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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20089, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403760

ABSTRACT

Abstract Regeneration of damaged kidney cells using stem cells is the current research approach in the treatment of chronic renal failure (CRF). In the present study, the histopathological and biochemical techniques were used to evaluate stem cells' (SCs) role in treatment of CRF. Sixty-four rats were divided into eight groups. Group I (GI): rats were injected with doxorubicin (15 mg/kg) to initiate CRF. GII-GVII: rats were injected with doxorubicin and treated with SCs (1x106 MSCs or/and 2x104 HSCs/rat) with/without growth factors extract (200 µL/rat) and/or immunosuppressor (cyclosporine A, 5 mg/kg/day). GVIII: rats treated with PBS (100 µL/kg/day). Levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid were increased in rats sera after injection with doxorubicin, while blood electrolyte levels of Na, K, P and Mg were decreased. Also, histopathological abnormalities such as hyalinized blood vessels, degenerated hyalinized glomerulus tubules and cell debris in the lumen and degeneration of renal tissues were observed in these rats. After treatment with SCs, all these parameters restore their normal values with regeneration of the damaged cells as demonstrated in histopathology of the treated groups. It can be concluded that, the use of SCs in treatment of kidney diseases is a promising approach and needs more efforts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology , Regeneration , Urea , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/pathology
2.
Med.lab ; 26(4): 365-374, 2022. Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412529

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El correcto análisis en la interpretación de los resultados de cualquier analito biológico es esencial para la salud del paciente y está fuertemente ligado a contrastar dichos resultados con los intervalos biológicos referenciales que estén acorde a la población que está siendo analizada diariamente. El objetivo de este artículo, fue establecer intervalos referenciales (IR) en adultos para glicemia, urea, creatinina, ácido úrico, colesterol total y triglicéridos en un laboratorio clínico y comparar los valores obtenidos con los incluidos en los insertos para ese rango de edad. Metodología. La población fue de 561 adultos de ambos sexos, aparentemente sanos, que acudieron a Biomasterclin Laboratorio en Valencia, Venezuela, y cuyas edades fueron de 57,1±18,1 años. Resultados. Los IR obtenidos fueron glicemia 63,0-108,8 mg/dL, urea 17,7-54,9 mg/dL, creatinina 0,60-1,41 mg/dL, ácido úrico 0,89-7,26 mg/dL, colesterol total 78,5-251,1 mg/dL y triglicéridos 39,5-176,0 mg/dL. Los IR propuestos por la casa comercial empleada para la determinación de la glicemia y la creatinina pudieron ser transferidos a la población evaluada, mientras que el resto de los IR no. Conclusión. Debido a las diferencias que se presentan entre los IR en los estuches comerciales comparados con los de la población de individuos que acuden a los laboratorios clínicos, se hace necesario establecer IR para ser empleados en cada laboratorio clínico


The correct analysis in the interpretation of the results of any biological analyte is essential for the health of the patient and it is strongly linked to comparing those results with reference ranges that are in accordance with the population that is being analyzed on a daily basis. The objective of this study was to establish reference ranges in adults for glycemia, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol and triglycerides in a clinical laboratory and compare the values obtained with those included in the inserts for the corresponding age group. Methodology. The population consisted of 561 apparently healthy adults of both sexes that attended Biomasterclin Laboratorio in Valencia, Venezuela, whose ages were 57.1±18.1 years. Results. The reference ranges obtained for glycemia were 63.0- 108.8 mg/dL, urea 17.7-54.9 mg/dL, creatinine 0.60-1.41 mg/dL, uric acid 0.89- 726 mg/dL, total cholesterol 78.5-251.1 mg/dL and triglycerides 39.5-176.0 mg/ dL. The reference ranges proposed by the commercial kits used for the determination of glycemia and creatinine could be transferred to the evaluated population, while the rest of the reference ranges could not. Conclusion. Due to the differences that occur between the reference ranges in commercial kits compared to those of the population of individuals who attend clinical laboratories, it is necessary to establish reference values in each clinical laboratory


Subject(s)
Humans , Reference Values , Urea , Uric Acid , Blood Glucose , Creatinine
3.
Ethiop. j. health sci. (Online) ; 32(6): 1183-1192, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1402434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is currently become a major public health problem in both developed and developing regions, it is one of the most common surgical problems in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed serum uric acid, urea, and glucose levels and associated factors among benign, malignant breast cancer patients and apparently healthy women attending at Felege-Hiwot comprehensive Specialized Hospital. METHODS: Hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among benign, malignant breast cancer patients and apparently healthy women attending at Felege-Hiwot Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Out of 178 study participants 66 benign and 23 malignant fine needle aspirate cytology confirmed breast cancer patients and 89 apparently healthy women, included. Multivariable logistic regression models used to measure the strength of associations. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Majority of the study participants, 81(91%) controls, 55(83.3%) benign, and 17(73.9%) malignant cases were premenopausal. Serum glucos144.47±74.35 and uric acid 6.84±2.54 levels were significantly elevated in malignant cases than control (p-value< 0.05). Patients with malignant status were 4.38 times more likely to have hyperglycemia (AOR=4.38, 95%CI: 1.98-19.97) and 5.53 times more likely have hyperuricemia (AOR=20.43-95% CI: 6.80- 61.23), 4 times more likely to have uremia (AOR=4.09, 95% CI: 1.06-15.91) compared to apparently healthy women. CONCLUSION: Serum glucose, and uric acid levels were significantly higher in malignant and benign cases compared with apparently healthy women. Family history of breast cancer, body mass index, systolic hypertension, comorbidity, residence and menopausal status were significantly associated with hyperglycemia, uremia and hyperuricemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Glucose , Urea , Serum anguillae , Hospitals
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1187-1193, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345279

ABSTRACT

This research article aims to evaluate the effect of total replacement of corn by soybean meal and urea on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter and its components, production and composition of milk and feeding behavior of lactating cows grazing, with intermittent stocking Mombaça grass (Megathyrsus maximus cv. Mombaça). Twelve milking cows were distributed in a triple 4 x 4 latin square. Experimental treatments consisted of four soybean meal replacement levels by corn more urea (0; 33; 66; 100%). The grass has an average content of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of 19% and 59%, respectively. The replacement of soybean meal by corn and urea did not affect the intake and digestibility of nutrients. A linear reduction of milk production was observed, but there was no change in milk production corrected to 4.0% of fat. The milk components (g/kg) of fat, protein, lactose, and total solids were not altered, as well as feeding behavior. Under the conditions of this study, the replacement of the diets is suitable for crossbred dairy cows in lactation third medium, producing in average of 12.5 kg/day-1 when kept in quality pastures.(AU)


Este artigo de pesquisa tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito da substituição total do milho pelo farelo de soja e ureia sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e de seus componentes, a produção e a composição do leite e o comportamento alimentar de vacas em lactação mantidas em pastos capim-mombaça (Megathyrsus maximus cv. Mombaça) manejado sob lotação intermitente. Doze vacas em lactação foram distribuídas em um quadrado latino triplo 4 x 4. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram de quatro níveis de substituição do farelo de soja pelo milho mais ureia (0; 33; 66; 100%). O capim-mombaça apresentou um teor médio de proteína bruta e de fibra em detergente neutro de 19% e 59%, respectivamente. A substituição do farelo de soja por milho e ureia não afetou o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. Observou-se redução linear da produção de leite, mas não houve alteração na produção de leite corrigida para 4,0% de gordura. Os componentes do leite (g/kg): gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais não foram alterados, assim como o comportamento ingestivo dos animais. Nas condições deste estudo, a substituição total do milho pelo farelo de soja e ureia nas dietas é adequada para vacas mestiças leiteiras em terço médio de lactação, produzindo, em média, 12,5 kg / dia-1 quando mantidas em pastagens de qualidade.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Soybeans , Urea , Zea mays , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed , Milk Proteins/analysis
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 30-34, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop an amplification method of urea detection based on pHsensitive liposomes. RESULTS: The urease covalently immobilized on the magnetic particles and the pH-sensitive liposomes encapsulating ferricyanide were added to the cyclic-voltammeter cell solution where urea was distributed. The conversion of urea into carbonic acid seemed to induce a pH decrease that caused a reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the headgroups of weakly acidic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero3-succinate. The reduction induced the liposomes to release potassium ferricyanide that was encapsulated inside. The effects of urea concentration and pH value were investigated. A specific concentration (0.5 mg/mL) of the urea solution was set to observe the response. The activity of urease was reversible with respect to the pH change between 7 and 5. The sensitivity of this detection was almost identical to the comparable techniques such as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a field-effect transistor. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the methodology developed in this study was feasible as a portable, rapid, and sensitive method.


Subject(s)
Urea/analysis , Liposomes/chemistry , Urease/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Enzymes, Immobilized , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 658-664, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278358

ABSTRACT

Most sandy soils have low natural fertility and low levels of organic matter, making nitrogen (N) fertilization essential. Thus, five doses of N were applied (0, 75, 125, 175 and 225mg dm-³) in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the morphogenetic, structural and production characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in a Quartzarenic neosoil. The doses of N did not affect the height of the canopy. The leaf elongation rate, final leaf length and number of live leaves increased linearly at the doses of N. Leaf appearance rate, stem elongation rate, leaf lifespan, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate and tiller density showed a quadratic response to the rates There was also an effect of N rates in herbage mass, leaf mass, stem mass, which increased linearly. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu cultivated in Quartzarenic neosoil requires higher doses of N, 175 and 225mg dm-³. Under these conditions, increases in its morphogenetic, structural and productive characteristics are observed. These findings may not be repeated in the most fertile soils with the greatest capacity to supply N.(AU)


A maioria dos solos arenosos tem baixa fertilidade natural e baixos teores de matéria orgânica, tornando a adubação com nitrogênio (N) essencial. Assim, foram aplicadas cinco doses de N (0, 75, 125, 175 e 225mg dm-³) em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, para se avaliarem os efeitos da adubação com nitrogênio nas características morfogênicas, estruturais e produtivas da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, em um Neossolo Quartzarênico. As doses de N não afetaram a altura do dossel. A taxa de alongamento foliar, o comprimento final da folha e o número de folhas vivas aumentaram linearmente em função das doses de N. A taxa de aparecimento de folhas, a taxa de alongamento do caule, o tempo de vida da folha, o filocrono, a taxa de senescência foliar e a densidade de perfilhos apresentaram resposta quadrática às doses de N. A massa da forragem, a massa foliar e a massa do caule aumentaram linearmente. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico requer maiores doses de N, 175 e 225mg dm-³. Nessas condições, são observados aumentos em suas características morfogenéticas, estruturais e produtivas. Esses achados podem não se repetir nos solos mais férteis e com maior capacidade de suprir N.(AU)


Subject(s)
Urea , Brachiaria/anatomy & histology , Brachiaria/chemistry , Soil Characteristics/analysis , Composting
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 52-60, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154650

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Kt/V OnLine (Kt/VOL) avoids inaccuracies associated with the estimation of urea volume distribution (V). The study aimed to compare Kt/VOL, Kt/V Daugirdas II, and Kt/BSA according to sex and age. Methods: Urea volume distribution and body surface area were obtained by Watson and Haycock formulas in 47 patients. V/BSA was considered as a conversion factor from Kt/V to Kt/BSA. Dry weight was determined before the study. Kt/VOL was obtained on DIALOG machines. Results: Pearson correlation between Kt/VOL vs Kt/VII and Kt/VOL vs Kt/BSA was significant for males (r = 0.446, P = 0.012 and r = -0.476 P = 0.007) and individuals < 65 years (0.457, P = 0.019 and -0.549 P = 0.004), but not for females and individuals ≥ 65 years. V/BSA between individuals < 65 and individuals ≥ 65 years were 18.28 ± 0.15 and 18.18 ± 0.16 P = 0.000). No agreement between Kt/VII vs Kt/BSA. Men and individuals > 65 years received a larger dialysis dose than, respectively, females and individuals < 65 years, in the comparison between Kt/VOL versus Kt/VII. V/BSA ratios among men and women were respectively 18.29 ± 0.13 and 18.12 ± 0.15 P = 0.000. Conclusions: Kt/VOL allows recognition of real-time dose regardless of sex and age.


RESUMO Introdução: O Kt/V OnLine (Kt/VOL) evita imprecisões associadas à estimativa da distribuição do volume de uréia (V). O estudo teve como objetivo comparar Kt/VOL, Kt/V Daugirdas II e Kt/BSA de acordo com sexo e idade. Métodos: A distribuição do volume de uréia e área de superfície corporal foram obtidas pelas fórmulas de Watson e Haycock em 47 pacientes. V/BSA foi considerado um fator de conversão de Kt/V para Kt/BSA. O peso seco foi determinado antes do estudo. Kt/VOL foi obtido através de máquinas DIALOG. Resultados: A correlação de Pearson entre Kt/VOL vs Kt/VII e Kt/VOL vs Kt/BSA foi significativa para os homens (r = 0,446, P = 0,012 e r = -0,476 P = 0,007) e indivíduos < 65 anos (0,457, P = 0,019 e -0,549 P = 0,004), mas não para mulheres e indivíduos ≥ 65 anos. A V/BSA entre indivíduos <65 e indivíduos ≥ 65 anos foi 18,28 ± 0,15 e 18,18 ± 0,16 P = 0,000). Sem concordância entre Kt/VII vs Kt/BSA. Homens e indivíduos > 65 anos receberam maior dose de diálise do que, mulheres e indivíduos <65 anos, respectivamente, na comparação entre Kt/VOL versus Kt/VII. As razões V/BSA entre homens e mulheres foram, respectivamente, 18,29 ± 0,13 e 18,12 ± 0,15 P = 0,000. Conclusões: Kt/VOL permite o reconhecimento da dose em tempo real, independentemente do sexo e idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dialysis Solutions , Renal Dialysis , Urea
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06575, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250486

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to report the hematological and biochemical changes caused by conventional and metronomic chemotherapies, using vincristine sulfate to treat canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT). Twelve dogs were selected, six of them for the group receiving conventional chemotherapy (G1), and six dogs for the group receiving metronomic chemotherapy (G2). The G1 group received vincristine sulfate once a week at the dose of 0.75mg/m² until the tumor had disappeared with treatment, and the G2 group was treated with vincristine sulfate three times a week at the dose of 0.25mg/m2 until the tumor had disappeared. Before and after chemotherapy treatment, hematological and biochemical blood tests were performed to evaluate the main alterations caused by both chemotherapeutic models. Dogs undergoing conventional chemotherapy had significant leukocyte changes (p<0.05), causing neutropenia and leukopenia. In dogs undergoing metronomic chemotherapy, leukocytes remained within the reference range. Half of the dogs in group G1 had normochromic, normocytic anemia. The only biochemical alteration observed was the increase of urea in group G2. Thus, metronomic chemotherapy for the treatment of TVT with vincristine sulfate proved to be an excellent method for treatment, with fewer adverse effects, especially in maintaining the leukogram of dogs within normal range and reducing the number of anemia in animals during treatment.(AU)


Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relatar as alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas causadas pelo tratamento quimioterápico convencional e pela quimioterapia metronômica, utilizando-se sulfato de vincristina para o tratamento do tumor venéreo transmissível canino(TVTC). Foram selecionados 12 cães, sendo seis para o grupo que recebeu quimioterapia convencional (G1) e seis cães para o grupo que recebeu quimioterapia metronômica (G2). O grupo G1 recebeu sulfato de vincristina, uma vez por semana, na dose de 0,75mg/m2, até o desaparecimento do tumor e o grupo G2 foi tratado com sulfato de vincristina, três vezes por semana, na dose de 0,25mg/m2, até o desaparecimento do tumor. Antes e após o tratamento quimioterápico foram realizados exames hematológicos e bioquímicos sanguíneos para avaliação das principais alterações causadas pelos dois modelos quimioterápicos. Os cães submetidos à quimioterapia convencional tiveram alterações leucocitárias significativas (p<0,05), causando uma leucopenia por neutropenia enquanto nos cães, submetidos à quimioterapia metronômica, os leucócitos mantiveram-se dentro do intervalo de referência. A metade dos cães do grupo G1 tiveram uma anemia do tipo normocítica normocrômica. A única alteração bioquímica observada foi o aumento da ureia no grupo G2. Desta forma, a quimioterapia metronômica para o tratamento do TVT com sulfato de vincristina, demonstrou ser um excelente método para a cura do animal, com menores reduções de efeitos adversos, sobretudo, na manutenção do leucograma dos cães e na redução de animais com anemia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Venereal Tumors, Veterinary , Vincristine/analogs & derivatives , Biochemistry/methods , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Anemia , Leukopenia , Neoplasms , Urea , Dogs/blood , Drug Therapy
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(4): 506-513, out.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156246

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Estudiar la capacidad discriminativa de hipercatabolismo proteico grave del índice urea/creatinina en orina aislada en pacientes críticos ventilados. Metodos: Estudio prospectivo, observacional. Incluyó 52 pacientes sin insuficiencia renal. Variables: nitrógeno urinario total estimado a partir de la urea en orina de 24 horas al segundo (T1) y cuarto día (T2) e índice urea/creatinina en orina aislada previo a la recolección de orina de 24 horas. Resultados: Presentaron hipercatabolismo proteico grave (nitrógeno urinario total estimado > 15g) 14 pacientes (26,9%) en T1 y 29 (55,7%) en T2. El 84% de los pacientes presentaron bajo riesgo nutricional por la escala Nutrition Risk in the Critically Ill. En el segundo día, la correlación de Pearson del nitrógeno urinario total estimado con el índice urea/creatinina fue: 0,272 (p = 0,051) y en el cuarto día: 0,276 (p = 0,048). El índice urea/creatinina al cuarto día, tuvo una tendencia a mayor discriminación del hipercatabolismo proteico grave que el Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II y Nutrition Risk in the Critically Ill (AUC 0,741 versus 0,669 y 0,656, IC95%: 0,602 - 0,880; 0,519 - 0,818 y 0,506 - 0,806 respectivamente). El valor de corte optimo del índice urea/creatinina para diagnóstico de hipercatabolismo proteico grave fue de 16,15 con una sensibilidad de 79,31% (IC95%: 59,74 - 91,29), especificidad de 60,87% (IC95%: 38,78 - 79,53), valor predictivo positivo 71,88% (IC95%: 53,02 - 85,60), valor predictivo negativo 70,0% (IC95%: 45,67 - 87,18), LR (+) 2,03 (IC95%: 1,18 - 3,49) y LR (-) 0,34 (IC95%: 0,16 - 0,74). Conclusión: El índice urea/creatinina realizado al cuarto día tiene un discreto valor para estimar el hipercatabolismo proteico grave por nitrógeno urinario total y no reemplaza al mismo en pacientes críticos ventilados sin falla renal. Por su razonable sensibilidad podría ser utilizado como cribado para identificar a quien tomar la muestra de orina de 24 horas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To study the ability of the urea/creatinine index to identify severe protein catabolism from the isolated urine of critically ventilated patients. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study. It included 52 patients without kidney failure. Variables: total urinary nitrogen estimated from the urea in 24-hour urine on the second (T1) and fourth days (T2) and urea/creatinine index in isolated urine before 24-hour urine collection. Results: Severe protein hypercatabolism (estimated total urinary nitrogen > 15g) was present in 14 patients (26.9%) at T1 and in 29 (55.7%) at T2. Eighty-four percent of patients had low nutritional risk by the Nutrition Risk in the Critically Ill score. At T1, the Pearson correlation between the estimated total urinary nitrogen and the urea/creatinine index was 0.272 (p = 0.051), and at T2 it was 0.276 (p = 0.048). The urea/creatinine index at T2 had a tendency to better discriminate severe protein hypercatabolism than Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Nutrition Risk in the Critically Ill (AUC 0.741 versus 0.669 and 0.656, 95%CI: 0.602 - 0.880; 0.519 - 0.818 and 0.506 - 0.806, respectively). The optimal cutoff value of the urea/creatinine index for the diagnosis of severe protein hypercatabolism was 16.15, with a sensitivity of 79.31% (95%CI: 59.74 - 91.29), specificity of 60.87% (95%CI: 38.78 - 79.53), positive predictive value 71.88% (95%CI: 53.02 - 85.60), negative predictive value 70.0% (95%CI: 45.67 - 87.18), LR (+) 2.03 (95%CI: 1.18 - 3.49), and LR (-) 0.34 (95%CI: 0.16 - 0.74). Conclusion: The urea/creatinine index measured on the fourth day has a certain ability to estimate severe protein hypercatabolism (as defined by estimated total urinary nitrogen) but does not replace total urinary nitrogen in critically ventilated patients without kidney failure. Due to its reasonable sensitivity, it could be used as a screen to identify which patients to take a 24-hour urine sample from.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Critical Illness , Urea , Prospective Studies , Creatinine
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2238-2246, 01-11-2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148295

ABSTRACT

Lentinus crinitus is a medicinal basidiomycete, little studied regarding the basic cultivation conditions, which is used in bioremediation and consumed by native Indians from the Brazilian Amazon. Also, it produces a fungal secondary metabolite panepoxydone that has been described as an essential regulator of the inflammatory and immune response. This study aimed to evaluate basic conditions of temperature, pH, and nitrogen concentration and source in the cultivation of L. crinitus mycelial biomass. In order to evaluate fungal growth temperature, 2% malt extract agar (MEA) medium, pH 5.5, was utilized from 19 to 40 °C. For pH, MEA had pH adjusted from 2 to 11 and cultivated at 28 °C. Urea or soybean meal was added to MEA to obtain final concentration from 0.5 and 16 g/L of nitrogen, pH of 5.5, cultivated at 28 °C. The best temperature growth varies from 31 to 34 ºC and the optimal one is 32.7º C, and the best pH ranges from 4.5 to 6.5 and the optimal one is 6.1. Protein or non-protein nitrogen concentration is inversely proportional to the mycelial biomass growth. Nitrogen concentrations of 2.0 g/L soybean meal and urea inhibit mycelial biomass growth in 11% and 12%, respectively, but high concentrations of 16.0 g/L nitrogen inhibit the growth in 46% and 95%, respectively. The fungus is robust and grows under extreme conditions of temperature and pH, but smaller adaptation with increasing nitrogen concentrations in the cultivation medium, mainly non-protein nitrogen.


Lentinus crinitus é um basidiomiceto medicinal consumido por índios nativos da Amazônia brasileira. Este fungo tem sido estudado quanto ao potencial de biorremediação de metais, mas ainda carece de estudos sobre às condições básicas de crescimento. L. crinitus produz panepoxidona - um metabólito secundário fúngico - descrito como regulador da resposta inflamatória e imune em células animais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as condições básicas de temperatura, pH e concentração e fonte de nitrogênio para o crescimento micelial de L. crinitus. O fungo foi crescido em meio agar extrato de malte a 2% (MEA), pH 5,5 e mantido entre 19 e 40 °C. Para a avaliação de pH o MEA teve o pH ajustado de 2 a 11 e o crescimento foi realizado a 28 °C. As fontes de nitrogênio estudadas foram a uréia e o farelo de soja adicionado ao MEA para obter entre 0,5 a 16 g/L de nitrogênio, pH de 5,5, cultivado a 28 ° C. A melhor faixa temperatura para o crescimento micelial foi de 31 a 34 ºC com ótimo a 32,7 º C; a melhor faixa de pH de 4,5 a 6,5 e com ótimo de 6,1. A concentração de nitrogênio proteico ou não proteico é inversamente proporcional ao crescimento do fungo. Concentrações de nitrogênio de 2,0 g/L reduzem o crescimento da biomassa micelial em 11% e 12%, respectivamente e meios com nitrogênio de 16,0 g/L reduzem o crescimento em 46% e 95%, respectivamente. O fungo é robusto e cresce sob condições extremas de temperatura e pH, mas menor adaptação em meios com alta concentração de nitrogênio, principalmente não proteico.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Lentinula , Axenic Culture , Micelles , Urea
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1920-1928, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131573

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento ponderal e a dinâmica dos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de cordeiros Pantaneiros submetidos a diferentes manejos de amamentação dos 15 aos 43 dias. Foram separados 30 cordeiros em três diferentes grupos (n=10). Os grupos foram caracterizados conforme o tempo de permanência das ovelhas com suas crias em diferentes sistemas de amamentação: MAM24 - ovelhas e cordeiros 24 horas em conjunto; MAM12 - ovelhas e cordeiros 12 horas em conjunto durante a noite; MAM2x30 - ovelhas e cordeiros 30 minutos de manhã e 30 minutos à tarde em conjunto. As coletas de amostras sanguíneas e as pesagens ocorriam a cada sete dias. Houve aumento significativo no peso com o avanço da idade dos cordeiros nos três manejos, mas os tratamentos não diferiram entre si para o ganho de peso. Houve diferenças entre os três tratamentos para a variável hematológica CHGM e para as variáveis bioquímicas AST, glicose, ureia e proteína total. As variáveis bioquímicas foram influenciadas pela faixa etária dos animais. Os diferentes manejos de amamentação não influenciaram o desenvolvimento ponderal dos cordeiros. Não ocorreram alterações patológicas. Alguns parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos podem ser influenciados pelo desenvolvimento etário dos cordeiros.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the weight development and the dynamics of hematological and biochemical parameters of Pantaneiro lambs submitted to different breastfeeding management from 15 to 43 days. First, 30 lambs were separated into three different groups (n = 10). The groups were characterized according to the length of stay of ewes with their young in different breastfeeding systems: MAM24 - ewes and lambs 24 hours together. MAM12- Sheep and lambs 12 hours together at night. MAM2x30 - sheep and lambs 30 minutes in the morning and 30 minutes in the afternoon together. Blood samples were collected and weighed every seven days. Significant increase in weight was observed with the age of the lambs in the three managements, but the treatments did not differ for weight gain. Differences were identified between the three treatments for the hematological variable CHGM and for the biochemical variables AST, glucose, urea and total protein. Correlating the age of the lambs with the biochemical variables, there was variation influenced by the age of the animals. The different management of breastfeeding did not influence the weight development of the lambs. Hematological and biochemical variations did not represent pathological changes. Some hematological and biochemical parameters may be influenced by the age development of lambs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Urea/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Sheep/growth & development , Weight Gain , Animals, Suckling/growth & development , Sheep/blood , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1528-1534, 01-09-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147795

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen (N) is one of the nutrients absorbed in great quantity by maize crop. Also, N fertilizers are of high costs and subject to large losses into the agricultural environment. There are various categories of fertilizers known as fertilizers of improved efficiency that can minimize such N losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources and doses of N in maize agronomic performance. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with four replications, designed as a factorial 5 x 5 + 1, constituted by five N sources (urea, urea polymerized, urea with NBPT, organomineral with and without NBPT), five N doses (40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) plus a control (no N supply). The chlorophyll contents and grain yield were evaluated. The results showed no differences for the different N sources, indicating that the organomineral sources are as efficient as the mineral sources. The addition of N fertilizers in increasing doses, regardless of the source tested, has increased the levels of chlorophylls and grain yiled.


O nitrogênio (N) é um dos nutrientes absorvidos em grande quantidade pela cultura do milho. Além disso, os fertilizantes nitrogenados são de alto custo e sujeitos a grandes perdas no ambiente agrícola. Existem várias categorias de fertilizantes, conhecidas como fertilizantes de maior eficiência, que podem minimizar essas perdas de N. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e doses de N no desempenho agronômico do milho. O experimento foi instalado em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, delineadas como fatorial 5 x 5 + 1, constituído por cinco fontes de N (uréia, uréia polimerizada, uréia com NBPT, organomineral com e sem NBPT), cinco doses de N (40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) mais um controle (sem fornecimento de N). O conteúdo de clorofila e o rendimento de grãos foram avaliados. Os resultados não mostraram diferenças para as diferentes fontes de N, indicando que as fontes organomineral são tão eficientes quanto as fontes minerais. A adição de fertilizantes N em doses crescentes, independentemente da fonte testada, aumentou os níveis de clorofilas e rendimento de grãos


Subject(s)
Urea , Zea mays , Fertilizers
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1498-1506, 01-09-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147328

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ammoniation by urea on the nutritional value of elephant grass hay harvested after flowering. A completely randomized design, in double factorial designs with an additional treatment: 4 urea doses (2, 4, 6 and 8%) x 2 treatment periods (30 and 45 days) + 1 (Control) with four replicates each, was employed. Dry matter, ash, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, lignin, neutral detergent fiber corrected for the ash and the protein, total nitrogen, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, in vitro gas production and carbohydrates fractionation were analyzed. The treatments influenced the contents of DM, EE, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose, NDFap, fraction A + B1, fraction B2, fraction C, TN, NPN, ADIN, NDIN, L and Vf2. There was a positive linear effect of urea dose for NDF, ADIN, NDIN and L, positive linear effect on fraction A + B1, NT and NPN, and positive quadratic effect for Vf2, with absolute maximum point of 4.5%. Elephant grass hay harvested after flowering has its nutritional value improved, with a minimum dose of 4.5% urea on a dry matter basis.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da amonização com ureia sobre o valor nutritivo do feno de capim elefante colheitado após florescimento. O estudo foi delineado, em esquema fatorial duplo com um tratamento adicional: 4 doses de ureia (2, 4, 6 e 8%) x 2 período de tratamento (30 e 45 dias) + 1 tratamento controle, com 4 repetições cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: matéria seca (MS), cinzas, extrato etéreo (EE), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e ácido (FDA), FDN corrigida para cinzas e proteínas (FDNcp), celulose, lignina, nitrogênio total (NT), nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA) e neutro (NIDN), nitrogênio não proteico (NNP). Produção de gases in vitro proveniente dos carboidratos não fibrosos (Vf1) e fibrosos (Vf2), taxa de fermentação dos carboidratos não fibrosos (k1) e fibrosos (k2) e tempo de colonização bacteriana do substrato (L), além do fracionamento de carboidratos. Os tratamentos influenciaram os teores de MS, EE, FDN, FDA, lignina, celulose, FDNcp, fração A + B1, fração B2, fração C dos carboidratos, NT, NNP, NIDA, NIDN, L e Vf2. Houve efeito linear decrescente de dose de ureia para FDNcp, NIDA, NIDN e L, crescente para fração A+B1, NT e NNP, e, quadrático crescente de dose de ureia para Vf2, com ponto máximo absoluto de 4,5% de ureia obtido após derivar a equação de regressão aos 45 dias de tratamento do feno. Concluindo que feno de capim elefante colheitado após florescimento tem seu valor nutricional melhorado, com dose mínima de 4,5% de ureia em base da matéria seca.(AU)


Subject(s)
Urea , Pennisetum , Nutritive Value , In Vitro Techniques , Carbohydrates , Gases , Nitrogen
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 55-64, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethanol concentration (PE), ethanol productivity (QP) and sugar consumption (SC) are important values in industrial ethanol production. In this study, initial sugar and nitrogen (urea) concentrations in sweet sorghum stem juice (SSJ) were optimized for high PE (≥10%, v/v), QP, (≥2.5 g/L·h) and SC (≥90%) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSJKKU01. Then, repeated-batch fermentations under normal gravity (NG) and high gravity (HG) conditions were studied. RESULTS: The initial sugar at 208 g/L and urea at 2.75 g/L were the optimum values to meet the criteria. At the initial yeast cell concentration of ~1 × 108 cells/mL, the PE, QP and SC were 97.06 g/L, 3.24 g/L·h and 95.43%, respectively. Repeated-batch fermentations showed that the ethanol production efficiency of eight successive cycles with and without aeration were not significantly different when the initial sugar of cycles 2 to 8 was under NG conditions (~140 g/L). Positive effects of aeration were observed when the initial sugar from cycle 2 was under HG conditions (180­200 g/L). The PE and QP under no aeration were consecutively lower from cycle 1 to cycle 6. Additionally, aeration affected ergosterol formation in yeast cell membrane at high ethanol concentrations, whereas trehalose content under all conditions was not different. CONCLUSION: Initial sugar, sufficient nitrogen and appropriated aeration are necessary for promoting yeast growth and ethanol fermentation. The SSJ was successfully used as an ethanol production medium for a high level of ethanol production. Aeration was not essential for repeated-batch fermentation under NG conditions, but it was beneficial under HG conditions.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sorghum/chemistry , Ethanol/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Urea , Yeasts/growth & development , Aeration , Sorghum/microbiology , Ethanol/analysis , Sugars , Juices , Fermentation , Gravitation , Nitrogen
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(3): 221-235, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132300

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is an increased accessibility of over-the-counter (OTC) whitening agents with very little data in the literature regarding their effectiveness. This review was done to determine their effectiveness of the predominant OTC whitening agents from 2006 until 2018 where a comparison of each agent was made with a placebo, no treatment or with other OTC whitening agents. The major categories of OTC whitening agents such as dentifrices, whitening strips and paint on gels. Dentist prescribed bleaching applied at home and in-office bleaching studies and studies that demonstrated whitening products to participants were excluded. Articles were searched for in the databases of Medline (Ovid), PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Twenty-four articles were included in the systematic review and the quality of studies was determined by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) ranking criteria. Compared to other OTC, strips are reported to be effective. Two studies determined whitening strips to be effective. Whitening strips have been shown to be effective when compared with placebos and other OTC whitening agents. Dentifrices are effective in changing the shade of the tooth "by removing extrinsic stains" when compared to a placebo and non-whitening dentifrices, but they are not as effective in comparison to whitening strips. There is a lack of evidence with regards to the effectiveness of paint-on gels. While there is some evidence that OTC can alter shade in the short term, there is a need for better-designed studies.


Resumo Há um aumento da acessibilidade dos agentes clareadores de venda livre com poucos dados na literatura sobre sua eficácia. Esta revisão foi feita para determinar a eficácia dos agentes clareadores de venda livre predominantes de 2006 a 2018, onde foi feita uma comparação de cada agente com um placebo, sem tratamento ou com outros agentes clareadores de venda livre. As principais categorias de agentes clareadores de venda livre, como dentifrícios, tiras branqueadoras e géis. Estudos em que o dentista prescreveu clareamento caseiro e em consultório, e estudos que demonstraram os agentes clareadores para os participantes. Os artigos foram pesquisados ​​nas bases de dados do Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Cochrane Library e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Vinte e quatro artigos foram incluídos na revisão sistemática e a qualidade dos estudos foi determinada pelo critério de classificação GRADE (Classificação de Recomendações, Avaliação, Desenvolvimento e Avaliações). Em comparação com outros clareadores de venda livre, as tiras são relatadas como eficazes. Dois estudos determinaram que as tiras de clareamento são eficazes. As tiras de clareamento mostraram-se eficazes quando comparadas com placebos e outros agentes clareadores de venda livre. Os dentifrícios são eficazes na mudança da tonalidade do dente "removendo manchas extrínsecas" quando comparados a dentifrícios com placebo e sem clareamento, mas não são tão eficazes em comparação com as tiras de clareamento. Há uma falta de evidência com relação à eficácia dos géis de tinta. Embora exista alguma evidência de que os clareadores de venda livre possa alterar a tonalidade no curto prazo, há necessidade de estudos melhor projetados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Bleaching , Tooth Discoloration , Tooth Bleaching Agents , Urea , Carbamide Peroxide
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 827-835, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129486

ABSTRACT

O colágeno é sintetizado e segregado no espaço extracelular e organizados em fibrilas estriadas de acordo com o tipo de tecido. Utilizaram-se 24 coelhos brancos da raça Nova Zelândia, com idade de 12 meses e com 3,0kg de peso corporal, para avaliar a porcentagem de colágeno das feridas cutâneas tratadas com plasma rico em plaquetas de equino e pomada contendo gentamicina, sulfanilamida, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A. Os animais foram separados em quatro grupos de igual número e submetidos à remoção de pele na região das linhas médias dorsal torácica (feridas tratadas) e lombar (feridas controle). As feridas torácicas foram tratadas com plasma rico em plaqueta de equino e pomada contendo gentamicina, sulfanilamida, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A, e as do grupo controle somente com a pomada. Dos animais do grupo I, foi coletado tecido cutâneo, para a avaliação histológica e a ultraestrutural, com três dias de pós-operatório; dos animais do grupo II, com sete dias; do grupo III, com 14 dias; e do grupo IV, com 21 dias. Decorrido o período de avaliação de cada grupo, foi coletado fragmento de pele para avaliação da porcentagem de colágeno, bem como do diâmetro e da densidade da fibrila de colágeno por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O tratamento com PRP de equino associado à aplicação tópica da pomada mostrou-se eficaz na maturação das fibrilas colágenas e na antecipação do processo cicatricial.(AU)


Collagen is synthesized and secreted into the extracellular space and organized into striated fibrils according to the tissue type. This study evaluated the concentration of collagen in rabbit skin wounds treated with equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and ointment containing gentamicin, sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, urea, and vitamin A. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits aged 2 to 12 months and weighing 3.0kg were included. The animals were allocated equally into four groups and the skin was removed from the thoracic dorsal midline (treated wound) and lumbar (control wound) regions. The thoracic wounds were treated with equine PRP and ointment containing gentamicin, sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, urea, and vitamin A, and the control group was treated with the ointment alone. For histological and ultrastructural assessment, cutaneous tissue was collected on postoperative days 3 (group I), 7 (group II), 14 (group III), and 21 (group IV). After the evaluation period, in each group, a skin fragment was collected for analysis of the collagen concentration, as well as the collagen fibril diameter and density by transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that treatment with equine PRP combined with topical application of the ointment was effective in facilitating the maturation of collagen fibrils and the wound healing process.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Wound Healing/physiology , Wounds and Injuries/rehabilitation , Wounds and Injuries/veterinary , Collagen/ultrastructure , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Sulfadiazine/administration & dosage , Sulfanilamides/administration & dosage , Urea/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Horses
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 585-591, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098291

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (also called paracetamol, or APAP) induced nephrotoxicity is reported after accidental or intentional ingestion of an overdose of the drug. Renal tubular ultrastructural alterations induced by APAP overdose associated with the induction of biomarkers of kidney injury have not been investigated before. Also, we investigated whether the combined polyphenolic anti-inflammatory and antioxidants agents, resveratrol (RES) and quercetin (QUR) can protect against APAP-induced acute kidney injury. The model group of rats received a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of RES (30 mg/kg) and QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP. All rats were then sacrificed one day post APAP ingestion. Harvested kidney tissues were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) staining and blood samples were assayed for urea, creatinine, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. TEM images and blood chemistry analysis showed that APAP overdose induced kidney damage as demonstrated by substantial alterations to the proximal convoluted tubule ultrastructure, and a significant (p<0.05) increase in urea, creatinine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and malondialdehyde (MDA) blood levels, which were protected by RES+QUR. These findings indicate that APAP induces alterations to the renal tubular ultrastructure, which is inhibited by resveratrol plus quercetin, which also decreases blood levels of kidney injury biomarkers.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la nefrotoxicidad inducida por acetaminofeno (también llamado paracetamol o APAP) después de la ingestión accidental o intencional de una sobredosis de la droga. Las alteraciones ultraestructurales tubulares renales inducidas por sobredosis de APAP asociadas con la inducción de biomarcadores de daño renal no se han investigado. Además, estudiamos si los agentes combinados antiinflamatorios y antioxidantes polifenólicos, el resveratrol (RES) y la quercetina (QUR) pueden proteger contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por APAP. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de APAP (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas se trató previamente durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de RES (30 mg / kg) y QUR (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de APAP. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron un día después de la ingestión de APAP. Los tejidos renales fueron preparados para el análisis a través de la microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). En las muestras de sangre se determinaron la urea, creatinina y los biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo. Las imágenes MET y el análisis químico de la sangre mostraron que la sobredosis de APAP inducía daño renal, como lo demuestran las alteraciones sustanciales en la ultraestructura del túbulo contorneado proximal, y además, de un aumento significativo (p <0,05) de la urea, creatinina, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y niveles sanguíneos de malondialdehído, protegidos por RES + QUR. Estos hallazgos indican que APAP induce alteraciones en la ultraestructura tubular renal, inhibida por el resveratrol más quercetina, que también disminuye los niveles sanguíneos de biomarcadores de daño renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Quercetin/pharmacology , Urea/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatinine/blood , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Overdose , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
18.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 67(1): 72-87, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1127014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Soil carbon sequestration refers to the process of transferring carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into the soil. The objective of this research was to do a simulation of how soil management factors in pastures can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing soil CO2-eq emissions due to increases of soil organic carbon.In livestock systems of Cumaral (Meta), Colombia, IPCC Tier 2 methodology was used to compare changes in soils C stocks under (a) two pasture types: Brachiaria decumbens grass pastures (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass pastures associated with Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) four increasing doses of CaCO?: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 3.3 tons ha-1; (c) three sources of N, P, K fertilizers: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 Triple Superphosphate and 100 kg ha-1 Potassium Chloride. The statistical design was a randomized complete block in factorial arrangement 2 x 4 x 3. Tukey test indicated that the inclusion of kudzú in B. decumbens pasture (B2), 2.2 and 3.3 tons CaCO3 ha-1 in both pastures, and the fertilization of B1 with Urea and B2 with Triple Superphosphate presented a greater benefit in soil C accumulation and CO2-eq emissions neutralization. Adittional cluster analysis showed that B2 liming with higher lime doses regardless of the type of fertilizer used presented major soil C stored grouped in Cluster 1. We concluded that these soil management factors should be feasible to implement in pastures, that can help offset the negative effects of global climate change on livestock systems at tropical zones.


RESUMEN El secuestro de carbono en el suelo se refiere al proceso de transferencia de dióxido de carbono (CO2) de la atmósfera al suelo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue hacer una simulación de cómo los factores de manejo del suelo en pasturas, pueden contribuir a mitigar el cambio climático al reducir las emisiones de CO2-eq del suelo debido a los aumentos de acumulación de carbono orgánico en el suelo. En sistemas ganaderos de Cumaral (Meta), Colombia, se utilizó la metodología Tier 2 del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático (IPCC) para comparar los cambios en las existencias de C del suelo en (a) dos tipos de pasturas: pasturas de pasto Brachiaria decumbens (Bl) y pasturas del pasto Brachiaria decumbens asociadas con leguminosa de Pueraria phaseloi-des (B2); cuatro dosis crecientes de CaCO?: 0, l.l, 2.2, 3.3 tons ha1; y (c) tres fuentes de fertiliantes N, P, K: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 Superfosfato triple y 100 kg ha-1 Cloruro de potasio. El diseño estadístico fue un bloques completos al azar en arreglo factorial 2 x 4 x 3. El test de Tukey indicó que la inclusión de la leguminosa en la pastura (B2), la aplicación de 2.2 y 3.3 tons CaCO3 ha-1 en ambas pasturas y la fertilización de B1 con Urea y de B2 con Superfosfato triple presentaron un mayor beneficio en la acumulación de C del suelo y la neutralización de las emisiones de CO2-eq. El análisis de cluster adicional mostró que B2 encalada con más altas dosis de cal indistintamente del tipo de fertilizante usado presentaron mayor almacenamiento de C del suelo agrupados en el Cluster 1. Nosotros concluimos que estos factores de manejo de suelos deberían ser factibles de implementar en pasturas, lo que puede ayudar a compensar los efectos negativos del cambio climático global en los sistemas ganaderos de zonas tropicales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil , Climate Change , Carbon , Carbon Dioxide , Brachiaria , Fertilizers , Carbon Sequestration , Potassium Chloride , Research , Urea , Pasture , Simulation Exercise , Dosage
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 439-448, 01-03-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146270

ABSTRACT

Fertilization management, mainly nitrogen, is one of the factors that most directly affect corn grain yield. Nitrogen dynamics in the soil is quite complex and its main source currently used in corn production, the urea, undergo intense losses in its conventional form, mainly by volatilization and leaching. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of forms, sources, and times of nitrogen application on the second crop corn. The experiment was conducted in 2016 in the Fundação Chapadão, Chapadão do Sul, MS, Brazil. The sources conventional urea, polymer-coated urea, and foliar N (8 treatments) were used as follows: control (without N addition), conventional urea (single in V3 and split in V3 and V6), polymer-coated urea (single in V3 and split in V3 and V6), conventional urea + foliar N (conventional urea in V6 and foliar in pre-flowering), polymer-coated urea + foliar N (polymer-coated urea in V6 and foliar in pre-flowering), and foliar N (split in V6 and pre-flowering). The variables stem diameter, ear index, ear length, number of grains per row, number of rows per ear, plant height, first ear height, leaf chlorophyll index, leaf N index, leaf values of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu, 100-grain weight, and grain yield were assessed. Nitrogen application in the form of conventional urea, polymer-coated urea, and foliar N (single or split) for second crop corn does not result in distinct benefits for the crop. Thus, attention should be paid to the commercialization of the product, which has prices established according to nitrogen forms, but without result, for example, in grain yield, which in fact will compose the producer income. The applied nitrogen form and mode of application were positive only to increase the contents of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn in the leaves of second crop corn. Ca was favored by the use of conventional urea and split conventional urea, Mg and Mn were only benefited by foliar N application, and Zn was benefited by the use of conventional urea, split conventional urea, conventional urea + foliar N, and polymer-coated urea+foliar N.


O manejo da adubação, principalmente a nitrogenada, é um dos fatores que afetam mais diretamente a produtividade de grãos de milho. A dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo é bastante complexa e a principal fonte atualmente utilizada na produção do milho, a ureia, em sua forma convencional, sofre perdas intensas, principalmente por volatilização e lixiviação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de formas, fontes e épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio na cultura do milho segunda safra. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2016 na Fundação Chapadão, no município de Chapadão do Sul, MS, Brasil. Foram utilizadas as fontes ureia convencional, ureia revestida com polímero e N foliar (8 tratamentos), sendo eles: testemunha (sem adição de N); ureia convencional (todo aplicado no estádio V3) e (parcelada em V3 e V6); ureia com polímero (todo em V3) e (parcelada em V3 e V6); Ureia convencional + N foliar (ureia convencional em V6 e foliar em pré-florada); Ureia com polímero + N foliar (ureia com polímero em V6 e foliar em pré-florada) e N foliar (parcelado em V6 e pré-florada). Foram avaliados o diâmetro de colmo, índice de espiga, comprimento de espiga, número de grãos por fileira, número de fileiras por espiga, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira espiga, índice de clorofila foliar, índice de N foliar, valores foliares de Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn e Cu, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. A aplicação do nitrogênio na forma de ureia convencional, ureia com polímeros e foliar, de forma única ou parcelada, para o milho segunda safra, não resulta em benefícios distintos para a cultura. Assim, deve-se ficar atento a comercialização do produto, que tem preços estabelecidos de acordo com as formas do nitrogênio, mas sem resultado, por exemplo, na produtividade de grãos, que irá de fato compor a renda do produtor. A forma do nitrogênio aplicado e o modo de aplicação foram positivos apenas para aumentar os teores de Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn nas folhas do milho segunda safra. O Ca foi favorecido pelo uso da ureia convencional e convencional parcelada, o Mg e o Mn foram beneficiados apenas pela aplicação de N foliar, enquanto o Zn foi beneficiado pelo uso da ureia convencional, convencionalparcelada, convencional + N foliar e ureia com polímero + N foliar.


Subject(s)
Zea mays , Fertilization , Nitrogen , Urea
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 24-30, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aims: To evaluate the nutritional status, resting energy expenditure, caloric and protein intake, and evolution of biochemical parameters in three stages of chronic kidney disease: pre-dialytic, at the beginning of the dialysis treatment, and 30 days after starting treatment. Methods: The chi-square and Student's t tests were used to compare the variables, and analysis of repeated measurements was used to compare the data obtained in the three moments evaluated. The results were discussed at the 5% level of significance. Results: We evaluated 35 patients, 60% female and 60% with diabetes mellitus. There was a decrease in midarm circumference and serum albumin. Inflammatory state and caloric and protein intake increased. There was no significant difference in resting energy expenditure in the three moments. The serum urea and serum albumin, handgrip strength, and protein consumption after 30 days from the start of dialysis were greater in the peritoneal dialysis patients, when compared to the hemodialysis population. Conclusion: there was a decrease in midarm circumference and serum albumin and an increase in protein intake after dialysis. The peritoneal dialysis patients had higher muscle strength, even with lower protein intake. Resting energy expenditure was not different between dialysis methods and the moments evaluated.


Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar o estado nutricional, o gasto energético em repouso, o gasto calórico e proteico e a evolução dos parâmetros bioquímicos em três estágios da doença renal crônica: pré-dialítico, no início do tratamento dialítico e 30 dias após o início do tratamento. Métodos: O teste do qui-quadrado e o teste t de Student foram utilizados para comparar as variáveis, e a análise das medidas repetidas foi utilizada para comparar os dados obtidos nos três momentos avaliados. Os resultados foram discutidos ao nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Foram avaliados 35 pacientes, 60% mulheres e 60% com diabetes mellitus. Houve uma diminuição na circunferência do terço médio do braço (CMB) e na albumina sérica. O estado inflamatório e a ingestão calórica e protéica aumentaram. Não houve diferença significativa no gasto energético em repouso nos três momentos. A ureia sérica e a albumina sérica, a força de preensão manual e o consumo de proteínas após 30 dias do início da diálise foram maiores nos pacientes em diálise peritoneal, quando comparados com a população em hemodiálise. Conclusão: houve diminuição da circunferência do terço médio do braço e na albumina sérica, e aumento da ingestão protéica após a diálise. Os pacientes em diálise peritoneal apresentaram maior força muscular, mesmo com menor consumo proteico. O gasto energético em repouso não foi diferente entre os métodos de diálise e os momentos avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rest , Nutritional Status , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Energy Metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Urea/blood , Energy Intake , Serum Albumin/analysis , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hand Strength , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood
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