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Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 30-34, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283487


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop an amplification method of urea detection based on pHsensitive liposomes. RESULTS: The urease covalently immobilized on the magnetic particles and the pH-sensitive liposomes encapsulating ferricyanide were added to the cyclic-voltammeter cell solution where urea was distributed. The conversion of urea into carbonic acid seemed to induce a pH decrease that caused a reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the headgroups of weakly acidic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero3-succinate. The reduction induced the liposomes to release potassium ferricyanide that was encapsulated inside. The effects of urea concentration and pH value were investigated. A specific concentration (0.5 mg/mL) of the urea solution was set to observe the response. The activity of urease was reversible with respect to the pH change between 7 and 5. The sensitivity of this detection was almost identical to the comparable techniques such as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a field-effect transistor. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the methodology developed in this study was feasible as a portable, rapid, and sensitive method.

Urea/analysis , Liposomes/chemistry , Urease/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Enzymes, Immobilized , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Jun; 49(3): 195-201
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140236


The impact of five Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties and their respective isogenic non-Bt(NBt) isolines (ANKUR-2534, MECH-6304, RCH-317, ANKUR-651 and MECH-6301) was assessed on the key soil enzymes i.e., dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease in their rhizosphere at four growth stages of the crop, namely vegetative, flowering, bolling and harvesting. These varieties were grown on farmer’s field in villages 22 miles and 24 miles of Ganganagar District of Rajasthan State in India. Results showed that dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities were higher in rhizosphere of Bt isolines as compared to NBt isolines of all the varieties. Except phosphatase, differences in dehydrogenase and urease activities in rhizosphere of Bt and NBt isolines of all five varieties were significant (P<0.05). Maximum enhancement in the three enzymes activities was observed in MECH-6304 Bt isoline rhizosphere. Maximum and minimum activities of dehydrogenase and urease were observed in MECH-6304 and RCH-317 Bt isolines, respectively, whereas phosphatase activity was maximum and minimum in MECH-6304 and ANKUR-651 Bt isolines, respectively. Maximum dehydrogenase and urease activities were observed at boll formation and minimum at flowering and harvesting stage, respectively, while maximum phosphatase activity was observed at vegetative stage and minimum at harvesting stage. In conclusion, all the studied Bt isolines of cotton varieties showed no adverse effect on dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities in the rhizosphere.

Alkaline Phosphatase/chemistry , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Bacillus thuringiensis/enzymology , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Gossypium/enzymology , Gossypium/genetics , Gossypium/growth & development , Oxidoreductases/chemistry , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Rhizosphere , Soil/analysis , Urease/chemistry , Urease/metabolism
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 47(1): 155-160, Jan.-Mar. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586535


Opportunistic fungi are those that normally would not cause diseases in otherwise healthy people, but are able to cause problems under some circumstances, and for this they need to possess a certain virulence potential. The objective of this study was to identify samples of filamentous fungi isolated from poultry barns in Cascavel, Paraná, and also to evaluate their virulence potential by assessing proteinase production, hemolytic activity, urease production, and growth rate at 37 ºC. We have evaluated the following samples: Acremonium hyalinulum (1 sample), Aspergillus sp. (12), Beauveria bassiana (1), Curvularia brachyspora (1), Paecilomyces variotti (1), and Penicillium sp. (2). Out of the 18 samples analyzed, 44.4 percent showed proteolytic activity using albumin as the substrate versus 66.7 percent when using casein; 66.7 percent showed hemolytic activity, 83.3 percent were positive for urea, and 88.9 percent grew at a temperature of 37 ºC. The results demonstrated that the majority of the isolates expressed virulence factors. Therefore, these isolates have the potential to harm human hosts, such as those working at poultry barns, especially predisposed or susceptible individuals.

Fungos oportunistas são aqueles que normalmente não causariam doenças em pessoas saudáveis, mas eles são capazes de causar problemas sob certas circunstâncias e, para isso, eles necessitam possuir algum potencial de virulência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar amostras de fungos filamentosos isolados de granjas de aves em Cascavel, Paraná, e também avaliar o seu potencial de virulência, verificando a produção de proteinase, atividade hemolítica, produção de urease e crescimento a 37 ºC. Foram avaliados Acremonium hyalinulum (01), Aspergillus sp (12), Beauveria bassiana (01), Curvularia brachyspora (01), Paecylomices variotti (01) e Penicillium sp (02). Das 18 amostras, 44,4 por cento apresentaram atividade proteolítica usando como substrato a albumina e 66,7 por cento com caseína; 66,7 por cento demonstraram atividade hemolítica, 83,3 por cento foram uréia positivas e 88,9 por cento cresceram em temperatura de 37 ºC. Os resultados demonstram que a maioria dos isolados expressaram fatores de virulência e, portanto, têm potencial para causar danos a hospedeiros humanos como os trabalhadores dos aviários, sobretudo em indivíduos predispostos ou suscetíveis.

Animals , Poultry/analysis , Brazil , Virulence Factors/analysis , Fungi/virology , Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay , Fungi/classification , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Urease/chemistry , Virulence
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 1992 Jan; 35(1): 34-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-72899


Four hundred isolates of Gram Negative bacilli from different samples were tested by three tube method and conventional tests. An overall agreement between the two methods was 89.5%. Non-agreement was in respect of less stable tests like gas production and motility. This does not reflect adversely on the efficacy and suitability of the method. The three tube method is simple, rapid, economical and accurate, saving both time and material.

Bacteriological Techniques , Colorimetry , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Glucose/metabolism , Mannitol/metabolism , Urease/chemistry