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5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 350-356, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154451

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: High intra-renal pressures during flexible ureteroscopy have been associated with adverse renal tissue changes as well as pyelovenous backflow. Our objective was to investigate the effect of various intra-renal pressures on histologic changes and fluid extravasation during simulated ureteroscopy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four juvenile pig kidneys with intact ureters were cannulated with an Olympus flexible ureteroscope with and without a ureteral access sheath and subjected to India ink-infused saline irrigation for 30 minutes at constant pressures ranging from sphygmomanometer settings of 50mm, 100mm and 200mmHg. Renal tissue samples were collected, processed and stained, and were evaluated by a blinded pathologist for depth of ink penetration into renal parenchyma as a percentage of total parenchymal thickness from urothelium to renal capsule. Results: The mean percentage of tissue penetration for kidneys with ink present in the cortical tubules at sphygmomanometer pressure settings of 50, 100, and 200mm Hg without a ureteral access sheath was 33.1, 31.0 and 99.3%, respectively and with ureteral access sheath was 0, 0 and 18.8%, respectively. Overall, kidneys with an access sheath demonstrated a smaller mean tissue penetration among all pressure compared to kidneys without a sheath (6.3% vs. 54.5%, p=0.0354). Of kidneys with sheath placement, 11% demonstrated any ink compared to 56% of kidneys without sheath placement. Conclusions: Pressurized endoscopic irrigation leads to significant extravasation of fluid into the renal parenchyma. Higher intra-renal pressures were associated with increased penetration of irrigant during ureteroscopy in an ex-vivo porcine model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ureter , Ureteroscopes , Pressure , Swine , Ureteroscopy , Therapeutic Irrigation , Kidney
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 786-793, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to design a novel semirigid ureterorenoscope with irrigation and vacuum suction system and a modified ureteral access sheath (UAS) named Sotn ureterorenoscope® (Sotn=ShuoTong Medical Company) to overcome the deficiencies of the current procedure and to improve the efficiency and safety of using Sotn ureterorenoscope® for treatment of upper urinary calculi. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight patients, comprising 31 males and 27 females, were evaluated. The medical records of 58 patients with upper urinary calculi treated with Sotn ureterorenoscope® from March 2015 to June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed at the Second Affiliate Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine in China. The primary outcome was stone-free rate (SFR) assessed by computed tomography on the 1st day and one month after treatment. The secondary outcome was postoperative complication rate. Results: The mean and SD of operative duration was 48.5 (10.4) min, and the mean and SD of stone size was 15.6 (5.6) mm. The primary overall SFR was 89.7% (52/58) and 100% at 1 month follow-up. Complication, which was Clavien I (minor fever managed by antipyretic therapy), was detected in 1.7% (1/58) of the patients. Conclusions: Sotn ureterorenoscope® is technically feasible, efficacious and safe for treatment of upper urinary calculi because of its advantages of high SFR and low complication rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteral Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Ureteroscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Calculi , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , China , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopes
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882159

ABSTRACT

@#In the field of Urology, flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) remains a challenging skill for junior residents to develop due to its steep learning curve. Hence, training models were incorporated into simulation-based training to allow for novice trainees to overcome the learning curve without potentially compromising patient outcomes and minimize complications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the design and test the validity of a non-biological three-dimensional (3D) model of the pelvocalyceal system as a tool for simulation-based training for flexible ureterorenoscopy METHODS: This was a prospective, quasi-experimental, surgical innovation research stage 2a study conducted in a tertiary government hospital. The retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) box was composed of four siliconized pelvocalyceal systems which were 3D printed using computed tomography urograms of actual patients. Thirty-two urologists were asked to perform flexible ureteroscopy using the RIRS box and were given a questionnaire to assess face and content validity using the Likert scale. RESULTS: The RIRS Box training model showed good face and content validity. The 3D printed pelvocalyceal system was judged to have a close anatomical resemblance to an actual calyceal system. While performing fURS, the RIRS box provided similar pelvocalyceal visualization and instrument handling as in an actual procedure. Majority of participants considered the training model useful for training (75%) and believed that it may improve the RIRS technique (46.8%). CONCLUSION: The RIRS Box training model may help urologists improve the manner in which they acquire technical knowledge and skills necessary in performing fURS.


Subject(s)
Ureteroscopy , Ureteroscopes , Printing, Three-Dimensional
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 658-670, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose to critically review all literature concerning the cost-effectiveness of flexible ureteroscopy comparing single-use with reusable scopes. Materials and Methods A systematic online literature review was performed in PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases. All factors potentially affecting surgical costs or clinical outcomes were considered. Prospective assessments, case control and case series studies were included. Results 741 studies were found. Of those, 18 were duplicated and 77 were not related to urology procedures. Of the remaining 646 studies, 59 were considered of relevance and selected for further analysis. Stone free and complication rates were similar between single-use and reusable scopes. Operative time was in average 20% shorter with digital scopes, single-use or not. Reusable digital scopes seem to last longer than optic ones, though scope longevity is very variable worldwide. New scopes usually last four times more than refurbished ones and single-use ureterorenoscopes have good resilience throughout long cases. Longer scope longevity is achieved with Cidex and if a dedicated nurse takes care of the sterilization process. The main surgical factors that negatively impact device longevity are lower pole pathologies, large stone burden and non-use of a ureteral access sheath. We have built a comprehensive financial cost-effective decision model to flexible ureteroscope acquisition. Conclusions The cost-effectiveness of a flexible ureteroscopy program is dependent of several aspects. We have developed a equation to allow a literature-based and adaptable decision model to every interested stakeholder. Disposable devices are already a reality and will progressively become the standard as manufacturing price falls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Equipment Reuse/economics , Ureteroscopy/economics , Ureteroscopes/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Equipment Reuse/statistics & numerical data , Ureteroscopy/instrumentation , Ureteroscopy/statistics & numerical data , Ureteroscopes/standards , Ureteroscopes/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Design , Operative Time
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781659

ABSTRACT

To analyze the effectiveness and safety of intermittent lung inflation combined with rigid ureteroscopy in the treatment of upper ureteral stones that were not fully visible. The clinical and imaging data of 56 patients with upper ureteral stone undergoing rigid ureteroscopic lithotripsy combined with intermittent lung inflation in Zhejiang Quhua Hospital from March 2016 to October 2017 were retrospectively analyzed.Intermittentt lung inflation was used to change and stabilize the position of ureteral calculi during the operation,so as to ensure the visual field of ureteroscopy.Holmium laser lithotripsy was performed to remove the stones.Urinary tract abdominal plain X-ray or CT urography was performed 1 and 3 months after the operation to evaluate the residual stones and the clinical efficacy. Stones were successfully removed after a single attempt in 48 patients.In 5 patients,stones escaped into the kidney during ureteroscopic lithotripsy,and thus flexible ureteroscopy were performed.In 3 patients,a second session of auxiliary procedure was required,among whom 2 patients received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and 1 patient underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy+ureteroscopic lithotripsy.The stone-free rates 1 and 3 months after surgery were 94.6%(53/56)and 100%(56/56),respectively.No severe complication such as ureter perforation,gross hematuria,septic shock,or pneumothorax occurred during and after surgery. Intermittent lung inflation in tracheal intubation under general anesthesia in patients with proximal ureteral stones that can not be fully visible during rigid ureteroscopic lithotripsy was feasible and reliable.It can effectively change the location of stones and thus enable safe and effective lithotripy.It expands the indications of rigid ureteroscopy for treating upper ureteral stones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lithotripsy, Laser , Retrospective Studies , Ureteral Calculi , Diagnostic Imaging , Ureteroscopes , Ureteroscopy
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 524-535, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954034

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Ureteral access sheaths (UAS) facilitate flexible ureteroscopy in the treat- ment of urolithiasis. The physical properties of UAS vary by manufacturer and model. We compared three new UAS: Glideway (GW, Terumo, 11/13Fr, 12/14Fr), Pathway (PW, Terumo 12/14F) and Navigator HD (NHD, Boston Scientific, 11/13Fr, 12/14Fr) in the domains of safety characteristics, positioning characteristics, lubricity and radio- opacity. Materials and Methods: In vitro testing of the three UAS included safety testing-tip perforation force, sheath edge deformation and dilator extraction forces. Positioning characteristics tested included tip bending, stiffness (resistance to coaxial buckling forces), kinking (resistance to perpendicular forces), and insertion forces. Lubricity was assessed by measured frictional forces of the outer sheath. Finally, radio-opacity was tested utilizing fluoroscopic imaging of the three 12F sheaths and inner dilators. Results: The PW (0.245 lb) and GW (0.286 lb) required less force for tip perforation compared to the NHD (0.628 lb). The NHD sheath edge deformation was mild compared to more severe deformation for the PW and GW. The PW (1.008 lb) required greater force than the GW (0.136 lb) and NHD (0.043 lb) for inner dilator removal. The GW (3.69 lbs) and NHD (4.17 lb) had similar inner dilator tip stiffness when bent, while the PW had the weakest inner dilator tip, 1.91 lbs. The PW (0.271 lb) was most susceptible to buckling and kinking (1.626 lb). The most lubricious UAS was the NHD (0.055 lbs for 12F). The NHD (0.277 lbs) required the least insertional force through a biological model and possessed the greatest radio-opacity. Conclusions: Comparison of different commercially available UAS in various sizes reveals that there are mechanical differences in sheaths that may play a role clinically. The Terumo sheaths' (GW and PW) were outperformed by the Boston Scientific NHD in simulating safety, ease of use and radio-opacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ureteroscopy/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Reference Values , Swine , Ureter/surgery , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Friction , Ureteroscopy/methods , Ureteroscopes , Dilatation/instrumentation , Lubrication
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(3): 476-480, May.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840854

ABSTRACT

Introduction The Spies™ system (Karl-Storz®) was introduced into digital ureteroscopy to improve endoscopic vision. To date, there is no data to either indicate which of the Spies modalities is better for improving diagnosis and treatment procedures, nor to compare the modalities in terms of image quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the image quality of five Spies™ modalities (SM) to the standard white light in an in-vitro model. Materials and Methods Two standardized grids and 3 stones of different composition were recorded in white light and the 5SM (Clara, Chroma, Clara+Chroma), Spectra A and B) using 4 standardized aqueous scenarios. Twelve templates were done in order to simultaneously compare the same objective in the different modalities. Six urologists, five medical students, five urology residents, and five persons not involved with urology evaluated each video on a scale of 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good). Results Comparing white light to SM, subjects scored better the quality of Clara and Clara+Chroma than white light (p=0.0139 and p<0.05) and scored worse Spectra A and B (p=0.0005 and p=0.0023)). When comparing Clara to the other SM, it was ranked equivalent to Clara+Chroma (p=0.67) and obtained a higher rank than Chroma, Spectra A and B (p<0.05, p=0.0001 and p=0.0001). In the multivariate analysis mean scores were higher among urologists. Conclusion In all analyzed scenarios, the subjects ranked Clara and Clara+Chroma as the modalities with better image quality compared to white light.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Urologic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ureteroscopy/instrumentation , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lithotripsy, Laser , Ureteroscopy/methods , Ureteroscopes , Middle Aged
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 367-370, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840820

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 34 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with left flank pain. A non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) revealed a 1.5x2cm left proximal ureter stone. Patient was scheduled for ureterorenoscopy (URS) and stone removal. She was submitted to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). At the postoperative 1st day, the patient began to suffer from left flank pain. A NCCT was taken, which revealed a subcapsular hematoma and perirenal fluid. The patient was managed conservatively with intravenous fluid, antibiotic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy and was discharged at the postoperative 6th day. Two weeks after the discharge the patient was admitted to emergency department with severe left flank pain, palpitation and malaise. KUB (kidney-ureter-bladder) radiography showed double-J stent (DJS) to be repositioned to the proximal ureter. Patient was evaluated with contrast enhanced CT which revealed an 8cm intraparenchymal hematoma/abscess in the middle part of the kidney. A percutaneous drainage catheter was inserted into the collection. The percutaneous drainage catheter and the DJS were removed at the 10th day of second hospitalization. RIRS surgery is an effective and feasible choice for renal stones with high success and acceptable complication rates. However, clinician should be alert to possible complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Ureteroscopes/adverse effects , Ureterolithiasis/surgery , Parenchymal Tissue/injuries , Hematoma/etiology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Pressure , Stents/adverse effects , Ureterolithiasis/complications , Parenchymal Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1168-1177, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828929

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study, we aim to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS) for solitary and multiple renal stones with <300 mm2 stone burden. Patients' charts who treated with f-URS for kidney stone between January 2010 and June 2015 were reviewed, retrospectively. Patients with solitary kidney stones (n:111) were enrolled in group 1. We selected 111 patients with multiple kidney stones to serve as the control group and the patients were matched at a 1:1 ratio with respect to the patient's age, gender, body mass index and stone burden. Additionally, patients with multiple stones were divided into two groups according to the presence or abscence of lower pole stones. Stone free status was accepted as complete stone clearence and presence of residual fragments < 2 mm. According to the study design; age, stone burden, body mass index were comparable between groups. The mean operation time was longer in group 2 (p= 0.229). However, the mean fluoroscopy screening time in group 1 and in group 2 was 2.1±1.7 and 2.6±1.5 min, respectively and significantly longer in patients with multiple renal stones (P=0.043). The stone-free status was significantly higher in patients with solitary renal stones after a single session procedure (p=0.02). After third month follow up, overall success rate was 92.7% in Group 1 and 86.4% in Group 2. Our study revealed that F-URS achieved better stone free status in solitary renal stones <300 mm2. However, outcomes of F-URS were acceptable in patients with multiple stones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Kidney Calculi/therapy , Lithotripsy, Laser/methods , Ureteroscopy/methods , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Care , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopes , Middle Aged
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(3): 479-486, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes and the complications of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for renal stones in a multi-institutional working group. Materials and Methods From 2012 to 2014, we conducted a prospective study including all RIRS performed for kidney stones in 4 European centers. Demographic information, disease characteristics, and perioperative and postoperative data were gathered. Patients and stone data, procedure characteristics, results and safety outcomes were analyzed and compared by descriptive statistics. Complications were reported using the standardized Clavien system. Results Three hundred and fifty-six patients underwent 377 RIRS with holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones. The RIRS was completed in all patients with a mean operative time of 63.5 min. The stone-free status was confirmed endoscopically and through fluoroscopic imaging after the first procedure in 73.6%. The second procedure was performed in twenty patients (5.6%) achieving an overall stone free rate of 78.9%. The overall complication rate was 15.1%. Intra-operative and post-operative complications were seen in 24 (6.7%) and 30 (8.4%) cases, respectively. Conclusions RIRS is a minimally invasive procedure with good results in terms of stone-free and complications rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Lithotripsy, Laser/methods , Ureteroscopy/instrumentation , Ureteroscopy/methods , Ureteroscopes , Postoperative Complications , Fluoroscopy/methods , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Lithotripsy, Laser/instrumentation , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Equipment Design , Europe , Operative Time , Length of Stay , Middle Aged
18.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 42-45, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304752

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical application of the ureteral dilation catheter combined with the balloon catheter under the ureteroscope in the treatment of urethral stricture in men.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Under the ureteroscope, 45 male patients with urethral stricture received placement of a zebra guide wire through the strictured urethra into the bladder and then a ureteral dilation catheter along the guide wire, followed by dilation of the urethra from F8 initially to F14 and F16. Again, the ureteroscope was used to determine the length of the strictured urethra, its distance to the external urethral orifice, and whether it was normally located. An F24 balloon catheter and then a metal urethral calibrator was used for the dilation of the strictured urethra. After removal of the F18-F22 urethral catheter at 8 weeks, the urinary flow rate was measured immediately and again at 3 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the operations were successfully performed without serious complications. The maximum urinary flow rate was (13.3-29.9) ml/s (mean [17.7 ± 3.2] ml/s) at the removal of the catheter and (15.2-30.8) ml/s (mean [19.8 ± 3.9] ml/s) at 3 months after it. Smooth urination was found in all the patients during the 6-24 months follow-up.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The application of the ureteral dilation catheter combined with, the balloon catheter under the ureteroscope is a good option for the treatment of male urethral stricture for its advantages of uncomplicatedness, safety, effectiveness, few complications, less pain, high success rate, and repeatable operation.</p>


Subject(s)
Catheterization , Humans , Male , Ureteroscopes , Urethra , Urethral Stricture , Therapeutics , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Catheters , Urination
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2067-2073, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307466

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the most widely recommended treatment for calyceal diverticular calculi, providing excellent stone-free results. However, its invasiveness is not negligible considering its major complication rates. Flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) is currently used to treat calyceal diverticula. However, the greatest drawback of FURS is locating the diverticulum since its neck is narrow and concealed. In such a case, the FURS procedure must be converted to PCNL. The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasound-guided flexible ureteroscopy (UFURS) identifying diverticulum and the management of calyceal diverticular calculi.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was conducted on 24 patients who had calyceal diverticular calculi. In all 12 patients in the UFURS group, direct FURS failed to find evidence of calyceal diverticula but were confirmed with imaging. The other 12 patients in the PCNL group received PCNL plus fulguration of the diverticular walls.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Puncture of calyceal diverticulum was successful in all 12 UFURS patients. Two patients in this group had postoperative residual calculi and two patients developed fever. In the PCNL group, percutaneous renal access and lithotomy were successful in all 12 patients. One patient in this group had residual calculi, one had perirenal hematoma, and two patients developed fever. No significant difference was found in the operating time (UFURS vs. PCNL, 91.8 ± 24.2 vs. 86.3 ± 18.7 min), stone-free rate (UFURS vs. PCNL, 9/12 vs. 10/12), and rate of successful lithotripsy (UFURS vs. PCNL, 10/12 vs. 11/12) between the two groups (all P> 0.05). Postoperative pain scores in the FURS group were significantly lower than that in the PCNL group (2.7 ± 1.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.5, P< 0.05). Hospital stay in the UFURS group was significantly shorter than that in the PCNL group (3.4 ± 0.8 vs. 5.4 ± 1.0 days, P< 0.05). All patients were symptom-free following surgery (UFURS vs. PCNL, 10/10 vs. 12/12).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ultrasound-guided puncture facilitates identification of calyceal diverticula during FURS and improves the success rate of FURS surgery.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Diverticulum , Diagnosis , General Surgery , Female , Humans , Kidney Calculi , Diagnosis , General Surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Methods , Ureteroscopes , Ureteroscopy , Methods
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(5): 1014-1019, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767041

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report our technique that helps locate the guidewire into the ureter enabling safe dilatation during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Cases in which the guidewire failed to pass into the ureter following successful puncture of the desired calyx were subjected to this technique. A second guidewire was passed through the outer sheath of a 9 Fr. metallic dilator cannula, passed over the first guidewire. The cannula and outer sheath were removed, followed by percutaneous passage of a 6/7.5 Fr ureteroscope between the two guidewires, monitoring its progress through both the endoscopic and fluoroscopic monitors. Once the stone was visualized in the calyx a guidewire was passed through the working channel and maneuvered past the stone into the pelvis and ureter under direct endoscopic vision. This was followed by routine tract dilatation. Results: This technique was employed in 85 out of 675 cases of PCNL carried out at our institute between Jan 2010 to June 2014. The mean time required for our technique, calculated from the point of introduction of the ureteroscope untill the successful passage of the guidewire down into the ureter was 95 seconds. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications as a result of this technique. Guidewire could be successfully passed into the ureter in 82 out of 85 cases. Conclusions: Use of the ureteroscope introduced percutaneously through the puncture site in PCNL, is a safe and effective technique that helps in maneuvering the guidewire down into the ureter, which subsequently enables safe dilatation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dilatation/methods , Kidney Calices/surgery , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/methods , Ureter/surgery , Dilatation/instrumentation , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/instrumentation , Punctures/instrumentation , Punctures/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopes
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