilizando una regresión logística binomial multivariada se determinó la relación entre parasitismo intestinal y servicio de acueducto, controlando por las demás variables estudiadas. Resultados Se encontró una prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal de 38,9%. La falta de servicio de acueducto estuvo asociada a parasitismo (OR=31,25) ajustando por las demás variables estudiadas. Otras variables asociadas a parasitismo fueron: afiliación al régimen de salud subsidiado al compararla con el contributivo (OR=1,49), presencia de animales en la vivienda (OR=2,58), madres con oficio técnico-profesional al compararlas con madres con oficios no calificados (OR=0,05) y vivienda en habitación rentada al compararla con vivienda propia (OR=6,62). Conclusiones Los niños menores de 6 años viviendo en áreas protegidas sin servicio de acueducto presentaron con mayor frecuencia parasitismo intestinal. Si bien es claro que el establecimiento de áreas protegidas para preservar el medio ambiente es esencial, si no se previene el asentamiento de poblaciones en estos territorios a tiempo, la población que habita en los mismos está sujeta a condiciones adversas que atentan contra la dignidad humana.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To establish the correlation between intestinal parasitism in children younger than 6 years old and their dwelling in environmental protected areas without aqueduct service, in the neighborhood El Codito, in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was done with 144 children between the ages of 4 and 70 months. Socio-demographic data were collected by surveying parents, and fecal samples were taken from the children to identify parasites. Descriptive measures were calculated for the variables by population type (parasitized and non-parasitized), establishing significant differences. Using a binary multivariate logistic regression, the correlation between intestinal parasitism and aqueduct was determined, adjusting the other studied variables. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasitism was 38.9%. The lack of aqueduct service was associated with intestinal parasitism (OR=31.25) after adjusting for other studied variables, which included affiliation to the subsidized health insurance regime compared with the contributory regime (OR= 1.49), home pets (OR= 2.58), mothers with professional jobs compared to mothers with non-professional jobs (OR=0.05), and dwelling in a rented room when compared with own dwelling (OR= 6.62). Conclusions Children under the age of 6 living in protected areas without water service were more likely to suffer from intestinal parasitism. It is known that preserving protected areas to protect the environment is of great importance, but if the settlement of populations in these territories is not prevented in time, the population living there is subject to adverse conditions which violate human dignity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Urban Population , Basic Sanitation/policies , Environment Design , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Colombia/epidemiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-772066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish the norms of Sub-Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) for Chinese urban residents.@*METHODS@#Using a multistage stratified sampling method, we conducted a large-scale epidemiological investigation among 15 066 urban residents sampled from 6 regions in China, including Tianjin City (north China), Guangdong Province (south China), Anhui Province (central south China), Sichuan Province (southwest China), Lanzhou City (northwest China) and Harbin City (northeast China). The mean, percentile and threshold norms were established based on the characteristics of SHMS V1.0 scores for Chinese urban residents.@*RESULTS@#The mean and percentile norms of total, physical, mental and social sub-health of Chinese urban residents were established according to gender and different age groups (14-19, 20-29, 30-49, 50-64 and ≥65 years). The threshold norms of SHMS V1.0 divided 5 health states, namely disease, severe sub-health, moderate subhealth, mild sub-health and healthy states according to the ± and ±0.5 of the converted scores.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The norms of Sub-Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) for Chinese urban residents were established, which provides a reference for rapid screening and diagnosis of sub-health status in Chinese urban residents and facilitates further study of the prevalence and contributing factors of sub-health.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Health Status , Humans , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Health , Urban Population
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-777596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#More than half of the disease burden in Uganda can be prevented through improving water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). In slum communities, water supply is insufficient but also highly contaminated; therefore, ensuring that the safe water chain is maintained by households is paramount to preventing water-related diseases. This study aimed at assessing knowledge and practices of households on safe water chain maintenance in slum communities in Kampala City, Uganda.@*METHODS@#This was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out among 395 households in slum communities in Kampala, Uganda. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and their 95% confidence intervals were used as a measure of association between safe water chain management and associated knowledge and practice factors. The PRs were obtained using a multivariable modified Poisson regression with logarithm as the link function, with robust standard errors.@*RESULTS@#Majority (76.7%, 303/395) of the households collected their water from a piped water system and paid for the water (72.9%, 288/395). Almost all (97.2%, 384/395) of the participants said that they knew the dangers associated with drinking unsafe water, boiled their drinking water (95.4%, 377/395), and used storage containers that minimize contamination (97.0%, 383/395). However, only (32.4%, 128/395) of the households satisfactorily maintained the safe water chain. Female- (adjusted PR = 1.82, 95% CI (1.19-2.78)) and student-led households (adjusted PR = 1.58, 95% CI (1.03-2.41)) and those whose heads had attained post-primary education (adjusted PR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.02-2.17)) were more likely to satisfactorily maintain the safe water chain. This was similar among members who thought most contamination occurs during storage (adjusted PR = 1.47, 95% CI (1.10-1.97)).@*CONCLUSION@#Only a third of the households maintained the safe water chain satisfactory. Female-led, student-led, and post-primary educated-led household and household that thought most contamination occurs during storage were more likely to maintain the safe water chain. There is a need to improve the level of awareness about the importance of the safe water chain among slum dwellers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drinking Water , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty Areas , Sanitation , Uganda , Urban Population , Water Supply , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-764418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Edentulism is associated with socioeconomic status, rural residence, and chronic disease, but no studies have investigated edentulism and residence factors together. All information that drives a better understanding of the factors related to edentulism plays an important role in the planning and delivery of appropriate dental services for the elderly by national and oral health professionals. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of edentulism in adults aged over 60 years in Korea and to examine whether there are differences in dentate status between people living in urban and rural areas after controlling for sociodemographic and other related factors. METHODS: The data for this study were collected from 2013 to 2015 as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI, those individuals aged over 60 years and who had complete datasets were included (5,071). The number of teeth and residence status were categorized into two groups: edentate and dentate (1 or more); urban and rural. Multiple multivariate logistic regression analyses were sequentially applied to assess the association between dentate status and residence status after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Rural areas, lower household income, and lower education levels were associated with a higher edentate rate. The number of teeth was lower in rural areas than in urban areas. After adjusting for various factors, statistically significant associations were present for women, low household income, low education level, poor perceived health status, and alcohol consumption in participants. CONCLUSION: Elders living in rural areas had poorer oral health than elders living in urban areas. The government will need to provide effective systems for promoting oral health for elders living in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Chronic Disease , Dataset , Education , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Oral Health , Prevalence , Residence Characteristics , Social Class , Tooth , Urban Population
20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00100818, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1001642

ABSTRACT

O acesso aos serviços de saneamento básico por parte da população da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, vem sendo marcado por processos de segregação socioespacial e exclusão social. Tendo em vista o reconhecimento, em 2010, dos direitos humanos à água e ao esgotamento sanitário pela Organização das Nações Unidas, busca-se analisar o acesso adequado a estes serviços na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte por meio do princípio da igualdade e não discriminação. Foram utilizados microdados provenientes dos censos demográficos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, anos de 2000 e 2010. Esses foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e comparativa, análise espacial e análise multivariada, buscando-se: dimensionar a universalização do acesso adequado aos serviços; analisar a dependência espacial entre os municípios no que se refere a tal acesso; identificar e caracterizar possível discriminação no acesso, por parte de determinados grupos populacionais. Os resultados permitiram observar: aumento na proporção de domicílios com o acesso adequado aos serviços de água e esgoto no período intercensitário; quase inexistência de associação espacial, demonstrando haver desigualdades entre os 34 municípios que compõem a Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte; desigualdades no acesso entre diferentes grupos populacionais - segundo situação do domicílio, renda, cor ou raça, sexo e escolaridade - em possível desacordo com o princípio da não discriminação.


Access to water and sanitation services by the population of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has been marked by processes of socio-spatial segregation and social exclusion. Considering the recognition, in 2010, of the human rights to water and sanitation by the United Nations, we seek to assess the adequate access to these services in the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region through the principle of equality and non-discrimination. We used microdata from the demographic censuses, years 2000 and 2010, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. We analyzed these data through descriptive and comparative statistical analysis, spatial analysis and multivariate analysis, so as to: determine the extent of the universalization of the adequate access to those services; assess the spatial dependence between municipalities regarding this access; identify and characterize possible access discrimination, by specific population groups. Results show an increase in the proportion of households with adequate access to water and sanitation services in the intercensus period; near lack spatial association, showing inequalities among the 34 municipalities of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region; access inequalities among different population groups - according to household situation, income, race or color, sex and educational level - in a possible non compliance with the principle of non-discrimination.


El acceso a los servicios de agua y saneamiento por parte de la población de la Región Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, ha estado marcado por procesos de segregación socioespacial y exclusión social. Teniendo en vista el reconocimiento, en 2010, de los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento por las Naciones Unidas, se busca analizar el acceso adecuado a esos servicios en la Región Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, a través del principio de la igualdad y no discriminación. Se utilizaron microdatos provenientes de los censos demográficos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística, en los años 2000 y 2010. Estos se sometieron a un análisis estadístico descriptivo y comparativo, análisis espacial y análisis multivariado, buscando: dimensionar la universalización del acceso adecuado a los servicios; analizar la dependencia espacial entre los municipios en lo que se refiere a tal acceso; identificar y caracterizar una posible discriminación en el acceso, por parte de determinados grupos poblacionales. Los resultados permitieron observar: un aumento en la proporción de domicilios con acceso adecuado a los servicios de agua y saneamiento durante el período intercensitario; casi inexistencia de asociación espacial, demostrando que existen desigualdades entre los 34 municipios que componen la Región Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte; desigualdades en el acceso entre diferentes grupos poblacionales -según la situación del domicilio, renta, color o raza, sexo y escolaridad-, en posible desacuerdo con el principio de la no discriminación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Water Supply , Sanitation , Prejudice , Urban Population , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Multivariate Analysis , Spatial Analysis , Human Rights
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