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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 665-669, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041484

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Serological cross-reactivity between leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, especially at low titers, leads to difficulties of the seroepidemiological interpretation. METHODS: We have studied the ability of urea as a chaotrope to select high-avidity antibodies in IgG ELISA, thus reducing low-avidity IgG cross-reactivity in serologically positive samples in both assays. RESULTS: Using 0.5M urea for diluting the sample efficiently defined leishmaniasis or double infections in high-avidity IgG ELISA and eliminated false-positive results. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a chaotropic diluting agent is useful for improving the specificity of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis immunoassays.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urea/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmaniasis/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Urea/chemistry , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/chemistry , Leishmaniasis/complications , Leishmaniasis/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170284, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893698

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate dental sensitivity using visual analogue scale, a Computerized Visual Analogue Scale (CoVAS) and a neurosensory analyzer (TSA II) during at-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide, with and without potassium oxalate. Materials and Methods Power Bleaching 10% containing potassium oxalate was used on one maxillary hemi-arch of the 25 volunteers, and Opalescence 10% was used on the opposite hemi-arch. Bleaching agents were used daily for 3 weeks. Analysis was performed before treatment, 24 hours later, 7, 14, and 21 days after the start of the treatment, and 7 days after its conclusion. The spontaneous tooth sensitivity was evaluated using the visual analogue scale and the sensitivity caused by a continuous 0°C stimulus was analyzed using CoVAS. The cold sensation threshold was also analyzed using the TSA II. The temperatures obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Results The data obtained with the other methods were also analyzed. 24 hours, 7 and 14 days before the beginning of the treatment, over 20% of the teeth presented spontaneous sensitivity, the normal condition was restored after the end of the treatment. Regarding the cold sensation temperatures, both products sensitized the teeth (p<0.05) and no differences were detected between the products in each period (p>0.05). In addition, when they were compared using CoVAS, Power Bleaching caused the highest levels of sensitivity in all study periods, with the exception of the 14th day of treatment. Conclusion We concluded that the bleaching treatment sensitized the teeth and the product with potassium oxalate was not able to modulate tooth sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Peroxides/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Pain Measurement/methods , Dentin Sensitivity/diagnosis , Dentin Sensitivity/chemically induced , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Orotic Acid/therapeutic use , Peroxides/chemistry , Time Factors , Urea/adverse effects , Urea/chemistry , Severity of Illness Index , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Pain Threshold , Visual Analog Scale , Carbamide Peroxide
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 234-242, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) has been proposed as a new approach to treat immature permanent teeth. However, materials used in REP for root canal disinfection or cervical sealing may induce tooth discoloration. Objectives To assess tooth crown’s color after intracanal treatment with triple antibiotic paste (TAP) or calcium hydroxide (CH); cervical sealing with glass ionomer cement (GIC) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); and bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Material and Methods After pulp removal and color spectrophotometer measurement, 50 bovine incisors were divided into 4 experimental groups and one control (untreated). Experiments were performed in phases (Ph). Ph1: TAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, minocycline), TAPM (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin), DAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole), or CH treatment groups. After 1 and 3 days (d); 1, 2, 3 weeks (w); and 1, 2, 3 and 4 months (m), color was measured and medications were removed. Ph2: GIC or MTA cervical sealing, each using half of the specimens from each group. Color was assessed after 1d, 3d; 1w, 2w, 3w; 1m and 2m. Ph3: Two bleaching sessions, each followed by color measurement. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and post-hoc Holm-Sidak method. Results Ph1: Specimens of TAP group presented higher color alteration (ΔE) mean than those of TAPM group. No significant difference was found among TAP or TAPM and CH, DAP or Control groups. Ph2: cervical sealing materials showed no influence on color alteration. Ph3: Different ΔE means (from different groups), prior to bleaching, became equivalent after one bleaching session. Conclusions TAP induces higher color alteration than TAPM; color alteration increases over time; cervical sealing material has no influence on color alteration; and, dental bleaching was able to recover, at least partially, the tooth crown’s color.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Tooth Discoloration/chemically induced , Tooth Crown/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Silicates/chemistry , Prosthesis Coloring , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Drug Combinations , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 991-1000, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769671

ABSTRACT

Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.


Subject(s)
Biomass/analysis , Biomass/chemistry , Biomass/growth & development , Biomass/instrumentation , Biomass/metabolism , Biomass/methods , Culture Media/analysis , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/growth & development , Culture Media/instrumentation , Culture Media/metabolism , Culture Media/methods , Culture Techniques/analysis , Culture Techniques/chemistry , Culture Techniques/growth & development , Culture Techniques/instrumentation , Culture Techniques/metabolism , Culture Techniques/methods , Spirulina/analysis , Spirulina/chemistry , Spirulina/growth & development , Spirulina/instrumentation , Spirulina/metabolism , Spirulina/methods , Urea/analysis , Urea/chemistry , Urea/growth & development , Urea/instrumentation , Urea/metabolism , Urea/methods
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(6): 609-613, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-769821

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of a bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine vs. conventional tooth bleaching techniques using peroxides (both in-office and at-home). Material and Methods Samples were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (n=15): C - Control; BC – Bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine; WBC – Bleaching toothpaste without Blue Covarine; HP35 - In-office bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide; and CP10 – At-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide. The dental bleaching efficacy was determined by the color difference (ΔE), luminosity (ΔL), green-red axis (Δa), and blue-yellow axis (Δb). The CIELab coordinates were recorded with reflectance spectroscopy at different times: T0 - baseline, T1 – immediately after bleaching, T2 - 7 days, T3 - 14 days, and T4 - 21 days after the end of treatments. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures mixed ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test, with a significance level of 5%. Results No significant differences were found between the treatment groups C, BC, and WBC. The groups HP35 and CP10 showed significantly higher whitening efficacy than groups C, BC, and WBC. Conclusions There were no significant differences in the whitening efficacy between a Blue Covarine containing toothpaste, a standard whitening toothpaste, and a control. Neither of the whitening toothpastes tested were as effective as in-office or at-home bleaching treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Isoindoles/chemistry , Metalloporphyrins/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Toothpastes/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Color , Colorimetry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Single-Blind Method , Spectrophotometry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Toothbrushing , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/chemistry
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 14(2): 159-165, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755037

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the relationship between the chemical composition of saliva, periodontal disease and dental calculus. Methods: An observational analytical cross-sectional study was conducted with patients over 55 years of age. Ethical principles of autonomy and risk protection were applied according to the international standards. Sociodemographic and diagnosis variables (presence of dental calculus and periodontal status) were considered to measure salivary concentrations of glucose (by the glucose oxidase/peroxidase method, amylase (by the colorimetric test), urea (by the amount of indophenol), total protein (by the Bradford method) and albumin (by the nephelometric method). Patients chewed a sterile rubber band and 3 mL of stimulated saliva were collected. The samples were stored at -5 °C, centrifuged at 2,800 rpm for 10 min, and the supernatant was removed and stored at -20 °C. Data were presented as frequencies and proportions for qualitative variables and measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative variables. Data were analyzed by either analysis of variance or Kruskal Wallis test . A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Significant relationships were observed between the concentration of salivary urea and periodontal status (p = 0.03) and the presence of dental calculus and urea (p = 0.04) was demonstrated. Conclusions: A relationship between the salivary urea concentration and the presence of periodontal disease and dental calculus is suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Calculus/chemistry , Periodontal Diseases/diagnosis , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Gingivitis/diagnosis , Gingivitis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Saliva/chemistry , Albumins/analysis , Albumins/chemistry , Amylases/analysis , Amylases/chemistry , Glucose/analysis , Glucose/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/chemistry , Urea/analysis , Urea/chemistry
7.
Braz. oral res ; 27(4): 299-304, Jul-Aug/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679220

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of sodium ascorbate (SA) on the microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of different composites to bovine enamel after vital bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (HP) or carbamide peroxide (CP). Thirty bovine incisors were randomly divided into five groups and treated with no bleaching application (control), 35% HP alone, 35% HP + 10% SA for 10 minutes (HP + SA), 16% CP alone, or 16% CP + 10% SA for 10 minutes (CP + SA). Specimens were restored with Silorane adhesive and Filtek Silorane composite (designated as S / group) or with Clearfil SE bond and Filtek Supreme XT (designated as F / group). Composite build-up was created on the enamel. Sectioned specimens (n = 10 per group; 1 mm2; cross-sectional area) were created and stressed in a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. The application of 10% SA immediately after bleaching with 16% CP or 35% HP increased the enamel MTBS, regardless of the adhesive / composite resin used. The resulting MTBS values were similar to those of the control groups. Use of 16% CP and 35% HP alone decreased the enamel MTBS, regardless of the adhesive / composite resin used, with F / CP + SA = F / HP + SA = F / CP = S / CP + SA = S / HP + SA = S / C > S / CP = S / HP = F / CP = F / HP (p < 0.05). We concluded that the application of SA for 10 minutes immediately after vital bleaching increases the enamel BS for dimethacrylate- and silorane-based composites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Methacrylates/chemistry , Silorane Resins/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Materials Testing , Peroxides/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tensile Strength/drug effects , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/chemistry
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 263-266, May-Jun/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681876

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of 16% carbamide peroxide (Whiteness Perfect/FGM) on the Vickers microhardness and flexural strength of the restorative composites Filtek Z100 (hybrid), Filtek Z350 (nanofill), Brilliant (micro-hybrid) and Opallis (micro-hybrid). Disc-shaped (4x2 mm; n=5) and bar-shaped (12x2x1 mm; n=10) specimens of each restorative material were randomly divided into 2 groups: (G1) 16 weeks stored in distilled water; (G2) 16 weeks stored in distilled water, with 16% carbamide peroxide application during 6 h per day for the last 4 weeks. The mechanical properties were evaluated using a Vickers microhardness tester and a mechanical testing machine. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's (HSD) post-hoc test (α=0.05). Filtek Z100 presented the highest microhardness value, followed by Filtek Z350 and finally by Brilliant and Opallis (p=0.00). Filtek Z100 and Brilliant exhibited the highest flexural strength value, followed by Filtek Z350 and Opallis (p=0.00). Bleaching treatment decreased significantly microhardness of Brilliant and Opallis (p=0.00). The flexural strength of all studied materials was not affected by the home bleaching (p=0.28).


Este estudo investigou o efeito do peróxido de carbamida a 16% (Whiteness Perfect/FGM) na dureza Vickers e resistência à flexão dos compósitos restauradores Filtek Z100 (híbrida), Filtek Z350 (nanoparticulada), Brilliant (micro-híbrida) e Opallis (micro-híbrida). Espécimes em forma de disco (4x2 mm; n=5) e de barra (12x2x1 mm; n=10) de cada material restaurador foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos: (G1) 16 semanas em água destilada; (G2) armazenamento em água destilada durante 16 semanas, com aplicação do peróxido de carbamida a 16% por 6 h diárias nas últimas 4 semanas. As propriedades mecânicas foram avaliadas em microdurômetro Vickers e máquina de ensaios mecânicos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA a 2 critérios e teste de Tukey (α=0,05). Filtek Z100 apresentou o maior valor de dureza, seguido por Filtek Z350 e, finalmente, por Brilliant e Opallis (p=0,00). Filtek Z100 e Brilliant mostraram o maior valor de resistência à flexão, seguido por Filtek Z350 e Opallis (p=0,00). O clareamento diminuiu significantemente a dureza das resinas Brilliant e Opallis (p=0,00). A resistência à flexão dos materiais estudados não foi afetada pelo clareamento caseiro (p=0,28).


Subject(s)
Humans , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Hardness , Materials Testing , Methacrylates/chemistry , Pliability , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Time Factors , Urea/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Zirconium/chemistry
9.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 18(2): 61-68, Mar.-Apr. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets on dental in-home bleaching, taking into account three different adhesive systems. METHODS: Forty-four bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to the primer system used for orthodontic bracket bonding. Following the debonding of orthodontic brackets, the teeth were stored in staining solution for 96 hours. Then, teeth were whitened using 10% carbamide peroxide for two weeks at a 6-hour-a-day regime. Standardized digital photographs were taken at the following intervals: T0 (initial); T1 (after debonding); T2 (after pigmentation); T3, T4 and T5 representing 1, 7, and 14 days of bleaching. Repeatability and stability tests were carried out to check the method accuracy. Images were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software considering (L*a*b*)color coordinate values and a modified color difference total (Δ;E'). RESULTS: The results of this study (ANOVA and Tukey; p < 0.01) demonstrated that after 7 days of bleaching, experimental groups showed significantly less teeth whitening compared to the control group. However, there were no significant color differences between the groups after 14 days, according to values of lightness (L*). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the adhesive primer system applied, bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets alters the outcome of tooth whitening in the first 7 days of bleaching, however it has no influence on the whitening of the dental structure after 14 days of in-home dental bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide.


OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a influência da colagem e descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos no clareamento caseiro, considerando três diferentes sistemas adesivos. MÉTODOS: quarenta e quatro incisivos bovinos foram divididos em quatro grupos, de acordo com o sistema adesivo utilizado para colagem dos braquetes. Após a descolagem dos braquetes, os dentes foram pigmentados por 96 horas e depois clareados com peróxido de carbamida a 10% por 6 horas diárias, durante duas semanas. Foram realizadas fotografias digitais padronizadas nos tempos: T0 (inicial); T1 (após descolagem); T2 (após pigmentação); T3, T4 e T5 representando 1, 7 e 14 dias de clareamento. Testes de repetitividade e de estabilidade foram realizados para avaliar a acurácia do método. As imagens foram avaliadas pelo software Adobe Photoshop 7.0, considerando os parâmetros de cor (L*a*b*) e a diferença total de cor adaptada para esse estudo (Δ;E'). RESULTADOS: os resultados do presente estudo (ANOVA e Tukey; p < 0,01) demonstraram que, após uma semana de clareamento, os grupos experimentais apresentaram uma resposta mais lenta ao clareamento que o grupo controle. Contudo, após 14 dias, não houve diferença cromática significativa entre os grupos, observada pelos valores de luminosidade (L*). CONCLUSÕES: independentemente do sistema adesivo utilizado, a colagem e descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos altera os resultados de obtenção de cor com sete dias de avaliação. Contudo, após 14 dias não se observa nenhuma diferença de cor na estrutura dentária clareada pela técnica caseira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Debonding/methods , Orthodontic Brackets , Peroxides/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Analysis of Variance , Colorimetry , Urea/chemistry
10.
Braz. oral res ; 26(6): 536-542, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656697

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the influence of fluoride-containing carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agents and adhesive systems on bonded enamel interfaces that are part of the dynamic pH cycling and thermal cycling models. The buccal surfaces of 60 bovine incisors were restored with a composite resin and bonded with three- and two-step, etch-and-rinse, fluoride-containing adhesives, Optibond FL (FL) and Optibond Solo Plus (SP), respectively. Restored teeth were subjected to thermal cycling to age the interface. Both SP and FL adhesive-restored teeth were bleached (n = 10) with 10% CP (CP) and 10% CP + fluoride (CPF) or were left unbleached (control). Bleaching was performed for 14 days simultaneously with pH cycling, which comprised of 14 h of remineralization, 2 h of demineralization and 8 h of bleaching. The control groups (FL and SP) were stored in remineralizing solution during their bleaching periods and were also subjected to carious lesion formation. Parallelepiped-shaped samples were obtained from the bonded interface for microtensile bond strength (∝TBS) testing. The enamel ∝TBS of the FL and SP groups (control, not bleached) were higher (p < 0.05) than those of the bleached interfaces (FL > FL + CPF = FL + CP and SP > SP + CPF = SP + CP). The groups subjected to treatment with the fluoride-containing bleaching agents exhibited similar ∝TBS compared to regular bleaching agents. Bleaching agents, regardless of whether they contained fluoride, decreased enamel bond strength.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Dental Restoration Failure , Dentin/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Tooth Demineralization , Urea/chemistry
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(3): 335-339, May-June 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643730

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the influence of two 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents - a commercial product (Opalescence PF; Ultradent Products, Inc.) and a bleaching agent prepared in a compounding pharmacy - on the chemical degradation of a light-activated composite resin by determining its release of ions before and after exposure to the agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty composite resin (Filtek Z250; 3M/ESPE) samples were divided into three groups: group I (exposed to Opalescence PF commercial bleaching agent), group II (exposed to a compounded bleaching agent) and group III (control - Milli-Q water). After 14 days of exposure, with a protocol of 8 h of daily exposure to the bleaching agents and 16 h of immersion in Milli-Q water, the analysis of ion release was carried out using a HP 8453 spectrophotometer. The values were analyzed statistically by ANOVA, Tukey's test and the paired t-tests. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: After 14 days of the experiment, statistically significant difference was found between group II and groups I and III, with greater ion release from the composite resin in group II. CONCLUSIONS: The compounded bleaching agent had a more aggressive effect on the composite resin after 14 days of exposure than the commercial product and the control (no bleaching).


Subject(s)
Humans , Composite Resins/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Analysis of Variance , Ions/chemistry , Materials Testing , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Urea/chemistry
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(2): 186-191, Mar.-Apr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study evaluated the effectiveness of three carbamide peroxide concentrations used for tooth bleaching treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty bovine dental slabs (6x6x3 mm) were obtained, sequentially polished, submitted to artificial staining (baseline) and randomized into four groups (n=15), according to the bleaching agent concentration: distilled water (control), 10% (CP10), 16% (CP16) or 37% (CP37) carbamide peroxide. CP10 and CP16 were covered with 0.2 mL of the respective bleaching gels, which were applied on enamel surface for 4 h/day during two weeks. Samples of CP37 were covered with 0.2 mL of the bleaching gel for 20 min. The gel was light activated by two 40-s applications spaced by 10-min intervals. The gel was renewed and applied 3 times per clinical session. This cycle was repeated at 3 sessions with 5 days of interval between them. Tooth shade evaluations were done with a digital spectrophotometer at T0 (baseline), T1 (after 1-week of treatment) and T2 (1-week post-bleaching). Tooth shade means were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman's tests and color parameters were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: At T1 and T2 evaluations, tooth shade was significantly lighter than at baseline for all treatment groups, considering the color parameters ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, ΔE* (p<0.001) or tooth shade means (p<0.001). CP37 group showed lower shade mean change than CP10 and CP16 at T1 (p<0.01), but this difference was not statistically significant at T2 (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: One week after the end of the treatment, all carbamide peroxide concentrations tested produced similar tooth color improvement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Peroxides/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Color , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Materials Testing , Prosthesis Coloring , Spectrophotometry , Time Factors , Urea/chemistry
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140185

ABSTRACT

Objective: Intraoral corrosion of dental alloys has biological, functional, and esthetic consequences. Since it is well known that the salivary urea concentrations undergo changes with various diseases, the present study was undertaken to determine the effect of salivary urea concentrations on the corrosion behavior of commonly used dental casting alloys. Materials and Methods: Three casting alloys were subjected to polarization scans in synthetic saliva with three different urea concentrations. Results: Cyclic polarization clearly showed that urea levels above 20 mg/100 ml decreased corrosion current densities, increased the corrosion potentials and, at much higher urea levels, the breakdown potentials. Conclusion: The data indicate that elevated urea levels reduced the corrosion susceptibility of all alloys, possibly through adsorption of organics onto the metal surface. This study indicates that corrosion testing performed in sterile saline or synthetic saliva without organic components could be misleading.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Carbon Compounds, Inorganic/chemistry , Chromium Alloys/chemistry , Corrosion , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Polishing/methods , Gold Alloys/chemistry , Humans , Materials Testing , Platinum/chemistry , Polarography , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Silicon Compounds/chemistry , Surface Properties , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/chemistry
14.
Braz. oral res ; 25(5): 453-458, Sept.-Oct. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601885

ABSTRACT

The wide use of dental bleaching treatment has brought concern about the possible effects of hydrogen peroxide on dental tissue and restorative materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of nightguard bleaching on the surface roughness of dental ceramics after different periods of bleaching treatment. Fifteen specimens of 5 × 3 × 1 mm were created with three dental ceramics following the manufacturers' instructions: IPS Classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent); IPS d.Sign (Ivoclar-Vivadent); and VMK-95 (Vita). A profilometer was used to evaluate baseline surface roughness (Ra values) of all ceramics by five parallel measurements with five 0.25 mm cut off (Λc) at 0.1 mm/s. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to 6-h daily bleaching treatments with 10 percent or 16 percent carbamide peroxide (Whiteness- FGM) for 21 days, while control groups from each ceramic system were stored in artificial saliva. The surface roughness of all groups was evaluated after 18 h, 42 h, 84 h, and 126 h of bleaching treatment. The surface roughness of each specimen (n = 5) was based on the mean value of five parallel measurements in each time and all data were submitted to two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). No significant differences in ceramic surface roughness were observed between untreated and bleached ceramic surfaces, regardless of bleaching intervals or bleaching treatments. This study provided evidence that at-home bleaching systems do not cause detrimental effects on surface roughness of dental ceramics.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Analysis of Variance , Dental Materials/chemistry , Materials Testing , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Urea/chemistry
15.
Braz. oral res ; 25(4): 288-294, July-Aug. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595859

ABSTRACT

This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16 percent carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001). The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05) following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p < 0.0001). The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Peroxides/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Toothpastes/chemistry , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Analysis of Variance , Drug Combinations , Fluorides/chemistry , Fluorides/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nitrates/chemistry , Nitrates/pharmacology , Peroxides/pharmacology , Phosphates/chemistry , Phosphates/pharmacology , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tooth Bleaching Agents/pharmacology , Toothpastes/pharmacology , Urea/chemistry , Urea/pharmacology
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(2): 423-432, abr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-591135

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a substituição parcial de farelo de soja na dieta-controle por ureia encapsulada ou por ureia, ambos acrescidos de polpa cítrica. Dezoito vacas foram alocadas a uma sequência de três tratamentos, em seis quadrados latinos 3x3, com períodos de 21 dias. O teor de proteína bruta nas dietas foi 15,5 por cento, cerca de 1,5 por cento oriundo de nitrogênio não proteico (NNP). O uso de NNP reduziu o consumo diário de matéria seca em 0,8kg (P=0,04), sem influenciar a produção de leite (31,5kg, P=0,98). A conversão do alimento em leite foi menor na dieta-controle (P<0,09). As fontes de NNP aumentaram o teor de N-ureico no plasma (NUP) duas horas após a alimentação da manhã (P=0,06). A frequência de NUP acima de 22,0mg/dL foi maior com ureia (P<0,01), similarmente ao observado para o teor e a secreção diária de N-ureico no leite (P<0,01). A substituição de farelo de soja por NNP e polpa cítrica melhorou a eficiência alimentar, sem afetar o balanço de nitrogênio.


The partial replacement of the soybean meal in the control diet for encapsulated urea or urea, both with added citrus pulp was evaluated. Eighteen Holstein cows were allocated to a sequence of the three treatments, in six 3x3 latin squares, with 21-day periods. The dietary level of crude protein was 15.5 percent, around 1.5 percent from non-protein nitrogen (NPN). The use of NPN reduced 0.8kg of daily dry matter intake (P=0.04), without affecting milk yield (31.5kg, P=0.98). The conversion of feed into milk decreased for the control diet (P<0.09). The NPN sources increased plasma urea-N (PUN) two hours after the morning feeding (P=0.06). The frequency of PUN above 22.0mg/dL was increased by urea (P<0.01), similarly to the observed for milk urea-N content and daily secretion (P<0.01). The replacement of soybean meal for NPN and citrus pulp improved feed efficiency, without affecting the nitrogen balance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle/classification , Soybeans/classification , Nitrogen/chemistry , Urea/chemistry
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 81 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-691503

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é um distúrbio metabólico de etiologia multifatorial e elevada prevalência no Brasil, que pode ser definida por um índice de massa corporal (peso em quilogramas dividido pela altura em metros ao quadrado) maior ou igual a 30 kg/m2, e que está associada de forma independente a um elevado risco de morbidade e mortalidade cardiovascular devido aos eventos aterotrombóticos. O óxido nítrico (NO), uma pequena molécula gasosa, é produzido através da conversão do aminoácido catiônico L-arginina em L-citrulina e NO em uma reação catalisada por uma família de enzimas denominadas NO-sintases (NOS), e funciona como um protetor cardiovascular modulando por exemplo o relaxamento do músculo liso vascular e a função plaquetária. O objetivo desta tese foi avaliar a via L-arginina-NO, bem como investigar a função plaquetária, o estresse oxidativo, e a atividade da arginase em pacientes com obesidade. O transporte de L-arginina, a produção de guanosina monofosfato cíclica (GMPc), a atividade e a expressão das isoformas da NOS (iNOS e eNOS), a atividade da arginase, o estresse oxidativo (produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio – EROs; atividade da superóxido dismutase – SOD; e atividade da catalase), bem como a função plaquetária foram medidos nas plaquetas dos pacientes com obesidade. Nas hemácias, foram medidos o transporte de L-arginina e a atividade da NOS e da arginase. Os níveis de aminoácidos e de marcadores inflamatórios (fibrinogênio e proteína C reativa) também foram medidos sistemicamente. Os resultados demonstram que o influxo de L-arginina via sistema y+L, a atividade da NOS e a produção de GMPc estão diminuídos nas plaquetas dos pacientes obesos em relação aos controles saudáveis, enquanto que não houve diferença na atividade da arginase. Além disso, a expressão das isoformas da NOS bem como a agregação plaquetária em plaquetas de pacientes com obesidade mostrou-se aumentada em relação aos controles. Nas hemácias destes pacientes, observou-se...


Obesity is a metabolic disorder of multifactorial etiology and high prevalence in Brazil, which can be defined as a body mass index (weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters) greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2, and that is independently associated with a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to atherothrombotic events. Nitric oxide (NO), a small gaseous molecule, is produced through the conversion of the cationic amino acid L-arginine to L-citrulline and NO in a reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes called NO synthases (NOS) and it acts as a cardiovascular protector modulating, for example, the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and the platelet function. The aim of this thesis was to assess the L-arginine-NO pathway, as well as to investigate platelet function, oxidative stress, and the arginase activity in patients with obesity. The L-arginine transport, the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), the activity and expression of NOS isoforms (eNOS and iNOS), the arginase activity, oxidative stress (production of reactive oxygen species - ROS; superoxide dismutase activity - SOD, and catalase activity), and platelet function were evaluated in platelets from patients with obesity. In erythrocytes, the L-arginine transport and the activity of NOS and arginase were investigated. Systemic levels of amino acids and inflammatory markers (fibrinogen and C-reactive protein) were also investigated. The results demonstrated that L-arginine influx via y+L system, NOS activity, and cGMP levels were decreased in platelets from obese subjects compared to healthy controls, whereas no difference was observed in arginase activity. In addition, the expression of NOS isoforms and platelet aggregation in platelets from patients with obesity was increased in relation to controls. In erythrocytes from these patients, there were a higher influx of L-arginine via y+ and y+L system, and NOS activity, and no difference in arginase...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arginine/metabolism , Obesity , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Arginase/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Urea/chemistry
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(6): 1303-1311, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-576025

ABSTRACT

Para avaliar tratamentos na intoxicação por amônia, 15 novilhos, infundidos com solução de cloreto de amônio, foram distribuídos em três grupos de cinco animais cada e tratados, como: 1 - grupo-controle (C), infundido com solução salina fisiológica (H); 2 - grupo O+H, medicado com aminoácidos do ciclo da ureia (O) e "H"; 3 - grupo O+F+H, o mesmo protocolo do grupo 2 acrescido de furosemida (F). Os animais foram monitorados, colhendo-se amostras sanguíneas e todo volume urinário. Os tratamentos O+F+H e O+H promoveram melhora clínica pronunciada, em relação ao grupo H, isto é, permaneceram em estação, retornaram o movimento de rúmen e o apetite e recuperaram-se do edema pulmonar mais rapidamente. Observaram-se, nos grupos O+F+H e O+H, teores plasmáticos mais baixos de amônia e lactato-L, urina mais abundante, excreção pela urina de maior quantidade de amônio e ureia, depuração mais intensa de amônia do sangue e pH urinário mais baixo. Concluiu-se que os tratamentos propostos apresentaram ação efetiva principalmente por diminuírem a hiperamonemia, por meio da maior excreção renal de amônio e maior transformação hepática de amônia em ureia.


Fifteen yearling steers were used to evaluate treatments for ammonia intoxication. The animals subjected to ammonium chloride infusion were distributed into three groups of five animals each, and treated as following: 1 - control group (C), physiological saline solution (H) infusion; 2 - O+H group, urea cycle aminoacids (O) and "H" medication; and 3 - O+F+H group, the same protocol of group 2 plus furosemide (F). The animals were monitored by collection of blood samples and the whole urinary volume. O+F+H and O+H treatments promoted pronounced clinical improvement, in attention to H group, i.e., they remained in standing position, returned ruminal movement and appetite, and recovered more quickly from pulmonary edema. In O+F+H and O+H groups, minor plasmatic levels of ammonia and L-lactate, more abundant urine, major ammonium and urea amount excretion by urine, more intensive ammonia depuration from blood, and lower urinary pH were observed. It was concluded that the proposed treatments had effective action due to hyperammonemia decrease, by major renal ammonium excretion, and hepatic transformation of ammonia in urea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ammonia/chemistry , Cattle/classification , Poisoning/mortality , Amino Acids/biosynthesis , Rumen/anatomy & histology , Urea/chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178001

ABSTRACT

The tegument of tapeworms is known to be composed of an outer syncytial cytoplasm layer which includes microtriches and cytoplasmic organelles (= syncytial layer), and a parenchymatous cytoplasm layer that contains subtegumental cell nuclei (= subtegumental layer) and organelles. In the present study, separation of the syncytial layer of the sparganum, the plerocercoid stage of Spirometra mansoni, was tried using urea as the chemical reagent. Histological sections were prepared to visualize the status of separation after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The results showed that the syncytial layer of the sparganum tegument which includes microtriches and cytoplasmic organelles were successfully separated from the parenchyma using 3 M urea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Snakes/parasitology , Sparganum/chemistry , Spirometra/chemistry , Urea/chemistry
20.
J Biosci ; 2006 Dec; 31(5): 551-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110817

ABSTRACT

Peanut agglutinin (PNA)is a homotetrameric protein with a unique open quaternary structure. PNA shows non-two state profile in chaotrope induced denaturation. It passes through a monomeric molten globule like state before complete denaturation (Reddy et al 1999). This denaturation profile is associated with the change in hydrodynamic radius of the native protein. Though the molten globule-like state is monomeric in nature it expands in size due to partial denaturation. The size and shape of the native PNA as well as the change in hydrodynamic radius of the protein during denaturation has been studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The generation of two species is evident from the profile of hydrodynamic radii. This study also reveals the extent of compactness of the intermediate state.


Subject(s)
Light , Models, Molecular , Peanut Agglutinin/chemistry , Protein Denaturation , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Scattering, Radiation , Urea/chemistry
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