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Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 574-583, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154511


ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe our experience in the management of retained encrusted ureteral stents using a single session combined endourological approach. Materials and Methods: Patients with retained encrusted ureteral stents who had been submitted to a single session combined endourological approach from June 2010 to June 2018 were prospectively evaluated. Patients were divided according to the Forgotten-Encrusted-Calcified (FECal) classification. The stone burden, surgical intervention, number of interventions until stone free status, operation time, hospital stay, complications, stone analysis, and stone-free rate were compared between groups. ANOVA was used to compare numerical variables, and the Mann-Whitney or Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between groups. Results: We evaluated 50 patients with a mean follow-up of 2.9±1.4 years (mean±SD). The groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, laterality, BMI, comorbidities, ASA, reason for stent passage, and indwelling time. The stone burden was higher for grades IV and V (p=0.027). Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was the most common procedure (p=0.004) for grades IV and V. The number of procedures until the patients were stone-free was 1.92±1.40, and the hospital stay (4.2±2.5 days), complications (22%), and stone analysis (66% calcium oxalate) were similar between groups. The stone-free rate was lower in grades III to V (60%, 54.5%, and 50%). Conclusions: The endoscopic combined approach in the supine position is a safe and feasible technique that allows removal of retained and encrusted stents in a single procedure. The FECal classification seems to be useful for surgical planning.

Humans , Ureter , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Stents , Retrospective Studies , Device Removal
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 610-614, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154483


ABSTRACT We describe a step by step technique for open distal ureteroureterostomy (UU) in infants less than 6 months presenting with duplex collecting system and upper pole ectopic ureter in the absence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).

Humans , Infant , Ureter/surgery , Ureter/diagnostic imaging , Ureteral Obstruction , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/surgery , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnostic imaging , Ureterostomy , Kidney Pelvis
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 596-609, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154501


ABSTRACT Background: Many medical therapies have been tested to deal with urinary stent-related symptoms (USRS). Several preventive and pharmaceutical methods have been already used for better compatibility of stents. However, the existing evidence for pharmacological treatment is still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the effects of pregabalin, solifenacin, and combination therapy on ureteral double-J stent-related symptoms following ureteroscopy and transureteral lithotripsy (TUL). Materials and methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, from November 2017 to March 2019, 256 patients who underwent ureteroscopy were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into four groups including: group A received pregabalin 75mg BID (twice daily), group B received solifenacin 5mg orally once daily, group C received combination of pregabalin and solifenacin and the group D (control) given no drugs. Results: One hundred and fifty-one (58.9%) males and 101 (41.1%) females were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 43.47±7 (p=0.32, p=0.67). USSQ domains score such as urinary symptoms, pain, general condition, work performance, sexual matters and additional problems were significantly differenced during second and fourth week of follow-up among study groups (p <0.0001). In Tukey's multiple comparison test, urinary symptoms (p=0.735), pain (p=0.954) and sexual matters (p=0.080) in second week and work performance in forth week in group B was not significantly better than group D. Only group C in all indexes of USSQ showed significantly beneficial effects over group D (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Combination therapy of pregabalin and solifenacin has a significant effect on stent-related symptoms and is preferred over monotherapy of the respected medications.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Ureter , Stents/adverse effects , Solifenacin Succinate/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Pregabalin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 350-356, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154451


ABSTRACT Purpose: High intra-renal pressures during flexible ureteroscopy have been associated with adverse renal tissue changes as well as pyelovenous backflow. Our objective was to investigate the effect of various intra-renal pressures on histologic changes and fluid extravasation during simulated ureteroscopy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four juvenile pig kidneys with intact ureters were cannulated with an Olympus flexible ureteroscope with and without a ureteral access sheath and subjected to India ink-infused saline irrigation for 30 minutes at constant pressures ranging from sphygmomanometer settings of 50mm, 100mm and 200mmHg. Renal tissue samples were collected, processed and stained, and were evaluated by a blinded pathologist for depth of ink penetration into renal parenchyma as a percentage of total parenchymal thickness from urothelium to renal capsule. Results: The mean percentage of tissue penetration for kidneys with ink present in the cortical tubules at sphygmomanometer pressure settings of 50, 100, and 200mm Hg without a ureteral access sheath was 33.1, 31.0 and 99.3%, respectively and with ureteral access sheath was 0, 0 and 18.8%, respectively. Overall, kidneys with an access sheath demonstrated a smaller mean tissue penetration among all pressure compared to kidneys without a sheath (6.3% vs. 54.5%, p=0.0354). Of kidneys with sheath placement, 11% demonstrated any ink compared to 56% of kidneys without sheath placement. Conclusions: Pressurized endoscopic irrigation leads to significant extravasation of fluid into the renal parenchyma. Higher intra-renal pressures were associated with increased penetration of irrigant during ureteroscopy in an ex-vivo porcine model.

Animals , Ureter , Ureteroscopes , Pressure , Swine , Ureteroscopy , Therapeutic Irrigation , Kidney
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(3): 96-99, jul.-set. 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129409


Contexto: O ureter circuncaval, também conhecido como pré-ureter ou ureter retrocaval, é uma rara anomalia congênita com a qual os pacientes raramente relatam sintomas até a terceira ou quarta décadas de vida. A anomalia envolve predominantemente o ureter direito. Um ureter retrocaval à esquerda é visto apenas com persistência da veia cardinal esquerda, com situs inversus completo ou duplicação da veia cava inferior. A compressão do ureter entre a veia cava inferior e as vértebras resulta em hidronefrose e ureteronefrose progressiva. Descrição do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 31 anos de idade, com dor lombar recorrente à direita há dois anos. Apresenta exame físico sem alterações evidentes, inclusive testes específicos para a coluna vertebral. Exame de tomografia computadorizada da coluna lombar realizada há 18 meses, sem alterações significativas. Discussão: O ureter circuncaval, na maioria dos casos, é assintomático. Os sintomas dependem do grau de obstrução ureteral ou da presença de complicações e consistem em dor no flanco ­ ocasionalmente a dor intermitente é a primeira queixa ­, infecções recorrentes do trato urinário, hematúria macroscópica ou microscópica. Deve ser levado em conta que o ureter retrocaval pode coexistir com outras anomalias congênitas ­ 20% dos pacientes com ureter retrocaval apresentam anomalias congênitas concomitantes. O procedimento cirúrgico geralmente consiste na divisão ureteral, ressecção do ureter estenótico e redundante com realocação e reanastomose ureteroureteral ou ureteropélvica. Conclusão: Relatamos um caso de ureter circuncaval que é uma rara anomalia congênita predominantemente

Humans , Male , Adult , Congenital Abnormalities , Ureter , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrocaval Ureter , Hydronephrosis
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 153-159, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136178


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES To prospectively investigate the alterations and normal ranges of ureteral jet dynamics after double-J-stent (DJS) removal in patients who underwent renal transplantation (RTx). METHODS Patients who underwent RTx were prospectively evaluated between November 2017 and June 2018. After RTx, Doppler ultrasonography (D-US) was performed on all patients after DJS removal. Renal artery resistive index (RA-Ri), renal pelvis anterior-posterior diameter (RP-APD), pelvicalyceal system dilation (PCSD), and ureteral jet flow dynamics (maximum and average velocity; JETmax and JETave) were measured by D-US. Also, patients' demographics, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels, and acute rejection were investigated in the study. Patients were assessed two different times by D-US, about 6 and 12 weeks after DJS removal, and the two different measurements were compared with the Wilcoxon test and Chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 25 patients were evaluated in the study. Nonobstructive PCSD rate (12% vs 8%), JETave (18.8 vs 12.9 cm/sec), and JETmax (29.2 vs 20 cm/sec) levels were significantly decreased (p values are 0.01, 0.010 and 0.014, respectively). In addition, monophasic and square pattern rates were significantly observed to increase over time (p=0.035); however, ureteral jet patterns were correlated between the two different D-US measurements (R=0.225, p=0.032). CONCLUSION After RTx, dilation rate and ureteral jet flow velocities were significantly decreased, and monophasic and square JETpattern rates were significantly increased over time. Ureteral jet dynamics can provide useful information about the follow-up of peristaltic activity in the pelvic-ureteric system.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS Investigar prospectivamente as alterações e as variações normais da dinâmica do jato ureteral após a remoção do J-stent duplo (DJS) em pacientes submetidos a transplante renal (RTx). MÉTODOS Pacientes submetidos a RTx foram avaliados prospectivamente entre novembro de 2017 e junho de 2018. Após o RTx, o D-US foi realizado em todos os pacientes após a remoção do DJS. Índice de resistência da artéria renal (RA-Ri), diâmetro ântero-posterior da pelve renal (AP-DPR), dilatação do sistema pelvicaliceal (PCSD) e dinâmica do jato ureteral (velocidade máxima e média; JETmax e JETave) foram medidos por D-US. Além disso, a demografia dos pacientes, os níveis estimados de taxa de filtração glomerular (eGFR) e a rejeição aguda foram investigados no estudo. Os pacientes foram avaliados em dois momentos diferentes pelo D-US, cerca de 6 e 12 semanas após a remoção do DJS, e as duas medidas diferentes foram comparadas com o teste de Wilcoxon e o teste do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS Um total de 25 pacientes foi avaliado no estudo. Taxa de PCSD não obstrutiva (12% vs. 8%), JETave (18,8 vs. 12,9 cm/seg) e JETmax (29,2 vs. 20 cm/seg), os níveis foram significativamente diminuídos (valores de p são 0,01, 0,010 e 0,014, respectivamente). Além disso, as taxas de padrão monofásico e quadrado foram significativamente observadas para aumentar ao longo do tempo (p=0,035); no entanto, padrões de jato ureteral foram correlacionados entre as duas diferentes medidas D-US (R=0,225, p=0,032). CONCLUSÃO Após o RTx, a velocidade de dilatação e as velocidades de fluxo do jato ureteral foram significativamente diminuídas e as taxas de JET padrão monofásico e quadrado foram significativamente aumentadas ao longo do tempo. A dinâmica do jato ureteral pode fornecer informações úteis sobre o acompanhamento da atividade peristáltica no sistema pélvico-ureteral.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ureter/physiopathology , Urodynamics/physiology , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Stents/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Time Factors , Ureter/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Middle Aged
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(5): 692-695, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136260


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Zinner's Syndrome is a triad of mesonephric duct anomalies comprising unilateral renal agenesis, seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction. In this study, we present a kidney recipient with ectopic ureter associated with Zinner's syndrome and a literature review. CASE PRESENTATION A 59-year-old male with a history of chronic kidney disease and left renal agenesis underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation. After securing optimal renal functions, the patient underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan for the seroma that occurred under the incision. The final diagnosis was an ectopic distal ureter ending in the seminal vesicle cyst's wall and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The patient was discharged without any complications and the clinical follow up was uneventful. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Congenital seminal vesicle disorders are usually associated with ipsilateral urinary duct anomalies stemming from the same embryonic structure. To our knowledge, this is the first case report that describes kidney transplantation in a patient with ipsilateral renal agenesis and ectopic ureter ending in the seminal vesicle cyst. In patients with renal agenesis, during the ipsilateral urinary tract anastomosis, the possibility of ectopic ureter should be kept in mind otherwise graft loss can occur with a high morbidity rate.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO A Síndrome de Zinner é uma tríade de anomalias do ducto mesonéfrico que compreende agenesia renal unilateral, cisto da vesícula seminal e obstrução do ducto ejaculatório. Neste estudo, apresentamos um receptor de rim com ureter ectópico associado à Síndrome de Zinner e revisão da literatura. APRESENTAÇÃO DO CASO Homem de 59 anos com história de doença renal crônica e agenesia renal esquerda foi submetido a transplante de rim de doador falecido. Após função renal ideal, foi realizada tomografia computadorizada do abdome (TC) devido ao seroma sob incisão. O diagnóstico final foi um ureter distal ectópico que termina na parede do cisto da vesícula seminal e agenesia renal ipsilateral. O paciente recebeu alta sem complicações e o acompanhamento clínico ocorreu sem intercorrências. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO Os distúrbios congênitos da vesícula seminal geralmente estão associados às anomalias do ducto urinário ipsilateral devido a uma mesma estrutura embrionária. Até onde sabemos, é o primeiro relato de caso que descreve o transplante renal em um paciente com agenesia renal ipsilateral e ureter ectópico terminado no cisto da vesícula seminal. Em pacientes com agenesia renal, durante a anastomose do trato urinário ipsilateral, deve-se ter em mente a possibilidade do ureter ectópico, caso contrário, poderá ocorrer perda do enxerto com alta taxa de morbidade.

Humans , Male , Ureter , Cysts , Genital Diseases, Male , Seminal Vesicles , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Middle Aged
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 424-429, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136217


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) represents one of the most significant risk factors for acute pyelonephritis in children. Various intravesical and extravesical techniques have been described for the surgical correction of VUR. The aim of our study was to compare the results of open intravesical and extravesical procedures for unilateral primary VUR in children. METHODS Between January 2012 and August 2018, 38 children with primary VUR who underwent open ureteral reimplantation surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The Cohen (intravesical) and the Lich-Gregoir (extravesical) approach were grouped as groups A and B, respectively. The groups were compared for age, gender, preoperative reflux grade, presence of lower urinary tract symptoms, operation time, discomfort and pain, analgesic requirements, duration of hematuria, postoperative complications, and hospital stay. All the parameters were statistically compared. RESULTS There were 38 patients in this study. Group A had 18 patients, and group B had 20 patients. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in group B than in group A. The mean hospital stay was also shorter in group B. The urethral foley stay period was 4.7±0.9 days 2±0 days (p = 0.000*), respectively, for group A and B. Macroscopic hematuria was seen in group A. The objective pain scale was worse after intravesical surgery. Analgesic requirements were higher in group A (p =0.131). CONCLUSION Intravesical and extravesical ureteroneocystostomy methods are equally successful and feasible in the treatment of primary unilateral VUR. The Cohen technique is associated with a longer and more painful hospital stay, gross hematuria, and longer operative time, compared to the Lich-Gregoir technique.

RESUMO OBJETIVO O Refluxo Vesicoureteral (RVU) representa um dos mais importantes fatores de risco para pielonefrite aguda em crianças. Diversas técnicas intra e extravesicais já foram descritas para a correção cirúrgica do RVU. O objetivo do nosso estudo é comparar os resultados de procedimentos extravesicais e intravesicais abertos para o tratamento de RVU primário unilateral em crianças. METODOLOGIA Entre janeiro de 2012 e agosto de 2018, 38 crianças com RVU primário foram submetidas a cirurgia aberta de reimplante ureteral. Esses casos foram retrospectivamente revisados. As abordagens de Cohen (intravesical) e Lich-Gregoir (extravesical) foram agrupadas nos grupos A e B, respectivamente. Os grupos foram comparados quanto à idade, sexo, grau de refluxo pré-operatório, presença de sintomas no trato urinário inferior, tempo de operação, desconforto e dor, necessidade de analgésicos, duração de hematúria, complicações pós-operatórias e tempo de internação. Todos os parâmetros foram comparados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS No total, 38 pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo. O grupo A teve 18 pacientes e o grupo B, 20. O tempo médio de operação foi significativamente menor no grupo B do que no grupo A. O tempo médio de internação também foi menor no grupo B. O tempo de uso do foley uretral foi de 4,7 ± 0,9 dias e 2±0 dias (p = 0,000*) , respectivamente, para o grupo A e B. Hematúria macroscópica foi observada no grupo A. A pontuação na escala objetiva de dor foi pior após a cirurgia intravesical. A necessidade de analgésicos foi maior no grupo A (p = 0,131). CONCLUSÃO As técnicas extravesicais e intravesical de ureteroneocistostomia são igualmente bem-sucedidas e viáveis para o tratamento de RVU primário unilateral. A técnica de Cohen está associada a um período de internação mais longo e mais doloroso, hematúria e maior tempo operatório, em comparação com a técnica de Lich-Gregoir.

Humans , Child , Replantation , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Ureter , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811137


Renal fibrosis is considered to be the final common outcome of chronic kidney disease. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have demonstrated protective effects against diabetic kidney disease. However, the anti-fibrotic effect of evogliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has not been studied. Here, we report the beneficial effects of evogliptin on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis in mice. Evogliptin attenuated UUO-induced renal atrophy and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting demonstrated that evogliptin treatment inhibits pro-fibrotic gene expressions and extracellular matrix production. In vitro findings showed that the beneficial effects of evogliptin on renal fibrosis are mediated by inhibition of the transforming growth factor-β/Smad3 signaling pathway. The present study demonstrates that evogliptin is protective against UUO-induced renal fibrosis, suggesting that its clinical applications could extend to the treatment of kidney disease of non-diabetic origin.

Animals , Atrophy , Blotting, Western , Diabetic Nephropathies , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Extracellular Matrix , Fibrosis , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Mice , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Ureter , Ureteral Obstruction
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(2): 71-76, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020469


El muñón ureteral es el segmento de uréter remanente posterior a una nefrectomía, que puede, ocasionalmente, dar origen a un cuadro sintomático infeccioso poco frecuente, conocido como empiema del muñón ureteral (EMU). El mismo suele atribuirse a otra patología por desconocimiento médico y no es reconocido hasta que el cuadro clínico avanza significativamente o se realiza la exploración quirúrgica. Los muñones ureterales que se encontraban sanos en la cirugía inicial no suelen desarrollar patología. Por el contrario, los uréteres obstruidos, crónicamente infectados o asociados a litiasis o reflujo distal, son los que se encuentran en riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones futuras. En esta revisión, se repasa la literatura y se presentan casos de pacientes con antecedentes de nefrectomía que por diferentes causas transcurrieron con empiema en el muñón ureteral, con el fin de analizar las posibles causas y factores predisponentes de la patología, describir los hallazgos radiológicos en los diferentes métodos diagnósticos y poder reconocer las posibles complicaciones para su correcto manejo terapéutico. Las infecciones urinarias a repetición son útiles para sospechar la presencia de EMU. Ellas se deben al reflujo urinario o disfunción en el vaciamiento del uréter remanente, con estasis e infección del mismo. Por lo tanto, en pacientes con antecedentes de nefrectomía que presentan dolor abdominal difuso, fiebre y antecedentes de infecciones urinarias a repetición, es necesario sospechar empiema del muñón ureteral para poder realizar un correcto análisis imagenológico y posterior tratamiento.

The ureteral stump is the segment of the ureter that remains after a nephrectomy, and it can occasionally give rise to a rare symptomatic infectious disorder known as an empyema of the ureteral stump. The syndrome is usually attributed to another disease due to the radiologist's or ED physician's unawareness, and diagnosis is delayed until there is significant clinical progression, complimentary images or exploratory surgery is performed. Ureteral stumps that were healthy at the initial surgery, usually do not pose further problems. On the other hand, ureters that are obstructed, chronically infected or associated with nephrolithiasis or distal reflux, are at risk for developing future complications. This review goes over the available literature on the subject and presents cases of patients who underwent a nephrectomy and, for different reasons, developed an empyema of the ureteral stump in order analyze the possible causes and predisposing factors, describing the main radiologic findings in each of the different imaging modalities, and recognize the possible complications and their according therapeutic management. Repeated urinary tract infections are useful for suspecting the presence of an empyema, and are due to vesicoureteral reflux or ureteral dysfunction, with consequent urinary stasis and infection. Thus, patients with a history of nephrectomy presenting with diffuse abdominal pain, fever and repeat urinary infections, should raise the suspicion of empyema of the ureteral stump, leading to a correct imaging analysis and posterior treatment.

Humans , Ureter , Ultrasonography/methods , Empyema , Low Back Pain , Nephrectomy