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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 567-576, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771352

ABSTRACT

Ethyl carbamate (EC), a carcinogenic and teratogenic chemical that is widely distributed in various alcoholic beverages, has attracted much attention. Microbial enzymatic degradation of EC in rice wine is always efficient and attractive. In this review, we summarize the research progress and problems of microbial enzymatic elimination of EC in rice wine from three aspects: the mechanisms of EC formation in rice wine, the research progress of acid urease, and the research progress of urethanase. Then, we propose the corresponding strategies to solve the problems: screening new urethanase with satisfied enzyme properties, food-grade expression and directed evolution of the bifunctional Fe³⁺-dependent acid urease and acid urease used in combination with urethanase to eliminate both urea and EC in rice wine.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Urea , Urease , Urethane , Wine
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222413

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To simultaneously monitor electrical discharges in various bladder regions and the external urethral sphincter (EUS) during voiding contractions, and to assess the functional role of myogenic modulation of the lower urinary tract (LUT) by ionotropic purinergic receptors containing the P2X3 subunit. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane, and implanted with a suprapubic catheter for open cystometry. Flexible microelectrodes were placed ventrally in the bladder dome, upper bladder, lower bladder, and bladder base, along with the middle section of the exposed EUS. Intravesical P2X3-containing receptors were blocked with AF-323, a specific P2X3-P2X2/3 receptor antagonist. A digital electrophysiology amplifier was used to record electrical and cystometric signals throughout the LUT. RESULTS: Electrical activity in the LUT started before effective voiding contractions. Bladder pressure and electrical waveforms showed consistent out-of-phase activity when compared with the recordings made at the EUS. This pattern was also observed during voiding contractions in the presence of AF-353, supporting the hypothesis that during bladder distension, activation of P2X3-containing receptors is required for voiding contractions. Furthermore, the inhibition of P2X3-containing receptors significantly decreased the amplitude of electrical signals in the urinary bladder, but not the base or EUS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel information about the regulation of the micturition process by P2X3-containing receptors located in the inner layers of the bladder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catheters , Electrophysiology , Female , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Microelectrodes , Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Purinergic , Urethane , Urethra , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract , Urination
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(5): 1018-1027, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on the striated urethral sphincter and the urinary bladder. Materials and Methods: A coaxial catheter was implanted in the proximal urethra and another one in the bladder of female rats, which were anesthetized with subcutaneous injection of urethane. The urethral pressure with saline continuous infusion and bladder isovolumetric pressure were simultaneously recorded. Two groups of rats were formed. In group I, an intrathecal catheter was implanted on the day of the experiment at the L6-S1 level of the spinal cord; in group II, an intracerebroventricular cannula was placed 5-6 days before the experiment. Results: It was verified that the group treated with S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline, via intrathecal pathway, showed complete or partial inhibition of the urethral sphincter relaxation and total inhibition of the micturition reflexes. The urethral sphincter and the detrusor functions were recovered after L-Arginine administration. When S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, there was a significant increase of urethral sphincter tonus while preserving the sphincter relaxation and the detrusor contractions, at similar levels as before the use of the drugs. Nevertheless there was normalization of the urethral tonus when L-Arginine was applied. Conclusions: The results indicate that, in female rats anaesthetized with urethane, the nNOS inhibitor administrated through the intrathecal route inhibits urethral sphincter relaxation, while intracerebroventricular injection increases the sphincter tonus, without changing bladder function. These changes were reverted by L-Arginine administration. These findings suggest that the urethral sphincter and detrusor muscle function is modulated by nitric oxide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Thiourea/analogs & derivatives , Urethra/drug effects , Urination/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Citrulline/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Pressure , Reference Values , Thiourea/pharmacology , Time Factors , Urethane/pharmacology , Urethra/physiology , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/physiology , Injections, Spinal , Citrulline/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337399

ABSTRACT

Ethyl carbamate (EC) as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods. It is important eliminate urea that is the precursors of EC in many fermented foods, including Chinese Rice wine. On the basis of achieving high-level overexpression of food-grade ethanol-resistant acid urease, we studied the hydrolysis of urea and EC with the recombinant acid urease. Recombinant acid urease showed degraded urea in both the simulated system with ethanol and Chinese Rice wine (60 mg/L of urea was completely degraded within 25 h), indicating that the recombinant enzyme is suitable for the elimination of urea in Chinese Rice wine. Although recombinant acid urease also has degradation catalytic activity on EC, no obvious degradation of EC was observed. Further investigation results showed that the Km value for urea and EC of the recombinant acid urease was 0.7147 mmol/L and 41.32 mmol/L, respectively. The results provided theoretical foundation for realizing simultaneous degradation of urea and EC.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Recombinant Proteins , Metabolism , Urea , Chemistry , Urease , Metabolism , Urethane , Chemistry , Wine
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(9): 852-862, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756406

ABSTRACT

The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days) significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , DNA Damage/drug effects , Ericales/chemistry , Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carcinogenesis , Carcinogens , Comet Assay , Genome , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/chemically induced , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Urethane
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87054

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to better understand the mechanism of low temperature burn and to show clinical cases of low temperature burn. METHODS: The local temperature increase of electric pad was investigated at 4 different surface cooling conditions. Blocks (5x5x2 cm3) made of silicone rubber, aluminum, or urethane foam were placed on the top of the electric pad, and temperature between the blocks and electric pad was measured up to 7 hours after switching on maximally (level 7). Each block has different thermal conductivity (TC) and TC of silicone rubber (0.2 W/m.degrees C) is similar to TC of human skin (0.37 W/m.degrees C). TC of aluminum is higher and TC of urethane foam is lower than TC of human skin. Experiments were performed on two occasions with or without a blanket covering over the electric pad and blocks. RESULTS: The initial surface temperature (18degrees C) of the electric pad under the silicone rubber block was elevated to 36.5degrees C at 1 hour, 41.8degrees C at 3 hours, 44.2degrees C at 5 hours, and 45.5degrees C at 7 hours. After covering the electric pad and blocks with a blanket, the temperature of the electric pad under the silicone rubber block was elevated to 40.9degrees C at 1 hour, 51.8degrees C at 3 hours, 56.1degrees C at 5 hours and 58.1degrees C at 7 hours. Under the same conditions, surface temperatures under the urethane foam and aluminum blocks were 70.8degrees C and 50.degrees C respectively at 7 hours. CONCLUSION: The local temperature increase of electric pad was dependent on the surface cooling conditions, heating time and blanket covering over the electric pad. The surface temperature increased to 56.1degrees C at 5 hours after blanket covering over the silicone block which temperature can cause severe injuries on the human skin within a minute.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Beds , Burns , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humans , Silicon , Silicone Elastomers , Silicones , Skin , Thermal Conductivity , Urethane
7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 174-179, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193815

ABSTRACT

Procedures involving complex surgical techniques in rats, such as placement of abdominal aortic graft require extended duration of surgical anesthesia, which often can be achieved by repeated administrations of xylazine-ketamine combination. However such repeated anesthetic administration, in addition to being technically challenging, may be associated with potential adverse events due to cumulative effects of anesthesia. We report here the feasibility of using urethane at low dose (~1/10 the recommended anesthetic dose) in combination with a xylazine-ketamine mix to achieve an extended duration of surgical anesthesia in rats. The anesthesia induction phase was quick and smooth with an optimal phase of surgical anesthesia achieved for up to 90 minutes, which was significantly higher compared to that achieved with use of only xylazine-ketamine combination. The rectal temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the physiological range with an uneventful recovery phase. Post surgery the rats were followed up to 3 months without any evidence of tumor or any other adverse effects related to the use of the urethane anesthetic combination. We conclude that low dose urethane can be effectively used in combination with xylazine and ketamine to achieve extended duration of surgical anesthesia up to 90 minutes in rats.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Heart Rate , Ketamine , Rats , Respiratory Rate , Transplants , Urethane , Xylazine
8.
Clinics ; 68(6): 858-864, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment during tumor development and limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Identifying myeloid-derived suppressor cells and associated factors is the first step in creating strategies to reverse the suppressive effects of these cells on the immune system. METHODS: To induce lung cancer, we administered 2 doses of urethane to BALB/c mice and observed these animals for 120 days. After this period, we evaluated the percentage of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the blood, lung and bone marrow. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β, Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4, and interleukin-6 was also determined in the lung tissue. RESULTS: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells were increased in all evaluated tissues after lung cancer development in association with increased Toll-like receptor 4 expression and decreased interleukin-6 expression in the lung. We observed alpha-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β expression in lung nodules. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the early diagnosis of cancer through determining the blood levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells followed by the depletion of these cells should be further investigated as a possible approach for cancer treatment. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Myeloid Cells/pathology , Actins/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Carcinogens , Flow Cytometry , Immunohistochemistry , /metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/chemically induced , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Time Factors , /metabolism , Urethane
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306466

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare tonal response properties of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with urethane and ketamine-xylazine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-five female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomized into two groups and anesthetized with urethane or ketamine-xylazine. Tone pips were chosen as the stimuli to obtain the action potentials of the single neurons by in vivo cell-attached recording. The features of the action potentials were extracted with Matlab software to comparatively analyze the acoustic response properties of the neurons between the two anesthetic groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The Q values and the characteristic frequencies were independent of the types of anesthetic agents, but with urethane anesthesia, the neurons tended to have higher minimum thresholds, lower spontaneous firing rates, longer response latencies, and more frequent occurrence of tuning with stronger inhibition compared to those in ketamine-xylazine group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Urethane and ketamine might have no obvious impact on the transmission pathway of frequency tuning from the periphery to the auditory cortex, but neurons from rats with urethane anesthesia receive enhanced inhibition mediated by the interneurons or have a lower intrinsic excitability.</p>


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Pharmacology , Animals , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Cortex , Physiology , Female , Ketamine , Pharmacology , Neurons , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Urethane , Pharmacology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355744

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the content status of ethyl carbamate (EC) in yellow rice wine and the changes in storage period and shelf life in Zhejiang province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 475 samples of yellow rice wine purchased randomly from supermarkets and food stores in Zhejiang province during 2008-2012, and 49 samples collected from manufacturers were measured for EC content. The sample collected from manufacturers by filter sterilization was placed at 4 °C, room temperature and 37 °C for 400 d, respectively;a bottled wine and a wine in bag were bought from market were placed for 400 d in room temperature to conduct shelf life storage test, and measure the content in every point in 2011. The EC of the samples was determinated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after the samples were diluted with D5-EC isotope dilution technique, and purified by alkaline diatomite solid phase extraction column.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The overall detection rate of EC was 99% (472/475) in yellow rice wine of Zhejiang province in 2008-2012, the median value was 70-112 µg/kg, the 90th percentile was 190-333 µg/kg, the 95th percentile was 214-393 µg/kg, and the maximum value was 430-515 µg/kg. The content of EC was increased gradually along with the increasing of storage age in commercially yellow rice wine, and the average content of EC were positively correlated with storage age(r = 0.988). The contents of EC in yellow rice wine after sterilization increased from 74 µg/kg to 86 µg/kg, 127 µg/kg and 509 µg/kg at 4 °C, room temperature and 37°C, respectively for 400 d storage, the differences had statistical significance (F = 14.73, P < 0.01). The content of EC in yellow rice wines in shelf life, which stored in room temperature with bottle and bag package, was decreased slightly with increasing storage time in the beginning, from 215 to 184 µg/kg and 196 to 158 µg/kg, respectively, and increased again with increasing storage time after 250 d, with 252 µg/kg and 210 µg/kg in bottle and bag package after 400 d, respectively, the differences had statistical significance (Z = 2.37, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EC is widespread in rice wine, the content of EC was correlated with storage time and temperature.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Oryza , Urethane , Wine
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355740

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish the method of simultaneous determination of methylcarbamate (MC) and ethylcarbamate (EC) in yellow rice wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MC and EC in yellow rice wine were derived by 9-xanthydrol, and then the derivants were detected by GC/MS; and quantitatively analyzed by D5-EC isotope internal standard method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The linearity of MC and EC ranged from 2.0 µg/L to 400.0 µg/L, with correlation coefficients at 0.998 and 0.999, respectively. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) and detection (LOD) were 0.67 and 2.0 µg/kg. When MC and EC were added in yellow rice wine at the range of 2.0-300.0 µg/kg, the intraday average recovery rate was 78.8%-102.3%, relative standard deviation was 3.2%-11.6%; interday average recovery rate was 75.4%-101.3%, relative standard deviation was 3.8%-13.4%. 20 samples of yellow rice wine from supermarket were detected using this method, the contents of MC were in the range of ND (no detected) to 1.2 µg/kg, the detection rate was 6% (3/20), the contents of EC in the range of 18.6 µg/kg to 432.3 µg/kg, with the average level at 135.2 µg/kg.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is simple, rapid and useful for simultaneous determination of MC and EC in yellow rice wine.</p>


Subject(s)
Carbamates , Food Contamination , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Oryza , Urethane , Wine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227908

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the flexural properties of a recently introduced urethane dimethacrylate denture base material (Eclipse) after being repaired with two different materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two repair groups and a control group consisting of 10 specimens each were generated. The ES group was repaired with auto-polymerizing polymer. The EE group was repaired with the Eclipse. The E group was left intact as a control group. A 3-point bending test device which was set to travel at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min was used. Specimens were loaded until fracture occurred and the mean displacement, maximum load, flexural modulus and flexural strength values and standard deviations were calculated for each group and the data were statistically analyzed. The results were assessed at a significance level of P.05) was found between the mean values of Group ES and EE. There was a statistically significant positive relation (P<.01) between the displacement and maximum load of Group ES (99.5%), Group EE (94.3%) and Group E (84.4%). CONCLUSION: The more economic and commonly used self-curing acrylic resin can be recommended as an alternative repair material for Eclipse denture bases.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , Denture Bases , Dentures , Methacrylates , Polymers , Polyurethanes , Urethane
13.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 339-344, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85909

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of mirodenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor developed in South Korea, on the female rat bladder in a partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the control group, BOO without medication group, BOO with mirodenafil 1 mg/kg group, and BOO with mirodenafil 4 mg/kg group. Mirodenafil was administered orally for 2 weeks after the induction of BOO. Two weeks after BOO, the rats in each group underwent cystometry under urethane anesthesia. After cystometry, the bladder was excised to perform immunohistochemical staining for connexin 43. RESULTS: The three BOO groups showed significant increases in mean bladder weight compared with the control group. Baseline pressure, threshold pressure, and maximum contraction pressure were not significantly different between the four groups. Although the contraction interval was decreased in all BOO groups compared with the control group, it was prolonged in the two groups treated with mirodenafil compared with the untreated BOO group. In the immunohistochemical examination, connexin 43 staining intensity in the lamina propria increased in the three BOO groups compared with the control group. The two groups treated with mirodenafil, however, showed decreased connexin 43 staining compared with the untreated BOO group. CONCLUSIONS: Mirodenafil may increase the contraction intervals of female rat bladders in a partial BOO model. Decreasing bladder overactivity by mirodenafil may be related to intracellular communication mechanisms involving connexin 43.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Connexin 43 , Contracts , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Female , Humans , Mucous Membrane , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Pyrimidinones , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Republic of Korea , Sulfonamides , Urethane , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urinary Bladder, Overactive
14.
Araraquara; s.n; 2013. 160 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-867805

ABSTRACT

Este estudo avaliou propriedades físico-químicas e mecânicas de resinas para base de prótese, uma fotoativada (Eclipse - E) à base de UDMA e outra termicamente ativada por micro-ondas (Nature Cryl MC - NC) à base de PMMA, e um reembasador quimicamente ativado (Tokuyama Rebase Fast II - TR II) à base de PEMA. Propriedades viscoelásticas (E’, tan δ e Tg), contração linear de polimerização (CLP), sorção (Sor) e solubilidade (Sol) em água e em saliva artificial, grau de conversão (GC) e coeficiente de inchamento (CI) foram avaliados para a caracterização dos polímeros. A resistência à flexão dos materiais intactos (E, NC, TR II) e reembasados (E-E, E-TRII, NC-NC- NC-TR II) também foi avaliada. As propriedades viscoelásticas foram avaliadas em corpos-de-prova retangulares (64 x 10 x 3,3 mm), submetidos (n=2) à análise térmica dinâmico-mecânica (DMTA) em dois ciclos de varredura após confecção (controle) e armazenagem em saliva. O módulo de armazenamento (E’) e o amortecimento mecânico (tan δ) a 37 ºC e a temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg) foram registrados durante o 1º ciclo da DMTA. A CLP (%) foi avaliada (n=10), em projetor de perfil (Nikon 6C), em corpos-de-prova circulares (50 x 0,5 mm). A Sor e a Sol (μg/mm3) foram mensuradas (n=5) seguindo as recomendações da ISO 1567. O GC (%) foi avaliado (n=5) por espectroscopia de infravermelho por transformadas de Fourier (32 leituras; resolução 4,0 cm-1). O coeficiente de inchamento foi realizado (n=5) de acordo com a teoria de Flory-Rhener. Os ensaios mecânicos de flexão (0,5 mm/min) foram realizados (n=10) em corpos-de-prova (64 x 10 x 3,3 mm) intactos ou reembasados e a resistência (MPa) calculada na tensão máxima (RFM) e no limite de proporcionalidade (RFLP). Os dados foram avaliados por ANOVA, seguida por Tukey HSD (α=0,05) ou Dunnett (α=0,05). As resinas E e NC apresentaram similar E’, superior a TR II...


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , Saliva, Artificial , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Transition Temperature , Urethane
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337985

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study Chinese medicine (CM) signs and symptoms of urethane-induced lung cancer in mice, and observe the effect of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Taraxaci Herba on symptoms in mice and tumor progress.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The mice were intraperitoneally injected with urethane twice a week for consecutively five weeks to establish a lung cancer model. The changes in their appearance, body temperature and auricle microcirculation were observed in carcinogenic process. CM signs and symptoms of urethane-induced lung cancer in mice were evaluated with energy metabolism, erythrocytic ATP emzymatic activity and hemorrheological index. During the tumor model was induced, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Taraxaci Herba were used to treat the mice and observe their effect on symptoms in mice and tumor progress.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>During urethane was used to induce lung cancer, the mice had gradually become chill, lazy, hunched, with reduction in temperature, cyanosis in auricle and tail. Meanwhile, their energy metabolism and erythrocytic ATP enzymatic activity reduced, whereas their whole blood viscosity and erythrocytic aggregate index increased. Taraxaci Herba showed an effect on enhancing above symptoms and signs but had no effect on tumor progress. Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata showed an effect on reducing above symptoms and signs and preventing tumor progress.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Mice with urethane-induced lung cancer show CM signs and symptoms of congealing cold with blood stasis. The treatment with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata can alleviate symptoms and signs in mice and prevent tumor progress.</p>


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Chemistry , Animals , Blood Circulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neoplastic Processes , Taraxacum , Chemistry , Urethane
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51047

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical effect of intraoperative application of polyether ester urethane (Nasopore(R)) in endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. METHODS: Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy was performed on 77 eyes diagnosed with nasolacrimal duct obstruction between January 2010 and February 2011. Nasopore(R) was applied to the newly-formed internal lacrimal opening in the experimental group (41 eyes), and vaseline gauze was applied in the control group (36 eyes). For the evaluation of clinical effects regarding postoperative adhesion and stenosis of the internal lacrimal opening, subjective symptom improvement, lacrimal irrigation tests, and endoscopic examinations were performed at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, postoperatively. RESULTS: In subjective symptom improvement and lacrimal irrigation tests, differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant. In endoscopic findings, the Nasopore(R) group showed significantly lower severity of adhesion and stenosis of the internal lacrimal opening at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month after operation (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Application of the Nasopore(R) may effectively reduce initial postoperative adhesion or stenosis of the internal lacrimal opening after endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy and has usefulness as an auxiliary method.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Dacryocystorhinostomy , Eye , Nasolacrimal Duct , Petrolatum , Urethane
17.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 257-267, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140219

ABSTRACT

Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Ataxia , Carbon Disulfide , Carbon Monoxide , Cerebellar Diseases , Delivery of Health Care , Developing Countries , Dimethylamines , Disease Outbreaks , Electrophysiology , Gases , Hexanes , Hydrogen Sulfide , Manganese , Metals, Heavy , Nervous System , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations , Neuromuscular Junction Diseases , Neurotoxins , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Organophosphate Poisoning , Organophosphates , Parkinsonian Disorders , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Semiconductors , Sodium Fluoride , Solvents , Taiwan , Thallium , Tin , Toluene , Urethane
18.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 257-267, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140218

ABSTRACT

Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Ataxia , Carbon Disulfide , Carbon Monoxide , Cerebellar Diseases , Delivery of Health Care , Developing Countries , Dimethylamines , Disease Outbreaks , Electrophysiology , Gases , Hexanes , Hydrogen Sulfide , Manganese , Metals, Heavy , Nervous System , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations , Neuromuscular Junction Diseases , Neurotoxins , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Organophosphate Poisoning , Organophosphates , Parkinsonian Disorders , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Semiconductors , Sodium Fluoride , Solvents , Taiwan , Thallium , Tin , Toluene , Urethane
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 9(3)july-sept. 2011. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604959

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of janaguba in inhibiting the development of lung cancer in an experimental urethane-induced model. Methods: a total of 3 mg/kg urethane was injected in 51 Balb-C mice aged 7-13 weeks of life. Janaguba was administered orally daily in two doses: 0.04 mL (Group 2, G2) and 0.06 mL (Group 3, G3), for 20 weeks. After this period, the mice were sacrificed and the number of lesions counted. Results: The mean weight of Group 2 was lower than that of Group 3, and that of Group 1 (Control, G1) (G1 = 35.533 g; G2 = 33.359 g; G3 = 37.125 g). The number of nodules did not differ between groups (mean G1 = G2 = G3 = 1; p = 0.88). Conclusion: Janaguba had an effect on the growth of mice, but had no influence on the progression of lung cancer in this model.


Objetivo: Avaliar a ação da janaguba na inibição do desenvolvimento de câncer de pulmão em modelo experimental induzido por uretana. Métodos: Foram injetados 3mg/kg de uretana em 51 camundongos Balb-C , com 7 a 13 semanas de vida. Janaguba foi administrada via oral diariamente em duas doses: 0,04 mL (Grupo 2, G2) e 0,06 mL(Grupo 3,G3), por 20 semanas. Após esse período, os camundongos foram sacrificados e o número de lesões, contado. Resultados: A média de peso do Grupo 2 foi menor que a do Grupo 3, e que a do Grupo 1 (Controle, G1) (G1 = 35,533 g; G2 = 33,359 g; G3 = 37,125 g). O número de nódulos não diferiu entre os grupos (média G1 = G2 = G3 = 1; p = 0,88). Conclusão: A janaguba apresentou um efeito no crescimento dos camundongos, mas não apresentou influência na progressão do câncer de pulmão neste modelo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Lung Neoplasms , Models, Animal , Phytotherapy , Urethane
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333803

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes of auditory parameters during anesthesia and establish the assessment indicators for anesthesia monitoring in animal experiments.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>BALB/c mice of 4 to 6 weeks were given a single intraperitoneal dose of urethane, and the auditory evoked potential in the surgically exposed inferior colliculus in response to pure tone stimulation was recorded during urethane metabolism. The latency and amplitude data of the waves were extracted using Matlab software to analyze their variations during urethane metabolism.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The latency of the auditory evoked potential showed slight variation and was well correlated to time. The latency decreased progressively during urethane metabolism, fast in the initial 2 h and tending to stabilize afterwards.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The latency of the auditory evoked potential can be more suitable indicators than the amplitude for anesthetic effect monitoring.</p>


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Intravenous , Animals , Drug Monitoring , Methods , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Physiology , Female , Inferior Colliculi , Physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Urethane
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