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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Psychodidae , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Rural Population , Urban Population , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Rev. cienc. salud ; 20(1): 1-23, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367565

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se buscó analizar la prevalencia de enfermedades dermatológicas de la población de un asentamiento urbano precario próximo al vertedero municipal de Asunción (Paraguay), atendiendo a la exposición de las condiciones socioambientales. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo y transversal con una muestra no probabilística intencional que incluyó a 77 personas de entre 5 meses y 76 años. Resultados: en el momento del examen físico, el 96.2 % de las personas presentó, al menos, una lesión cutánea, y el 79.2 %, una o más enfermedades infecciosas de piel; sin embargo, el 77.9 % no había recu-rrido a consulta médica. Las más sobresalientes fueron las micosis (35.1 %), las bacterianas (35.1 %) y las ectoparasitosis (27.3 %). Se identificó que la prevalencia de enfermedades bacterianas de piel apunta a una posible mayor exposición a condiciones adversas como: un clima subtropical de altas temperaturas y húmedo, una alta relación de convivientes en el hogar por dormitorio, problemas de provisión de agua y suelos de arena en los hogares, así como un sistema de evacuación de excretas deficiente, la presencia de animales con escasa vigilancia sanitaria, la proximidad a arroyos y cauces al aire libre depositarios de materia cloacal y el impacto recurrente de raudales los días de intensa lluvia. Conclusión: los resul-tados sugieren que la alta prevalencia de enfermedades cutáneas infecciosas podría relacionarse con una mayor exposición a condiciones socioambientales locales adversas, que son factores relevantes por tener en cuenta para mejorar la atención a la salud de las enfermedades dermatológicas de la población urbana que habita en un asentamiento urbano precario


Introduction: This study analyzes the prevalence of dermatological diseases in the population of a precarious urban settlement near the municipal landfill of Asunción (Paraguay), in relation to expo-sure to socio-environmental conditions. Materials and methods: descriptive, cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic purposive sample that included 77 people aged between 5 months and 76 years. Results: at the time of physical examination, 96.2% of the people presented at least one skin lesion and 79.2% one or more infectious skin diseases, but 77.9% had not consulted a doctor. The most prominent were mycoses (35.1%), bacterial (35.1%) and ectoparasitoses (27.3%). It was identified that the preva-lence of bacterial skin diseases points to possible increased exposure to adverse conditions such as: a subtropical climate with high temperatures and humidity, a high ratio of people living in the household per bedroom, water supply problems and sandy soils in homes, as well as a deficient excreta disposal system, the presence of animals with poor sanitary surveillance, proximity to streams and open-air waterways that deposit sewage and the recurrent impact of floods on days of heavy rainfall. Conclusion:the results suggest that the high prevalence of infectious skin diseases could be related to increased exposure to adverse local socio-environmental conditions, which are relevant factors to be taken into to improve the health care of skin diseases in the urban population living in a slum settlement


Introdução: este estudo analisa a prevalência de doenças dermatológicas na população de um assen-tamento urbano precário próximo ao aterro sanitário municipal de Asunción (Paraguai) em relação à exposição às condições socioambientais. Materiais e métodos: estudo descritivo, transversal, com uma amostra não-probabilística de propósito que incluiu 77 pessoas com idade entre 5 meses e 76 anos. Resultados: no momento do exame físico, 96,2% das pessoas tinham pelo menos uma lesão de pele e 79,2% tinham uma ou mais doenças infecciosas de pele, mas 77,9% não tinham consultado um médico. As mais importantes foram micoses (35,1%), bacterianas (35,1%) e ectoparasitoses (27,3%). A preva-lência de doenças bacterianas da pele foi identificada como apontando para um possível aumento da exposição a condições adversas tais como: um clima subtropical com altas temperaturas e umidade, uma alta proporção de pessoas vivendo na casa por quarto, problemas de abastecimento de água e solos arenosos nas habitações, bem como um sistema de eliminação de excrementos deficiente, a presença de animais com vigilância sanitária deficiente, proximidade a riachos e cursos de água abertos que depositam águas residuais, e o impacto recorrente de enchentes em dias de chuvas fortes. Conclusão:Os resultados sugerem que a alta prevalência de doenças infecciosas de pele pode estar relacionada ao aumento da exposição a condições sócio-ambientais locais adversas, que são fatores relevantes a serem considerados para melhorar os cuidados com doenças de pele na população urbana que vive em uma favela


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Health , Paraguay , Skin Diseases , Urban Population , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 446-454, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339176

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A íntima relação entre a regulação do sono e os eventos cardiovasculares é um dos principais focos de investigação na medicina contemporânea. Hábitos e características do sono interferem na ritmicidade cardíaca e também na expectativa de vida, principalmente em idosos. Objetivo Estimar o risco de óbito e de eventos cardiovasculares em idosos comunitários que apresentam queixa de insônia e sonolência excessiva diurna ao longo de oito anos de seguimento. Método Foi desenhada uma coorte prospectiva com 160 idosos, a primeira onda em 2009 e a segunda em 2017. Os grupos de seguimento foram determinados pela exposição ou não às queixas de insônia primária e a sonolência excessiva diurna, com ou sem ronco. As covariáveis sexo, estado conjugal, depressão, hipertensão e diabetes foram controladas. O desfecho primário foi o óbito e o secundário, os eventos cardiocerebrovasculares (ECV). As probabilidades dos desfechos foram estimadas pelo risco relativo (RR), através da regressão de Poisson, adotando-se α ≤ 0,05. Resultados Registraram-se 40 mortes no período (25,97%:19,04-32,89) e 48 ECVs (30,76%:23,52-38,01). Os homens apresentaram maior risco (RR = 1,88;1,01-3,50) de óbito. A depressão (RR = 2,04;1,06-3,89), a gravidade da insônia (RR = 2,39;1,52-4,56) e a latência do sono entre 16-30 minutos (RR = 3,54;1,26-9,94) e 31-60 minutos (RR = 2,23;1,12-4,47) aumentaram independentemente o risco de óbito em idosos comunitários. Os ECVs foram preditos apenas por idosos hipertensos e/ou diabéticos (RR = 8,30; 1,98-34,82). Conclusão A mortalidade em idosos é influenciada pelo estado emocional e pela dificuldade de dormir, diferentemente dos ECVs, condicionados apenas pelas condições pressóricas arteriais e metabólicas.


Abstract Background The close relationship between sleep regulation and cardiovascular events is one of the main focuses of research in contemporary medicine. Sleep habits and characteristics interfere with the cardiac rhythm and also with life expectancy, especially in the elderly. Objective To estimate the risk of death and cardiovascular events in community-dwelling elderly individuals complaining of insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness over eight years of follow-up. Method A prospective cohort was designed with 160 elderly, with the first wave occurring in 2009 and the second in 2017. Follow-up groups were determined by exposure or not to complaints of primary insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness with or without snoring. The covariates gender, marital status, depression, hypertension and diabetes were controlled. The primary outcome was death and the secondary outcome was cardio-cerebrovascular events (CCV). Outcome risks were estimated by relative risk (RR) through Poisson regression, adopting α≤0.05. Results There were 40 (25.97%: 19.04-32.89) deaths over the period and 48 (30.76%: 23.52-38.01) CCV. Men had a higher risk (RR = 1.88; 1.01-3.50) of death. Depression (RR = 2.04; 1.06-3.89), insomnia severity (RR = 2.39; 1.52-4.56) and sleep latency between 16-30 minutes (RR = 3, 54; 1.26-9.94) and 31-60 minutes (RR = 2.23; 1.12-4.47) increased the risk of death independently in community-dwelling elderly. CCV were predicted only in the hypertensive and / or diabetic elderly (RR = 8.30; 1.98-34.82). Conclusion Mortality in the elderly is influenced by the emotional state and difficulty in falling asleep, unlike CCVs, which are conditioned only by arterial and metabolic blood pressure conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology
4.
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 16(1): 1-13, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1351236

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as diferenças no uso do tempo de crianças no contexto urbano e rural. Foram coletadas informações sobre o uso do tempo diário de 75 crianças (44 meninas e 31 meninos, entre cinco e 14 anos). Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Instrumento Sociodemográfico e Inventário de Rotinas. Os resultados evidenciaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas quanto ao uso do tempo, além de demonstrar diferenças contextuais entre população urbana e ribeirinha. No contexto ribeirinho, os participantes realizavam atividades como tarefas domésticas e conversa; no urbano, a categoria uso do computador sobressaiu-se. Destaca-se que os beneficiários têm importância considerável com relação à valorização da escolarização, o que pode estar relacionado às diferenças encontradas entre os beneficiários e não beneficiários. A existência de atividades citadas exclusivamente em alguns contextos permite inferir quais caminhos desenvolvimentais estão sendo seguidos por crianças moradoras de contextos culturais diferenciados.


The objective of this study was to verify the differences in the use of children's time in urban and rural contexts. Information was collected on the use of daily time of 75 children (44 girls and 31 boys, between 5 and 14 years). The instruments used were the Sociodemographic Instrument and Inventory of Routines. The results showed statistically significant differences regarding the use of time, besides showing contextual differences between urban and riverside population. In the riverside context the participants performed activities related to Housekeeping and Conversation, in comparison to the urban one in which the use category of the Computer stood out. It should be noted that the beneficiaries have considerable importance in relation to the valuation of schooling, which may be related to the differences found between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The existence of activities cited exclusively in some contexts allows us to infer which developmental paths are being followed by children living in different cultural contexts.


El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar las diferencias en el uso del tiempo de los niños en el contexto urbano y rural. Se recogieron informaciones sobre el uso del tiempo diario de 75 niños (44 niñas y 31 niños, entre cinco y 14 años). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Instrumento Sociodemográfico e Inventario de Rutinas. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en cuanto al uso del tiempo, además de mostrar diferencias contextuales entre población urbana y ribereña. En el contexto ribereño los participantes realizaban actividades relacionadas como Tareas Domésticas y Conversación, en comparación al urbano en que la categoría uso del Computador sobresalió. Se destaca que los beneficiarios tienen una importancia considerable con respecto a la valorización de la escolarización, lo que puede estar relacionado con las diferencias encontradas entre los beneficiarios y no beneficiarios. La existencia de actividades citadas exclusivamente en algunos contextos permite inferir qué caminos desarrollales están siendo seguidos por niños que viven de contextos culturales diferenciados.


Subject(s)
Psychology, Social , Amazonian Ecosystem , Population , Time , Urban Population , Social Programs
5.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 255, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147589

ABSTRACT

A principios del nuevo milenio surgió el concepto del "Trauma urbano moderno", sustentando en la experiencia de varios conflagraciones en zonas densamente pobladas. Fue definido como un conflicto violento, cerrado, con heridas destructivas y de difícil acceso para su evacuación. Su manejo incluyo el cuestionamiento de viejos dogmas y la incorporación de nuevas estrategias. El motín del reten "La Planta", el incremento en las detonaciones por granadas fragmentarias y los graves enfrentamientos entre bandas delictivas o contra cuerpos de seguridad, en diversas zonas de Caracas indican el establecimiento de una modalidad mas agresiva de violencia. Los cirujanos capitalinos se enfrentan con más frecuencia a lesiones severas y múltiples. El personal medico requiere la adecuada comprensión y preparación para afrontar este nuevo tipo de heridas. La reciente enfermedad Covid 19 representa un desafió agregado en el abordaje de los pacientes con traumatismos(AU)


The experience in many combats in densely populated urban areas, determined the new concept of "Modern urban warfare" in the beginning of the new millennium. This definition is a warfare violent, close-quarter, with destructive injuries and the delayed of evacuation. New innovations were incorporate. The revolt in the "La Planta" prison, the increase of grenades explosions and engagement between criminal organized, in many zones of Caracas, illustrated this new definition. The venezuelans surgeons attended many severe and multiple injuries. The surgical personal need understand this new kind of injuries. The new disease Covid 19 represents a challenge in the attention of these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Urban Population , Wounds and Injuries , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Gun Violence , Physicians , Prisons , Venezuela , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , COVID-19
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(1): 28-35, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283246

ABSTRACT

En 2008 México enfrentó una crisis alimentaria que impactó la adquisición de comestibles, ocho años después se acentuó la tendencia de los alimentos, que son más energéticos y menos nutritivos, ocasionando problemas en la salud de la población. Objetivo: Identificar la adquisición de alimentos y su equivalente en calorías en el 2008 y 2016 en hogares rurales y urbanos del sureste de México. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal, retrospectivo y comparativo de dos muestras independientes a partir de bases de datos de las Encuestas Nacionales de Ingreso Gasto en Hogares en México de 2008 y 2016. Se trabajó con un total de 5.840 hogares de los cuales, 3.522 fueron urbanos y 2.318 rurales. Las variables consideradas fueron: encuestas, tipos de hogares y adquisición de alimentos equivalentes en calorías. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba paramétrica t de Student para muestras independientes, medias, desviación estándar y homogeneidad de varianzas, se tomó como significativo una p < ,05 Resultados: los alimentos de mayor adquisición calórica en ambos años y hogares fueron, cereales y productos de origen animal y los menos, verduras y frutas (p < ,001). Los hogares rurales, incrementaron significativamente (p < ,001) los cereales para el 2016, así como en los urbanos, disminuyó en aceites y carnes procesadas (p < ,001). Conclusión: después de la crisis alimentaria del 2008 se observaron cambios alimentarios en hogares rurales, atribuyéndosele más a la transición alimentaria que a la crisis, las familias adquirieron nuevos hábitos alimentarios(AU)


In 2008 México faced a food crisis that impacted the acquisition of groceries, eight years later the trend of foods, which are more energetic and less nutritious, was accentuated, causing problems in the health of the population. Objective: Identify food acquisition and its calorie equivalent in 2008 and 2016 in rural and urban households in southeastern México. Material and methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective and comparative study of two independent samples was conducted from databases of the National Household Spending and Income Surveys in Mexico in 2008 and 2016. A total of 5,840 households were worked on, of which 3,522 were urban and 2,318 rural. The variables considered were: surveys, types of households and acquisition of calorie-equivalent foods. For statistical analysis, Student's t parametric test was used for independent samples, mean, standard deviation and variance homogeneity, a p < ,05 was taken as significant. Results: The foods with the highest caloric acquisition in both years and households were cereals and products of animal origin and the least vegetables and fruits (p < ,001). Rural households significantly increased cereals for 2016 (p < ,001), as well as in urban households, decreased in oils and processed meats (p< ,001). Conclusion: After the 2008 food crisis, dietary changes were observed in rural households, with more attributed to the food transition than to the crisis, families acquired new eating habits(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rural Population , Urban Population , Consumer Behavior , Eating , Nutritional Transition , Food Insecurity/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Feeding Behavior , Economic Recession , Mexico
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1959-1966, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS@#Cancer is one of the main causes of death worldwide, seriously threatening human health and life expectancy. We aimed to analyze the cancer incidence and mortality rates during 2016 in Zhejiang Province, Southeast China.@*METHODS@#Data were collected from 14 population-based cancer registries across Zhejiang Province of China. Cancer incidence and mortality rates stratified by sex and region were analyzed. The crude rate, age-standardized rate, age-specific and region-specific rate, and cumulative rate were calculated. The proportions of 10 common cancers in different groups and the incidence and mortality rates of the top five cancers in different age groups were also calculated. The Chinese national census of 2000 and the world Segi population was used for calculating the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates.@*RESULTS@#The 14 cancer registries covered a population of 14,250,844 individuals, accounting for 29.13% of the population of Zhejiang Province. The total reported cancer cases and deaths were 55,835 and 27,013, respectively. The proportion of morphological verification (MV%) was 78.95% of the population, and percentage of incident cases identified through death certificates only (DCO%) was 1.23% with a mortality-to-incidence ratio (M/I ratio) of 0.48. The crude incidence rate in Zhejiang cancer registration areas was 391.80/105; the age-standardized incidence rate of the Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and the age-standardized incidence rate of the world standard population (ASIRW) were 229.76/105 and 220.96/105, respectively. The incidence rate in men was higher than that in women. The incidence rate increased rapidly after 45 years of age and peaked in individuals aged 80 to 84 years. The top 10 incidence rates of cancers were lung cancer, female breast cancer, thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, esophageal cancer, and pancreatic cancer (from highest to lowest). The crude mortality rate in Zhejiang cancer registration areas was 189.55/105; the age-standardized mortality rate of the Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and the age-standardized mortality rate of the world standard population (ASMRW) were 94.46/105 and 93.42/105, respectively. The mortality rate in men was higher than that in women, and the male population in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas. The cancer mortality rate increased rapidly after 50 years of age and peaked in individuals aged 85+ years. The top 10 mortality rates of cancers were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, female breast cancer, prostate cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia (from highest to lowest).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Lung cancer, female breast cancer, thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer were the most common cancers in Zhejiang Province. Effective prevention and control measures should be established after considering the different characteristics of cancers in urban and rural areas.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Registries , Rural Population , Urban Population
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China put forward the idea of "promoting the equalization of basic public services". The utilization of basic public health services by the floating population is an important indicator to measure the equalization of basic public health services. This study aims to understand the intergenerational differences in the utilization of basic public health services between the older generation and the new generation of floating population, and to analyze the influential factors.@*METHODS@#We employed the personal questionnaire (A) of the national health and family planning dynamic monitoring survey on floating population in 2017. Pearson Chi-square test, bi-grouping logistic regression, and Poisson regression were applied to analyze the basic situation of the floating population and the intergenerational differences in the use of basic public health services between the new and old generations.@*RESULTS@#The proportions of the new generation and the old generation who had established the residents' health records in the inflow area were 36.42% and 34.96%, respectively, with the significant difference (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Although the coverage of basic public health services for the two generations of floating population is obviously different, the utilization of basic public health services of the floating population is still at a low level both in the new generation and in the old generation. There is an urgent need to improve the utilization of public health services for the whole floating population according to the characteristics of generations.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Educational Status , Health Services , Humans , Rural Population , Urban Population
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(6): e00233119, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278627

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aims (1) to test the association between access to basic sanitation/hygiene services in Brazilian households with their householders' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics; (2) to analyze the distribution of urban health-relevant elements in the census tracts according to their income, education and race/color composition. The information come from the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census, which collected data regarding both household conditions and urban structure of the census tracts. Prevalence ratios were calculated using crude and adjusted Poisson regression models. The proportional distribution of the census-tract urban structure was performed, according to the deciles of the exploratory variables, and the ratios and the absolute differences between the extreme deciles were calculated. Around 4.8% of the households had no piped water, 34.7% had no sewage collection system, 9.8% had no garbage collection and 39% were considered inadequate. Families whose householders were black, indigenous or brown had lower income and educational level, and lived in the North, Northeast, and Central West regions. They were more likely to be considered inappropriate for not having piped water, sewage collection system, and garbage collection. Moreover, sectors where the majority of the population was black, had lower educational levels and lower income had significantly poor paving, street lighting, afforestation, storm drain, sidewalk and wheelchair ramp. This study analyzed national data from 2010 and provides a baseline for future studies and government planning. The relevant social inequalities reported in this study need to be addressed by effective public policies.


Resumo: Os objetivos do estudo foram: (1) testar a associação entre os serviços de saneamento básico/higiene nos domicílios brasileiros e as características socioeconômicas e demográficas dos/das chefes de família e (2) analisar a distribuição dos elementos urbanos relacionados à saúde nos distritos sanitários de acordo com a composição de renda, escolaridade e raça/cor. Os dados foram obtidos do Censo Demográfico de 2010, que coletou informações sobre as condições do domicílio e a infraestrutura urbana dos distritos censitários. Foram calculadas as razões de prevalência, usando modelos de regressão Poisson simples e ajustada. Foi avaliada a distribuição proporcional da infraestrutura urbana nos distritos censitários de acordo com os decis das variáveis exploratórias, e foram calculadas as razões e diferenças absolutas entre os decis extremos. Cerca de 4,8% dos domicílios não dispunham de água encanada, 34,7% faltavam esgotamento sanitário, 9,8% não tinham coleta de lixo e 39% das moradias eram consideradas inadequadas. Os domicílios chefiados por pretos/as, pardos/as ou indígenas apresentavam níveis mais baixos de renda e escolaridade, e aqueles localizados no Norte, Nordeste e Centro-oeste tinham níveis maiores de moradia inadequada e falta de água encanada, esgotamento sanitário e coleta de lixo. Além disso, os distritos com maioria negra e com menores níveis de escolaridade e renda apresentavam menores coberturas de pavimentação, iluminação e arborização de ruas, galerias pluviais, calçadas e rampas para cadeira de rodas. O estudo analisou os dados de 2010 e estabeleceu uma linha de base para estudos futuros e planejamento de políticas de governo. As desigualdades sociais relevantes relatadas no estudo devem ser enfrentadas com políticas públicas efetivas.


Resumen: Los objetivos de este estudio son: (1) probar la asociación entre el acceso a servicios básicos de higiene y saneamiento en los hogares brasileños con sus principales características socioeconómicas y demográficas; (2) analizar la distribución de elementos urbanos relevantes para la salud en secciones censales, según la composición de sus ingresos, educación y raza/color. Los datos provienen del Censo Demográfico de 2010, que recogió datos, tanto respecto a las condiciones de los hogares, como al entorno urbano de las secciones censales. Las ratios de prevalencia se calcularon usando modelos de regresión crudos y ajustados de Poisson. Se realizó una distribución proporcional de las secciones censales relacionadas con el entorno urbano, según deciles de las variables exploratorias y las ratios, y se calcularon las diferencias absolutas entre los deciles extremos. Alrededor de un 4,8% de los hogares no contaban con agua canalizada, 34,7% no tenían un sistema de alcantarillado, un 9,8% no tenían recogida de basuras y un 39% de los hogares fueron considerados inadecuados. Hogares, cuyas cabezas de familia eran negros, indígenas o mulatos/mestizos, tenían bajos ingresos, educación, y vivían en el Norte, Noreste, y Centro-oeste tuvieron más probabilidad de ser considerados inapropiados, no contar con agua canalizada, sistema de alcantarillado y recogida de basuras. Además, los sectores donde la mayoría de la población era negra, con bajos niveles educativos e ingresos más bajos tenían significativamente menos cobertura de pavimentación, iluminación de calles, forestación, alcantarillado pluvial, aceras y rampas de acceso para sillas de ruedas. Este estudio analizó los datos nacionales desde 2010 y proporciona una base de referencia para futuros estudios y planificación gubernamental. Las inequidades relevantes sociales reflejadas en este estudio necesitan que ser tratadas mediante políticas públicas eficientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Censuses , Housing , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil , Sanitation
11.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e03672, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1287973

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To correlate caring ability with overburden, stress and coping of urban and rural family caregivers of patients undergoing cancer treatment. Method: Cross-sectional study, carried out in a referral hospital for cancer treatment, with urban and rural caregivers who responded the following instruments: questionnaire of sociodemographic characterization of the caregiver and the care provided, Perceived Stress scale, Burden Interview scale and Brief COPE. Pearson's correlation test was used for statistical analysis, with a significance level ≤5%. Results: A total of 163 urban caregivers and 59 rural caregivers participated in the study. Between the caring ability and stress, a negative and moderate correlation was found in rural caregivers. In the relationship between the caring ability and the overburden, there was a statistically significant correlation in urban caregivers in the interpersonal relationship and perception of self-efficacy factor. Between coping and the caring ability, a positive and moderate correlation was identified in coping focused on the problem in the knowledge dimension in urban caregivers. Conclusion: Urban caregivers had greater intensity of overburden and coping focused on the problem in relation to the caring ability.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Correlacionar la habilidad del cuidado con la sobrecarga, el estrés y el afrontamiento (coping ) de familiares urbanos y rurales cuidadores de pacientes en tratamiento oncológico. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal, realizado en un hospital referencia en tratamiento oncológico, con cuidadores de los medios urbano y rural que respondieron a los instrumentos: cuestionario de caracterización sociodemográfica del cuidador y de la atención prestada, escala de Estrés Percibido, escala de Entrevista de Carga y COPE 28. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó la prueba de Correlación de Pearson, con nivel de significación ≤5%. Resultados: Participaron 163 cuidadores urbanos y 59 cuidadores rurales. Entre la capacidad del cuidado y el estrés, se constató una correlación negativa y moderada en los cuidadores rurales. En la relación de la habilidad del cuidado y la sobrecarga, se comprobó una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre los cuidadores urbanos en el factor de la relación interpersonal y en la percepción de la autoeficacia. Entre el afrontamiento y la habilidad del cuidado, se identificó una correlación positiva y moderada en el afrontamiento, centrado en el problema de la dimensión de conocimientos de los cuidadores urbanos. Conclusión: Los cuidadores urbanos presentaron una mayor intensidad de sobrecarga y coping enfocado en el problema de la relación con la capacidad del cuidado.


RESUMO Objetivo: Correlacionar a habilidade de cuidado com a sobrecarga, o estresse e o coping de cuidadores familiares urbanos e rurais de pacientes em tratamento oncológico. Método: Estudo transversal, realizado em um hospital de referência no tratamento oncológico, com cuidadores do contexto urbano e rural que responderam aos instrumentos: questionário de caracterização sociodemográfica do cuidador e do cuidado prestado, escala de Estresse Percebido, escala Burden Interview e COPE Breve. Para a análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste de Correlação de Pearson, com nível de significância ≤5%. Resultados: Participaram 163 cuidadores urbanos e 59 cuidadores rurais. Entre a habilidade de cuidado e o estresse, constatou-se correlação negativa e moderada nos cuidadores rurais. Na relação da habilidade de cuidado e a sobrecarga, verificou-se correlação estatisticamente significativa nos cuidadores urbanos no fator relação interpessoal e percepção de autoeficácia. Entre o coping e a habilidade de cuidado, identificou-se correlação positiva e moderada no coping focado no problema na dimensão conhecimento nos cuidadores urbanos. Conclusão: Cuidadores urbanos apresentaram maior intensidade de sobrecarga e coping focado no problema na relação com a habilidade de cuidado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Oncology Nursing , Adaptation, Psychological , Caregivers/psychology , Occupational Stress , Neoplasms/nursing , Rural Population , Urban Population , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 26, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252104

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess total usual nutrient intakes from foods and dietary supplements by age, sex, physical activity, and nutritional status, and to compare usual nutrient intakes to the Dietary Reference Intakes among non-users and users of dietary supplements in an urban population. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based survey with 506 adults conducted in the city of Brasília, Brazil, using 24h food recalls. The 24-HR was collected on two nonconsecutive days, for which individuals reported all food, supplements, and beverages consumed in the previous 24 hours. The estimates of mean and the distribution percentiles were adjusted to reflect usual nutrient intake using the Iowa State University method. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was estimated according to sex using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and values above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) were also considered. Also, a comparison was made of the total mean usual intake between supplement users and non-users according to BMI and physical activity. RESULTS: The total mean usual dietary intake was significantly higher among users than non-users of dietary supplements (p ≤ 0.02). Dietary supplement use increased intakes of nutrients and decreased prevalence of inadequacy according to sex, with only small (typically < 13%) increases in the population exceeding the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. There was a significant interaction between physical activity and BMI categories with supplement use. CONCLUSIONS: The population that consumes food supplements comprises individuals with more advanced age, female, normal BMI, and physically active. Our findings show that the use of supplements appears beneficial to attain nutrient adequacy. Careful monitoring of intake from food and supplements is recommended, and the statistical methods must be powerful enough to achieve relevant information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Dietary Supplements , Diet , Urban Population , Brazil , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutritional Requirements
13.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 832-842, out.-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145471

ABSTRACT

Dialogando com reflexão de Canclini na quarentena da Cidade do México em 2009 pela epidemia de H1N1, nosso artigo aborda as cidades de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro para discutir desdobramentos da pandemia da Covid-19. O agravamento da crise denuncia e expõe as flagrantes desigualdades sociais fomentadas pelo modelo de gestão dos espaços urbanos que associa o político ao econômico, favorecendo a concentração de renda e limitando o acesso a recursos de toda ordem. Comunicação, vigilância, sociabilidade e cidadania são os eixos temáticos da discussão apresentada. Ao final, argumentamos sobre a urgência em constituirmos um revigorado horizonte comum de debate e ação coletiva unindo o político ao social.


In dialogue with Canclini's reflection during the quarantine of Mexico City in 2009 due to the H1N1 epidemic, our article focuses on the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro to discuss the unfolding of the Covid-19 pandemic. The worsening of the crisis denounces and exposes the flagrant social inequalities fostered by the current model of management of urban spaces that associates the political with the economic, favoring the concentration of income and limiting access to all kinds of resources. Communication, surveillance, sociability, and citizenship are interwoven in this discussion. In the end, we argue about the urgency of creating an invigorated common horizon of debate and collective action by uniting the political and the social spheres.


En diálogo con la reflexión de Canclini en la cuarentena de la Ciudad de México en 2009 debido a la epidemia de H1N1, nuestro artículo se centra en las ciudades de São Paulo y Rio de Janeiro para discutir los desarrollos de la pandemia de Covid-19. El agravamiento de la crisis denuncia y expone las flagrantes desigualdades sociales fomentadas por el modelo actual de gestión de espacios urbanos que asocia lo político con lo económico, favoreciendo la concentración de ingresos y limitando el acceso a todo tipo de recursos. Comunicación, vigilancia, sociabilidad y ciudadanía se entrelazan en esta discusión. Al final, discutimos sobre la urgencia de crear un vigorizado horizonte común de debate y acción colectiva uniendo lo político y lo social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Cities , Communication , Community Participation , Pandemics , Politics , Social Isolation , Urban Population , Quarantine , Coronavirus Infections
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44289, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1104374

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: discutir as vivências dos motoristas de ônibus através de suas percepções acerca do trânsito e os impactos à saúde sofridos por eles. Método: estudo qualitativo fenomenológico realizado em uma garagem de ônibus situada no Rio de Janeiro. As entrevistas fenomenológicas foram realizadas com 24 motoristas que responderam perguntas semiestruturadas e foram gravadas em dispositivo mp3, posteriormente, transcritas para obtenção das unidades de significado, a coleta de dados ocorreu entre 2017 e 2018. O projeto foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Resultados: da análise fenomenológica das unidades de significados dos depoimentos emergiram duas categorias: o trânsito é instável e estressante e a falta de educação das pessoas afeta os aspectos psíquicos. O ambiente de trabalho determina, expressivamente, o bem-estar dos trabalhadores que nele atuam. Conclusão: diante de tantos limites impostos pela sociedade contemporânea e pelo sofrimento no trabalho, necessário é motiva-los, e também dar-lhes condições de realizar seu trabalho de forma plena.


Objective: to discuss the experience of bus drivers through their perceptions regarding traffic and the health impacts they suffer. Method: in this qualitative phenomenological study conducted at a bus garage in Rio de Janeiro, data were collected in 2017 and 2018 by way of phenomenological interviews of 24 drivers, who answered semi-structured questions. The resulting mp3 recordings were later transcribed to obtain the units of meaning. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: from phenomenological analysis of the units of meaning in the responses, two categories emerged: traffic is unstable and stressful, and people's lack of education has adverse psychological effects. The work environment substantially determines the well-being of those working in it. Conclusion: given all the many constraints imposed by contemporary society and by their suffering at work, it is necessary to motivate them and also assure them the conditions necessary to carry out their work fully.


Objetivo: discutir la experiencia de los conductores de autobuses a través de sus percepciones sobre el tráfico y los impactos en la salud que sufren. Método: en este estudio fenomenológico cualitativo realizado en un garaje de autobuses en Río de Janeiro, se recopilaron datos en 2017 y 2018 a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas a 24 conductores, que respondieron preguntas semiestructuradas. Las grabaciones mp3 resultantes se transcribieron posteriormente para obtener las unidades de significado. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: del análisis fenomenológico de las unidades de significado en las respuestas, surgieron dos categorías: el tráfico es inestable y estresante, y la falta de educación de las personas tiene efectos psicológicos adversos. El ambiente de trabajo determina sustancialmente el bienestar de quienes trabajan en él. Conclusión: dadas las muchas restricciones impuestas por la sociedad contemporánea y por su sufrimiento en el trabajo, es necesario motivarlos y también asegurarles las condiciones necesarias para llevar a cabo su trabajo plenamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Automobile Driving , Working Conditions , Occupational Health , Occupational Stress , Social Perception , Urban Population , Brazil , Qualitative Research
15.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 477-482, 26 de noviembre 2020. il^c27 c
Article in English | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348102

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has currently affected more than 200 countries and caused around four million cases. Face masks are recommended for preventing the contagion. The Guatemalan government issued a decree for the mandatory use of face masks in public places. In order to find out the frequency of voluntary and mandatory use of face masks by Guatemalans we conducted a case study divided in two episodes (pre and post mandatory use decree) by driving a 27.8 km car transect through 11 of the 22 zones of Guatemala City and observing the use of face mask by pedestrians walking on the sides of the transect. Pedestrians were visually classified by age category (children [< 12 years], juveniles [12-21 years], adults [21-65 years] and elders [> 65 years]) and gender. During the pre-decree observation, we registered 476 individuals using a face masks and 674 not using or using them improperly. During the post-decree observation, we registered 797 individuals using face masks and 211 not using or using them improperly. In general, the frequency of face mask use was higher in the post-decree sample. Males used face masks less frequently than females, especially the elders and especially before the use became mandatory. Although the mandatory use decree managed to increase the frequency of the use of the face mask, there is a portion of the population that is not using it or that is using it improperly, so this should be considered by the health authorities who are dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic.


a pandemia de COVID-19 ha afectado actualmente a más de 200 países y causado alrededor de cuatro millones de casos. Se recomienda el uso de mascarillas faciales para prevenir el contagio. El gobierno de Guatemala emitió el decreto 6-2020 para el uso obligatorio de mascarilla en lugares públicos. Para determinar la frecuencia del uso voluntario y obligatorio de la mascarilla por parte de los guatemaltecos, se realizó un estudio de caso dividido en dos episodios (pre-decreto y post-decreto), recorriendo un transecto de 27.8 km en 11 de las 22 zonas de la ciudad de Guatemala y observando el uso de mascarilla por los peatones que caminaban a los lados del transecto. Los peatones se clasificaron visualmente por categoría de edad (niños [< 12 años], jóvenes [12-21 años], adultos [21-65 años] y adultos mayores [> 65 años]) y sexo. Durante el recorrido pre-decreto, observamos 476 personas usando mascarilla y 674 que no la utilizaban o la utilizaban incorrectamente. Durante el recorrido post-decreto, observamos 797 personas utilizando mascarilla y 211 que no la utilizaban o la utilizaban incorrectamente. En general, la frecuencia de uso de la mascarilla aumentó, luego de publicado el decreto. Los hombres usan mascarilla en menor proporción que las mujeres, sobre todo antes de publicarse el decreto. Aunque el decreto de uso obligatorio logró aumentar la frecuencia de uso de la mascarilla, todavía hay una parte de la población que no la está utilizando o que la está utilizando de manera incorrecta por lo que esto debe ser considerado por las autoridades de salud que están lidiando con la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pedestrians/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/standards , Urban Population , Observation , Decree Law , Government , Guatemala/epidemiology
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(8): 3087-3095, Ago. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133127

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo tem por objetivo descrever a prevalência e os fatores associados aos transtornos mentais comuns em mulheres de 18-49 anos, residentes da zona rural do município de Rio Grande-RS. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com a coleta de dados realizada no ano de 2017. Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem sistemático dos domicílios da área rural do município. Para o rastreamento dos transtornos mentais comuns utilizou-se o General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson bruta e ajustada para estimar as razões de prevalências (RP) e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. A prevalência geral de Transtornos Mentais Comuns foi de 36,4%, sendo mais comum entre as mulheres com menor escolaridade, as que sofreram aborto e as tabagistas. Ao quantificar a ocorrência e os fatores associados aos transtornos mentais comuns numa população de mulheres de uma área rural, o presente estudo traz uma contribuição científica original sobre a carga deste importante desfecho numa população pouco estudada em inquéritos epidemiológicos. Os resultados podem contribuir com os serviços de saúde através da identificação das mulheres mais suscetíveis a este desfecho, melhorando deste modo a adequação dos serviços oferecidos às necessidades em saúde de moradores de áreas rurais.


Abstract The scope of this study is to describe the prevalence and the factors associated with common mental disorders in women aged 18 to 49, residents in the rural zone of the municipality of Rio Grande-RS. A cross-sectional study was carried out with data collection conducted in 2017. A systematic sampling process of the residences of the rural area of the municipality was utilized. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to track common mental disorders. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) and respective 95% confidence intervals. The overall prevalence of Common Mental Disorders was 36.4%, being more common among women with lower levels of education, who had had an abortion and were smokers. In quantifying the occurrence and factors associated with common mental disorders in a population of women in a rural area, this study provides an original scientific contribution on the burden of this important outcome in a population that has not been studied in epidemiological surveys. The results can contribute to the health services by identifying the women most susceptible to this outcome, thus, improving the adequacy of the services offered to the health needs of rural residents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rural Population , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Status , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Cities , Sex Distribution
17.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12(Suplemento Covid-19): 1-10, 23 de Julio 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1128880

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el objetivo del estudio fue conocer el impacto de las medidas de aislamiento social obligatorio sobre las condiciones de vida de los barrios populares del conurbano bonaerense, así como la intervención estatal y las estrategias familiares y comunitarias que se despliegan en ese contexto. MÉTODOS: se basa en dos relevamientos colaborativos sucesivos realizados por la Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, en los que se reunieron 80 y 129 entrevistas cortas a referentes territoriales y sanitarios, en la primera y tercera fases del aislamiento, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: se registró un acatamiento medio y alto a las medidas, y se identificaron los factores que dificultan su cumplimiento total. Las problemáticas jerarquizadas por las y los referentes fueron: i) la discontinuidad de ingresos laborales de los hogares, ii) la dificultad de acceso a la alimentación básica, iii) la violencia de género al interior de los hogares, y iv) las restricciones en el acceso a los servicios de salud. DISCUSIÓN: se destacan tanto la presencia del Estado, mediante la transferencia de ingresos monetarios y de asistencia alimentaria directa, como el papel central del entramado de organizaciones sociales que se activa en la crisis. La calidad y el alcance de la asistencia son heterogéneas entre los municipios y al interior de estos, y dependen no sólo de su volumen, sino también de la articulación entre distintos niveles de gestión y, sobre todo, entre estos y las organizaciones sociales.


Subject(s)
Urban Population , Quarantine , Coronavirus Infections , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(2): 44-52, may.-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254506

ABSTRACT

Los planes urbanísticos de las agencias gubernamentales se sustentan en el discurso de la ONU-Hábitat. El cual dicta los lineamientos del hacer ciudad. Donde la movilidad urbana, es un tema prioritario en las agendas de los gobiernos, buscando alternativas centradas en promover el uso del transporte colectivo, como principal forma de movilidad cotidiana. Pero en su movilidad cotidiana, los sujetos en su día a día se encuentran con problemas, amenazas y conflictos que son factores de estrés. De ahí que sea necesaria una reflexión ética sobre los planes urbanísticos para buscar el bienestar colectivo y subjetivo.


The urban plans of the government agencies are based on the discourse promoted by the UN-Habitat. That dictates the guidelines of making a city. Where urban mobility is a priority issue on government agendas, seeking alternatives focused on promoting the use of collective transport, as the main form of daily mobility.Subjects in their daily mobility encounter problems, threats and conflicts that are stressors. Therefore, an ethical reflection on urban planning is necessary to seek collective and subjective well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health , Health Policy , World Health Organization , Cities , Ethics
19.
Palmas; [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde]; 2 abr. 2020. 2 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1120804

ABSTRACT

Orienta quanto a higiene das mãos e disponibilização a funcionários e entregadores o acesso fácil a pias providas com água corrente, sabonete líquido, toalhas de papel descartáveis, lixeiras com tampa de acionamento por pedal, além de frascos com álcool gel 70%.


As for hand hygiene and providing employees and delivery personnel with easy access to sinks provided with running water, liquid soap, disposable paper towels, trash cans with a pedal-operated lid, in addition to bottles with 70% alcohol gel.


En cuanto a la higiene de manos y al personal y repartidor de fácil acceso a lavabos provistos de agua corriente, jabón líquido, toallas de papel desechables, basureros con tapa a pedal, además de botellas con gel de alcohol al 70%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Hygiene/instrumentation , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Urban Population/classification , Infection Control/methods , Outsourced Services/standards , Health Risk , Product Release , Small Business , e-Commerce , Occupational Groups/classification
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 113-119, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088963

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of ocular injuries among elderly patients admitted to an urban level I trauma center because of major trauma from 2008 to 2015. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients aged >65 years admitted with ocular injuries that were identified with ICD-9 codes. Tabulated data were analyzed using the Student's paired t-test, the chi-squared test, and regression analysis using STATA/MP-12 software. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Of a total of 861 patients, 221 (25.7%) admitted for major trauma and ocular injuries were elderly. The mean age of these patients was 80.3 years (median =79.2 years; interquartile range=63.8-94.6 years). Of these patients, 40.7% were males and 59.3% were females. The males were younger than the females (mean age, 77.3 vs. 82.4 years, respectively, p<0.001). Race was documented as white (30.8%), black (13.6%), and "other" (54.3%), with 67.5% of the "other" group (36.7% overall) identified as Hispanic. The most frequent injuries were contusion of the eye/adnexa (68.2%), orbital wall fractures (22.2%), and an open wound of the ocular adnexa (18.1%). Males had a 2.64-fold greater risk of orbital wall fractures (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.38-5.05, p<0.003). Patients with orbital wall fractures had higher injury severity scores than those without (95% CI=14.1-20.9 vs. 6.8-8.6, respectively, p<0.001). The most common injuries were falls (77.8%) and pedestrian/motor vehicle accidents (6.8%). Falls occurred mostly at home (51.7%), on the street (13.9%), and in hospitals/nursing homes (12.2%). Those falling at home were older than those falling at other locations (95% CI=81.8-85.4 vs. 77.0-80.6 years, respectively, p<0.002). Conclusions: Ocular injuries in elderly Bronx patients most commonly occurred in females due to falls in the home/nursing home setting. Public health measures addressing identifiable individual and environmental risks in these common locations would be most beneficial in reducing the incidence of ocular injuries in this population.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as características das lesões oculares de idosos nas internações por grandes traumatismos em um centro urbano de trauma nível I de 2008 a 2015. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes com mais de 65 anos internados com lesões oculares identificados com os códigos CID-9. Os dados tabulados foram analisados com o teste t de Student, teste qui-quadrado e análise de regressão, utilizando o software STATA/MP-12. A significância estatística foi fixada em p<0,05. Resultados: Duzentos e vinte e um (25,7%) pacientes de um total de 861, admitidos por traumatismo craniano importante e lesões oculares, eram idosos. A idade média era de 80,3 anos (mediana=79,2; intervalo interquartil=63,8-94,6). 40,7% eram do sexo masculino e 59,3% do feminino. Os homens eram menos idosos (média=77,3) do que as mulheres (média=82,4), p<0,001. A raça foi documentada como branca (30,8%), negra (13,6%) e "outra" (54,3%); 67,5% dos "outros" (36,7% no geral) identificados como hispânicos. As lesões mais frequentes foram contusão do olho/anexos (68,2%), fraturas da parede orbital (22,2%) e ferida aberta dos anexos oculares (18,1%). Os homens tiveram 2,64 mais chances de fraturas da parede orbital (95% CI=1,38-5,05; p<0,003). Pacientes com fraturas da parede orbital tiveram maiores escores de gravidade da lesão (95% CI=14,1-20,9) do que aqueles sem fraturas (96% IC=6,8-8,6), p<0,001. Os mecanismos comuns foram quedas (77,8%) e acidentes a pé com veículos automotores (6,8%). As quedas ocorreram principal mente em casa (51,7%), na rua (13,9%) e em hospitais/lares de idosos (12,2%). Aqueles que caíram em casa eram mais velhos (IC 95%=81,8-85,4) do que os que tiveram quedas em outros locais (IC 95%=77,0-80,6), p<0,002. Conclusões: Lesões oculares em pacientes idosos de Bronx foram mais comuns no sexo feminino e devido a quedas que ocorreram em casa/lar de idosos. Medidas de saúde pública direcionadas a riscos individuais e ambientais identificáveis nesses locais comuns seriam mais benéficas na redução de lesões oculares nessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Eye Injuries/etiology , Eye Injuries/epidemiology , Urban Population , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Injury Severity Score , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , New York City/epidemiology , Medical Records , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
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