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Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 23-23, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396565


Uric acid is the main form of excretion of nitrogenous components in birds. The assessment verification samples, control, check of uric acid concentrations is widely used to detect kidney disease. High concentrations (up to five times) of uric acid in plasma can lead to the precipitation of this acid in the form of crystals, which accumulate in the tissues, mainly in the synovial joints and the viscera surface. Aims: report the evolution of homeopathic treatment in increased uric acid in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from Santo André Municipal Zoo. Methodology: 12 animals showed an increase in uric acid (reference values 0,3-16,1mg/dL) and received homeopathic treatment with Lycopodium clavatum 6cH. The protocol established was the administration of two globules of Lycopodium clavatum 6cH, once a day, inside fishes offered in the animal's beak. Treatment started on 25/09/2019. On 30/10/2019 was collected a new blood sample, those who were not discharged were kept on treatment and new collections were made on 27/11/2019 and 17/12/2019. Results: 8 animals had an average uric acid of 20.45mg /dl and responded to the 35-days treatment, normalizing the biochemical values with an average of 12.24mg /dl. Two animals with 18.27 mg /dl were discharged in 62 days with 11.70 mg /dl and another two penguins with 19.85 mg /dl were discharged in 82 days later with 9.57 mg /dl of uric acid. Conclusion: Homeopathy proved to be successful in the treatment of increased uric acid in Magellanic penguins, easy to administer, affordable and without side effects.

Animals , Uric Acid/supply & distribution , Lycopodium clavatum , Homeopathic Therapeutics , Spheniscidae
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408439


RESUMEN Introducción: El ácido úrico es el producto final del ciclo de las purinas y es fundamental como marcador de enfermedad renal, la gota y la preeclampsia. Este biomarcador ejerce efectos potenciales en la placenta y el feto de la gestante con drepanocitosis. Objetivo: Describir los efectos potenciales que produce el ácido úrico en las gestantes con drepanocitosis. Métodos: Se revisó literatura en inglés y en español, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google académico, en artículos publicados en los últimos cinco años. Se utilizaron como términos de búsqueda: preeclampsia, ácido úrico y riesgos en las embarazadas con drepanocitosis. Se analizaron los aspectos más relevantes del tema en la bibliografía revisada. Análisis y síntesis de la información: El incremento del ácido úrico añadido a la vasoclusión, la hipoxia y la necrosis tisular a nivel de la placenta son mecanismos invocados en el desarrollo de la preeclampsia y los índices de partos prematuros que presentan. Es de destacar que no tiene una trayectoria uniforme en todas las pacientes, sobre todo se observa una mejor evolución (con menor presencia de estas complicaciones) en aquellas pacientes que muestran genotipo, niveles de hemoglobina fetal y haplotipo de la hemoglobina S más favorable. Conclusiones: El ácido úrico constituye un biomarcador útil y de alarma en el diagnóstico de la preeclampsia, una de las peores complicaciones tanto para la vida materna como para su descendencia, al ser la gestante con drepanocitosis una paciente de muy alto riesgo de parto pretérmino, prematuridad, bajo peso al nacer, nacidos muertos e infarto placentario.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Uric acid is the end product of the purine cycle and is essential as a marker of kidney disease, gout and pre-eclampsia. This biomarker has potential effects on the placenta and fetus of a pregnant woman with sickle cell disease. Objective: To describe the potential effects of uric acid in pregnant women with sickle cell disease. Methods: Literature in English and Spanish was reviewed, through the PubMed website and the academic search engine Google, in articles published in the last five years. The search terms were: pre-eclampsia, uric acid and risks in pregnant women with sickle cell disease. The most relevant aspects of the subject were analyzed in the reviewed bibliography. Analysis and synthesis of information: The increase in uric acid added to vasoocclusion, hypoxia and tissue necrosis at the level of the placenta are mechanisms invoked in the development of pre-eclampsia and the rates of premature births they present. It is noteworthy that it does not have a uniform trajectory in all patients, especially a better evolution is observed, with less presence of these complications in those patients who show a more favorable genotype, fetal hemoglobin levels and hemoglobin S haplotype. Conclusions: Uric acid constitutes a useful and alarm biomarker in the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, one of the worst complications both for maternal life and for her offspring, as the pregnant woman with sickle cell disease is a patient at a very high risk of preterm delivery. prematurity, low birth weight, stillbirths and placental infarction.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Uric Acid , Fetal Hemoglobin , Hemoglobin, Sickle , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Birth Weight
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 30-37, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935905


Objective: To observe the changes of serum uric acid levels and clinical characteristic in patients with chronic hepatitis C combined with hyperuricemia after direct antiviral agents (DAA) therapy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was used to investigate the risk of hyperuricemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C who received DAA treatment to obtain sustained virological response. The changes and factors influencing serum uric acid levels after 12 weeks of DAA treatment were observed. Comparisons between groups were performed using χ (2) test or Fisher's exact test, analysis of variance, Student's t test, or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Serum uric acid (SUA) changes, liver and kidney function indexes before and after treatment were compared by repeated measurement and paired t-test. Uric acid reduction was defined as a decrease in SUA from baseline at 12 weeks after treatment. Rates of change in eGFR, aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio, alanine aminotransferase and controlled attenuation parameter were defined from baseline (baseline to 12 weeks after treatment). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare the risk factors and factors influencing high and low uric acid level. Results: 161 cases with chronic hepatitis C who received DAA treatment were included, of which 19.3% patients were hyperuricemic. eGFR < 60 ml/(min·1.73 m(2)) and body mass index were independent risk factors for hyperuricemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C (eGFR: OR = 0.123, P = 0.002; body mass index: OR = 1.220, P = 0.002). SUA levels was changed significantly before treatment, at the end of treatment and at 12 weeks after treatment (327.96 vs. 320.76 vs. 314.92, F = 3.272, P = 0.042). At 12 weeks after treatment, SUA, liver stiffness, alanine aminotransferase and control attenuation parameters were all significantly lower than baseline (P < 0.05). The rate of increase in eGFR from baseline and the rate of decrease in controlled attenuation parameter during treatment were the factors influencing SUA reduction (eGFR: OR = 5124, P = 0.000; controlled attenuation index: OR = 0.010, P = 0.039). Conclusion: In chronic hepatitis C, reduced eGFR and body mass index are the risk factors for the development of hyperuricemia and a significant reduction in serum uric acid levels after DAA treatment can eradicate the virus.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Uric Acid
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-6, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354704


Objective: Smoking is among the most destructive habits which have numerous effects on the body.The chemical components of cigarettes destroy the anti-oxidant content of the saliva.In this study, the concentration of albumin and uric acid of healthy non-smokers and smokers was measured based on the frequency of smoking. Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 26 heavy smokers, 27 normal smokers, and 29 non-smokers between the ages of 25 to 40 were selected.The subjects did not suffer from any systemic or periodontal conditions.Unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting. The level of salivary albumin was measured by Bromocresol Green, and the level of salivary uric acid was measured by the uricase method.The selected method of analysis, using SPSS software, was One-Way ANOVA. Results: Mean albumin content of saliva was 33.52 ± 1.52 mg/dl in non-smokers and 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl in heavy smokers.The mean uric acid concentration in non-smokers was 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L and in heavy smokers was 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL.The differences between levels of both salivary uric acid and salivary albumin were significant in heavy smokers and non-smokers(P=0.001). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, saliva concentrations of both Albumin and Uric Acid change based on the frequency of smoking.Decreased level of salivary albumin and decreased level of salivary uric acid can be considered as markers of the harmful effects of smoking on oral health. (AU)

Objetivo: Tabagismo está entre os hábitos mais deletérios, que causam inúmeros efeitos no organismo. Os componentes químicos do cigarro destroem os compostos anti-oxidantes da saliva. Neste estudo, a concentração de albumina e ácido úrico em pacientes saudáveis fumantes e não-fumantes foi mensurada e correlacionada coma frequência de fumo. Material e Métodos: Neste estudo transversal, 26 fumantes pesados, 27 fumantes moderados, e 29 não fumantes entre 25 e 40 anos foram incluídos. Os participantes não apresentavam nenhuma condição sistêmica ou periodontal. Saliva não estimulada foi coletada. Os níveis salivares de albumina foram avaliados por Verde de bromocresol, e o nível de ácido úrico foi mensurado pelo método de uricase. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se One-way ANOVA no software SPSS. Resultados: A albumina salivar foi de 33.52 ±1.52 mg/dl nos não-fumantes e 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl nos fumantes pesados. A concentração média de ácido úrico em não-fumantes foi de 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L e em pacientes fumantes pesados de 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL. As diferenças entre os níveis de ambos, ácido úrico e albumina, foi significante entre fumantes pesados e não-fumantes (p=0.001). Conclusão: Baseados nos achados deste estudo, concentrações salivares de albumina e ácido úrico baseados na frequência de fumo. A diminuição dos níveis salivares de albumina e ácido úrico podem ser considerados marcadores dos efeitos nocivos do cigarro na saúde oral(AU)

Humans , Adult , Saliva , Uric Acid , Oxidative Stress , Albumins , Smokers
Med.lab ; 26(4): 365-374, 2022. Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412529


Introducción. El correcto análisis en la interpretación de los resultados de cualquier analito biológico es esencial para la salud del paciente y está fuertemente ligado a contrastar dichos resultados con los intervalos biológicos referenciales que estén acorde a la población que está siendo analizada diariamente. El objetivo de este artículo, fue establecer intervalos referenciales (IR) en adultos para glicemia, urea, creatinina, ácido úrico, colesterol total y triglicéridos en un laboratorio clínico y comparar los valores obtenidos con los incluidos en los insertos para ese rango de edad. Metodología. La población fue de 561 adultos de ambos sexos, aparentemente sanos, que acudieron a Biomasterclin Laboratorio en Valencia, Venezuela, y cuyas edades fueron de 57,1±18,1 años. Resultados. Los IR obtenidos fueron glicemia 63,0-108,8 mg/dL, urea 17,7-54,9 mg/dL, creatinina 0,60-1,41 mg/dL, ácido úrico 0,89-7,26 mg/dL, colesterol total 78,5-251,1 mg/dL y triglicéridos 39,5-176,0 mg/dL. Los IR propuestos por la casa comercial empleada para la determinación de la glicemia y la creatinina pudieron ser transferidos a la población evaluada, mientras que el resto de los IR no. Conclusión. Debido a las diferencias que se presentan entre los IR en los estuches comerciales comparados con los de la población de individuos que acuden a los laboratorios clínicos, se hace necesario establecer IR para ser empleados en cada laboratorio clínico

The correct analysis in the interpretation of the results of any biological analyte is essential for the health of the patient and it is strongly linked to comparing those results with reference ranges that are in accordance with the population that is being analyzed on a daily basis. The objective of this study was to establish reference ranges in adults for glycemia, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol and triglycerides in a clinical laboratory and compare the values obtained with those included in the inserts for the corresponding age group. Methodology. The population consisted of 561 apparently healthy adults of both sexes that attended Biomasterclin Laboratorio in Valencia, Venezuela, whose ages were 57.1±18.1 years. Results. The reference ranges obtained for glycemia were 63.0- 108.8 mg/dL, urea 17.7-54.9 mg/dL, creatinine 0.60-1.41 mg/dL, uric acid 0.89- 726 mg/dL, total cholesterol 78.5-251.1 mg/dL and triglycerides 39.5-176.0 mg/ dL. The reference ranges proposed by the commercial kits used for the determination of glycemia and creatinine could be transferred to the evaluated population, while the rest of the reference ranges could not. Conclusion. Due to the differences that occur between the reference ranges in commercial kits compared to those of the population of individuals who attend clinical laboratories, it is necessary to establish reference values in each clinical laboratory

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Urea/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Heterocyclic Compounds/blood , Uric Acid/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Creatinine/blood
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 141 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379329


Vários estudos epidemiológicos estabelecem correlação positiva entre os níveis de ácido úrico sérico e o aumento do risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Fatores dietéticos e socioeconômicos, além da presença de comorbidades estão diretamente associados aos níveis séricos de ácido úrico. Países desenvolvidos apresentam maior incidência e prevalência da gota e alguns grupos étnicos são particularmente susceptíveis à hiperuricemia. Cristais de ácido úrico são descritos por iniciar e perpetuar resposta inflamatória, e sinalizar um padrão de resposta molecular associado ao dano (DAMP), permitindo a diferenciação de macrófagos para perfis pró-inflamatórios. Por outro lado, os efeitos do ácido úrico em sua forma solúvel ainda carecem de estudos. Macrófagos derivados de precursores monocíticos apresentam diferenciação específica e respondem a um conjunto de fatores extrínsecos, resultando em perfis distintos, um fenômeno conhecido como polarização. Assim, os macrófagos podem ser classicamente ativados para uma resposta Th1 (T helper 1) e polarizados a um perfil pró- inflamatório (M1, resposta Th1) ou a um perfil alternativo e oposto, um perfil de resolução da inflamação (M2, resposta Th2, T helper 2). Nesse sentindo, buscamos analisar os efeitos do ácido úrico solúvel sobre vias de modulação da polarização fenotípica de macrófagos e modificação redox. Utilizamos a linhagem monocítica humana THP-1, a qual foi diferenciada em macrófagossímile por acetato miristato de forbol (PMA; 5 ng.mL-1) por 48 h, seguidas da incubação com ácido úrico em meio ausente de tióis e soro fetal bovino por 8h ou 24h (0-1000 µM). A expressão de fatores de transcrição e marcadores de polarização foi realizada através de citometria de fluxo, western-blotting e por microscopia de fluorescência com alto conteúdo de imagens (HCI). Em concentrações fisiológicas, verificamos que o ácido úrico solúvel regulou positivamente a frequência de células para receptor manose CD206, um marcador clássico de perfil alternativo/M2 e regulou negativamente a expressão óxido nítrico sintase induzível (iNOS), um marcador M1, sugerindo inicialmente uma modulação para o perfil de polarização M2. Além disso, as proteínas redoxsensíveis, heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) e tiorredoxina (Trx) tiveram sua expressão reduzida e aumentada, respectivamente, pelo tratamento com ácido úrico. Os fatores de transcrição Nrf2 e STAT3 tiveram regulação negativa após a exposição ao ácido úrico solúvel. Os resultados apresentados nesta tese sugerem uma função do urato no priming de macrófagos através da alteração da polarização destas células

Several epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between high serum uric acid levels and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Developed countries have a higher incidence and prevalence of gout and some ethnic groups are particularly susceptible to hyperuricemia. Although hyperuricemia is a prevalent condition, it has still controversy biological consequences. Uric acid crystals are described as capable of initiating and perpetuating inflammatory responses, by activating the damage-associated molecular response pattern (DAMP) cascade, allowing macrophage differentiation to inflammatory profiles. In spite of that, biological response to soluble uric acid are not completely understood. Monocyte-derived macrophages respond to a set of extrinsic factors that result in different profiles and can be polarized to a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) profile. In this thesis, we analyzed the effects of soluble uric acid on redox-modulated pathways and the phenotypic polarization of macrophages. We used human monocytic THP-1 cell line, differentiated into macrophage by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 5 ng.mL-1) for 48 h. After differentiation, cells were incubated with soluble uric acid in medium without thiols and fetal bovine serum for 8 h and 24 h (0-1000 µM). The expression of transcription factors and polarization markers were assessed by flow cytometry, western-blotting and fluorescence microscopy with high content imaging (HCI). At physiological concentrations, soluble uric acid positively regulated the frequency of cells for mannose receptor CD206, a classic marker of the anti-inflammatory M2 profile and negatively regulated the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, a proinflammatory M1 marker, suggesting that the soluble uric acid changes the polarization profile to M2 profile. In addition, the redox-sensitive proteins heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and thioredoxin (Trx) had their expression decreased and increased, respectively, after exposure to urate. STAT3 and Nrf2 transcription factors were downregulated upon soluble uric acid exposure. The results presented in this thesis suggest a role of uric acid in macrophage priming through the alteration of cell polarization

Uric Acid/analysis , THP-1 Cells/classification , THP-1 Cells/chemistry , Inflammation/classification , Macrophages/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/agonists , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiologic Studies , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/antagonists & inhibitors , Flow Cytometry/methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 572-579, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350906


Abstract Hyperuricemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may be present in 50% of patients presenting for dialysis. Hyperuricemia can be secondary to impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that occurs in CKD. However, hyperuricemia can also precede the development of kidney disease and predict incident CKD. Experimental studies of hyperuricemic models have found that both soluble and crystalline uric acid can cause significant kidney damage, characterized by ischemia, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and inflammation. However, most Mendelian randomization studies failed to demonstrate a causal relationship between uric acid and CKD, and clinical trials have had variable results. Here we suggest potential explanations for the negative clinical and genetic findings, including the role of crystalline uric acid, intracellular uric acid, and xanthine oxidase activity in uric acid-mediated kidney injury. We propose future clinical trials as well as an algorithm for treatment of hyperuricemia in patients with CKD.

Resumo A hiperuricemia é comum na doença renal crônica (DRC) e pode estar presente em até 50% dos pacientes que se apresentam para diálise. A hiperuricemia pode ser secundária ao comprometimento da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) que ocorre na DRC. No entanto, ela também pode preceder o desenvolvimento da doença renal e mesmo prever uma DRC incidente. Estudos experimentais de modelos hiperuricêmicos descobriram que tanto o ácido úrico solúvel quanto o cristalino podem causar danos renais significativos, caracterizados por isquemia, fibrose tubulointersticial e inflamação. Entretanto, a maioria dos estudos de randomização Mendeliana falhou em demonstrar uma relação causal entre o ácido úrico e a DRC, e os ensaios clínicos têm apresentado resultados variáveis. Aqui sugerimos explicações potenciais para os achados clínicos e genéticos negativos, incluindo o papel do ácido úrico cristalino, do ácido úrico intracelular e da atividade da xantina oxidase na lesão renal mediada por ácido úrico. Propomos ensaios clínicos futuros, bem como um algoritmo para o tratamento de hiperuricemia em pacientes com DRC.

Humans , Hyperuricemia/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Uric Acid , Renal Dialysis , Glomerular Filtration Rate
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 666-675, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345243


Resumo Fundamento Os resultados de estudos anteriores sobre a relação entre ácido úrico sérico (AUS) e o risco de doença cardiovascular (DCV) até agora são inconsistentes devido aos fatores de confusão causados por outros fatores de risco cardiovascular conhecidos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a relação entre o AUS e as DCV incidentes em chineses de meia-idade e idosos, que foram estratificados de acordo com o índice de massa corporal (IMC). Métodos Recrutamos 5.721 participantes com idades entre 40 e 75 anos que não tinham diagnóstico de DCV na linha de base, e que foram monitorados de 2008 a 2017. Os participantes foram categorizados em quintis de AUS. A regressão de Cox e a análise de sobrevivência de Kaplan-Meier foram utilizadas para comparar a incidência de DCV entre os grupos de AUS. As correlações entre AUS e a incidência de DCV em grupos com IMC e circunferência de cintura (CC) variados também foram analisadas. Um P valor <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Durante um período médio de monitoramento de 7,6 anos, a incidência de DCV aumentou com o AUS (teste de Log-rank p<0,001). Em comparação com o primeiro quintil, as razões de risco padronizadas (intervalos de confiança de 95%) para p desenvolvimento de DCV foram 1,08 (0,78-1,65), 1,17 (0,88-1,77), 1,47 (1,12-2,21), e 1,68 (1,28-2,44) para o segundo, terceiro, quarto e quinto quintis, respectivamente. Essa relação ficou mais clara em participantes com IMC e CC normais. A razão de risco ajustada para cada aumento de 100 μmol/L de AUS foi de 1,13 (intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,02-1,39) para eventos de DCV. Conclusões O AUS alto é um fator de risco de DCV independente em pessoas de meia-idade e idosas do norte da China. Esse efeito é mantido mesmo depois da estratificação de acordo com medidas de magreza/obesidade.

Abstract Background The results of previous studies of the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been inconsistent due to confounding factors caused by other known cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SUA and incident CVD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people, who were stratified according to body mass index (BMI). Methods This study recruited 5,721 participants of 40-75 years of age, who were free of CVD at baseline and who underwent follow-up from 2008 to 2017. Participants were categorized in SUA quintiles. Cox proportional hazard and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to compare CVD incidence among the SUA groups. The correlations between SUA and CVD incidence in groups with differing BMI and waist circumference (WC) were also analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results During a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years, CVD incidence increased with SUA (log-rank test p<0. 001). Compared with the first quintile, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the development of CVD were 1.08 (0.78-1.65), 1.17 (0.88-1.77), 1.47 (1.12-2.21), and 1.68 (1.28-2.44) for the second to fifth quintiles, respectively. This relationship was clearer in participants with normal BMI and WC. The adjusted hazard ratio for each 100 μmol/L increase in SUA was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.02-1.39) for CVD events. Conclusions High SUA is an independent risk factor for CVD in middle-aged and elderly northern Chinese people. This effect is maintained even after stratification according to measures of leanness/obesity.

Humans , Uric Acid , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 378-384, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339152


Resumo Fundamento: A hiperuricemia é um achado frequente em pacientes com hipertensão arterial e há evidências cada vez maiores de que essa entidade seja também um fator de risco para doença cardiovascular. Objetivos: No contexto da população em processo de envelhecimento, este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar níveis de ácido úrico sérico e a prevalência e o controle da hipertensão arterial em um subgrupo da população de adultos romenos (>65 anos), em relação à influência da idade nesses parâmetros. Métodos: A amostra do estudo consiste em 1920 adultos incluídos na pesquisa SEPHAR III, dos quais 447 eram pacientes idosos (>65 anos de idade). Durante as duas visitas do estudo, três aferições de pressão arterial (PA) foram realizadas em intervalos de 1 minuto, e foram realizadas medições de níveis de ácido úrico sérico, função renal por taxa de filtração glomerular, pressão arterial e espessura íntima-média. A hipertensão e os controles foram definidos de acordo com as diretrizes atuais. A avaliação da espessura íntima-média foi determinada pela avaliação por ultrassom Doppler modo B. Um nível de significância p < 0,05 foi adotado para a análise estatística. Resultados: Pacientes adultos tinham níveis de ácido úrico sérico significativamente mais baixos, se comparados a pacientes idosos, independentemente dos níveis de taxa de filtração glomerular. Pacientes adultos tinham níveis de espessura íntima-média, comparados a pacientes idosos. Conclusão: De forma semelhante às pesquisas anteriores, neste estudo, a idade representou um dos fatores contribuintes ao nível aumentado de ácido úrico sérico. Também foi obtido um aumento da prevalência da hipertensão arterial com a idade, com um mau controle da pressão arterial.

Abstract Background: Hyperuricemia is a frequent finding in patients with arterial hypertension, and there is increasing evidence that this entity is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Objective: In the context of an aging population, this study aims to evaluate serum uric acid levels and arterial hypertension prevalence and control in a subgroup of Romanian adults (>65 years), concerning the influence of age on these parameters. Method: The study sample consists of 1,920 adults included in SEPHAR III survey, of whom 447 were elderly patients (>65 years of age). During the two study visits, three blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed at 1-min intervals and serum uric acid levels, kidney function by estimated glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure, and intima media thickness measurements were conducted. Hypertension and controls were defined according to the current guidelines. Intima-media thickness evaluation was assessed by B-mode Doppler ultrasound evaluation. A significance level p < 0.05 was adopted for the statistical analysis. Results: Adult patients had a significant lower serum uric acid levels, compared to elderly patients, regardless of glomerular filtration rate levels. Adult patients showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness levels, when compared to elderly patients. Conclusion: Similar to previous studies, in the present study, age represented one of the factors contributing to the increased level of serum uric acid. An increasing prevalence of arterial hypertension with age, together with a poor control of blood pressure, was also obtained.

Humans , Adult , Aged , Hyperuricemia/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Uric Acid , Blood Pressure , Risk Factors , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(8): 1129-1133, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389572


Background: Chemical composition analysis of urinary stones is a fundamental part of the metabolic workup of urolithiasis. Aim: To report the chemical composition of urinary stones using infrared spectroscopy. Material and Methods: The chemical composition of rinary stones recovered from 649 patients aged 1 to 97 years (68% males), were analyzed using a Perkin Elmer FTIR Spectrometer, Spectrum Two. Results: Calcium oxalate monohydrate was the most common composition found in 45% of cases, followed by mixed composition, which included three ammonium phosphate stones in 29% of cases. Pure uric acid composition was found in 16% of stones. Three cystine stones were detected. Conclusions: These findings do not differ from those found in developed countries.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Urinary Calculi/chemistry , Uric Acid , Calcium Oxalate/analysis
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1072-1078, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278335


Resumo Fundamento O ácido úrico , produto final do metabolismo dos nucleotídeos das purinas, participa dos processos de doenças metabólicas e cardiovasculares. Evidências experimentais sugerem que o ácido úrico é um mediador importante na resposta fisiológica ao aumento da pressão arterial. Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre os níveis séricos de AU e pré-hipertensão e hipertensão em uma população chinesa. Métodos Conduziu-se um estudo transversal entre março e setembro de 2017, e 1.138 participantes com idades entre 35 e 75 anos foram incluídos neste estudo, onde 223 normotensos, 316 pré-hipertensos e 599 hipertensos foram selecionados para avaliar a associação entre níveis séricos de AU e hipertensão. Considerou-se um valor de p<0,05 estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Os níveis séricos de AU foram significativamente maiores no grupo pré-hipertensão e hipertensão em comparação com o grupo controle em toda a população (p<0,05 para todos). A análise quantitativa das características indicou níveis séricos de AU (2,92±0,81, 3,06±0,85, 3,22±0,98 mg/d) linearmente aumentados em mulheres normotensas, pré-hipertensas e hipertensas, com um valor de p de 0,008. Os níveis séricos de AU nos quartis correlacionaram-se positivamente com a PAD (p<0,05), principalmente em mulheres. Após o ajuste para idade, sexo, índice de massa corporal (IMC), glicose (GLI), colesterol total (CT), triglicerídeos (TG), colesterol HDL (lipoproteína de alta densidade), as razões de chances ( odds ratios — ORs) e intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95% da pré-hipertensão, dos níveis séricos de AU mais baixos (referentes) aos mais altos foram 1,718 (1,028-2,872), 1,018 (0,627-1,654) e 1,738 (1,003-3,010). Além disso, o segundo quartil dos níveis séricos de AU esteve significativamente associado à hipertensão, com uma OR (IC 95%) de 2,036 (1,256-3,298). Conclusões O presente estudo sugere que níveis séricos mais elevados de AU estão positivamente associados à pré-hipertensão e hipertensão entre adultos chineses.

Abstract Background Uric acid (UA), the end product of purine nucleotide metabolism, participates in the processes of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Experimental evidence suggests it is an important mediator in the physiological response to blood pressure increase. Objective To evaluate the association between serum UA levels and pre-hypertension and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to September 2017, and 1,138 participants aged 35 to 75 were enrolled in this study, where 223 normotensive, 316 pre-hypertensive, and 599 hypertensive subjects were selected to evaluate the association between serum UA levels and hypertension. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Serum UA levels were significantly higher in the pre-hypertension and hypertension group compared to the control group in the entire population (p<0.05 for all). Quantitative trait analysis indicated that serum UA levels were (2.92±0.81, 3.06±0.85, 3.22±0.98 mg/d) linearly increased in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive females, with a p value of 0.008. Serum UA levels in the quartiles were positively correlated with DBP (p<0.05), particularly in females. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pre-hypertension from the lowest (referent) to the highest levels of serum UA were 1.718 (1.028-2.872), 1.018 (0.627-1.654) and 1.738 (1.003-3.010). Additionally, the second quartile of serum UA levels were significantly associated with hypertension, with an OR (95% CI) of 2.036 (1.256-3.298). Conclusions This study suggests that higher serum UA levels are positively associated with pre-hypertension and hypertension among Chinese adults.

Humans , Female , Adult , Prehypertension , Hypertension , Uric Acid , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 828-832, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346904


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between hyperuricemia and systemic arterial hypertension. METHODS: This was a case-control study where individuals aged >18 years were included, who were divided into hypertensive and non-hypertensive groups, excluding those with incomplete information in medical records or with the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration <60 mL/min/1.73 m³. Systemic arterial hypertension was categorized as a dependent variable, while the independent variables were hyperuricemia (i.e., primary variable), sex, education, the practice of physical activity, alcoholism, smoking, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, a family history of systemic arterial hypertension, age, isolated hyperlipidemia, and mixed hyperlipidemia. Statistical analysis included the univariate and multivariate data analysis, performed by adjusting the logistic regression models using the software R (R Core Team [2018]). RESULTS: Out of 103 patients evaluated, 75 patients were included in this study. In hypertensive patients, hyperuricemia was more frequent (p=0.029), being present in 18.9% individuals. In the univariate analysis, a statistically significant association was found between hyperuricemia and systemic arterial hypertension (OR 10.9; 95%CI 1.29-1420.0; p=0.023); however, in the multivariate analysis, when adjustment was made for age, the only control variable that persisted in the model, this association ceased to be significant (OR 8.5; 95%CI 0.87-1157.0; p=0.070). CONCLUSIONS: There was no independent association between hyperuricemia and systemic arterial hypertension. The latter was associated with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and age.

Humans , Hyperuricemia/complications , Hyperuricemia/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Uric Acid , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(4): 549-554, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340640


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is characterized by lipid being deposited into hepatocytes, affects nearly one in three adults globally. Inflammatory markers were suggested to be related with hepatic steatosis. Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio is proposed as a novel inflammatory and metabolic marker. We aimed to compare Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio levels of patients with Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to those of healthy controls and find out potential correlations between Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio and other inflammatory and metabolic markers of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who were on clinical follow-up in our institution were enrolled in the study as the Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group, while healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. The Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio of the groups was compared and potential correlations were studied between Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio and fasting blood glucose, transaminases, serum lipids (triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol), weight, and body mass index. RESULTS: The Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio of the Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (13±5%) group was significantly higher compared to the Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio of the control (10±4%) group (p<0.001). Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio was significantly and positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, transaminases, triglyceride, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and body mass index. A ROC analysis revealed that a Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio level greater than 9.6% has 73% sensitivity and 51% specificity in determining Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSION: Due to the inexpensive and easy-to-assess nature of Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio, we suggest that elevated Uric acid to HDL cholesterol ratio levels be considered a useful tool in diagnosing hepatic steatosis.

Humans , Adult , Uric Acid , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Triglycerides , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference , Cholesterol, HDL
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00255920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345630


Abstract: There is a conflict in the literature regarding the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic status. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SUA level and glycemic status - impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus - and insulin resistance, in a large Brazilian study. This is a cross-sectional, observational study with 13,207 participants aged 35-74 years, at baseline (2008-2010) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A multinomial regression analysis was performed to test the association between SUA and glycemic status (IFG, IGT, and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes at the cohort baseline) after adjustments by age, sex, skin color, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, and medicines use. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between SUA and insulin resistance by HOMA-IR. Stratified analyses by sex were performed. The mean age (standard deviation) was 51.4 (8.9) years, 55.2% of participants were women. There were 1,439 newly diagnosed diabetes. After all adjustments, higher SUA was associated with IFG, IGT, and diabetes, with odds ratio (OR) = 1.15 (95%CI: 1.06; 1.25), 1.23 (95%CI: 1.14; 1.33), and 1.37 (95%CI: 1.24; 1.51), respectively. There was association between SUA levels and insulin resistance with OR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.13; 1.36). In analysis stratified by sex, higher SUA persisted independently associated with impaired glycemic status. Our results suggest that a higher SUA levels were significantly associated with glycemic status in a large Latin American population, mainly among women.

Resumo: Há uma controvérsia na literatura a respeito da associação entre níveis de ácido úrico sérico (AUS) e glicemia. Portanto, avaliamos a associação entre AUS e glicemia (glicemia em jejum alterada, intolerância glicêmica e diabetes mellitus), além da resistência insulínica, em uma amostra grande no Brasil. O estudo transversal observacional incluiu 13.207 participantes com idade entre 35 e 74 anos na linha de base (2008-2010) do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foi realizada análise de regressão multivariada para testar a associação entre AUS e glicemia (glicemia em jejum alterada, intolerância glicêmica e diagnóstico novo de diabetes tipo 2 na linha de base da coorte) depois de ajustar para idade, sexo, cor, índice de massa corporal, atividade física, tabagismo, consumo de álcool, comorbidades e uso de medicação. O modelo de regressão logística foi usado para avaliar a associação entre AUS e resistência insulínica por HOMA-IR. Foram realizadas análises estratificadas por sexo. A média de idade (DP) foi 51,4 (8,9) anos, e 55,2% dos participantes eram mulheres. Houve 1.439 novos diagnósticos de diabetes. Depois de todos os ajustes, o AUS esteve associado à glicemia em jejum alterada, intolerância glicêmica e diabetes, com odds ratio (OR) = 1,15 (IC95%: 1,06; 1,25), 1,23 (IC95%: 1,14; 1,33) e 1,37 (IC95%: 1,24; 1,51), respectivamente. Houve uma associação entre níveis de AUS e resistência insulínica, com OR = 1,24 (IC95%: 1,13; 1,36). Na análise estratificada por sexo, persistiu a associação independente entre AUS elevado e glicemia. Os resultados sugerem que níveis elevados de AUS estão associados de maneira significativa com a glicemia em uma população latino-americana grande, sobretudo entre mulheres.

Resumen: Hay un conflicto en la literatura respecto a la asociación entre los niveles de ácido úrico sérico (AUS) y el estado glucémico. Por eso, evaluamos la asociación entre el nivel AUS y el estatus glucémico: glucosa alterada en ayunas (GAA), tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA) y diabetes mellitus (diabetes), comparados con la resistencia a la insulina en un amplio estudio en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio transversal, observacional con 13.207 participantes, con edades comprendidas entre los 35-74 años, en la base de referencia del Estudio Longitudinal de Salud entre Adultos brasileños (2008-2010) (ELSA-Brasil). Se realizó un análisis de regresión multinomial para probar la asociación entre AUS y el estado glucémico (GAA, TGA y de nuevo la diabetes tipo 2, diagnosticada en la cohorte como base de referencia) tras los ajustes por edad, sexo, color de piel, índice de masa corporal, actividad física, fumar, consumo de alcohol, comorbilidades, uso de medicinas. Se usó el modelo de regresión logística para evaluar la asociación entre AUS y la resistencia a la insulina por el HOMA-IR. Se realizó también un análisis estratificado por sexo. La media de edad (desviación estándar) fue 51,4 (8,9) años, un 55,2% de los participantes eran mujeres. Hubo 1.439 nuevos casos de diabetes diagnosticados. Tras todos los ajustes, una AUS más alta estuvo asociada con GAA, TGA y diabetes, con odds ratio (OR) = 1,15 (IC95%: 1,06; 1,25), 1,23 (IC95%: 1,14; 1,33), y 1,37 (IC95%: 1,24; 1,51), respectivamente. Hubo asociación entre los niveles AUS y la resistencia a la insulina con OR = 1,24 (IC95%: 1,13; 1,36). En el análisis estratificado por sexo, una AUS más alta persistía independientemente asociada con un estado glucémico alterado. Nuestros resultados sugieren que unos niveles más altos de AUS estuvieron significativamente asociados con el estado glucémico en una amplia población latinoamericana, principalmente entre mujeres.

Humans , Female , Adult , Glucose Intolerance/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Uric Acid , Blood Glucose , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Fasting , Middle Aged
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202804, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155370


ABSTRACT Introduction: to evaluate urinary biochemical alterations related to urolithogenesis processes after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Materials and methods : prospective study with 32 individuals without previous diagnosis of urolithiasis who underwent SG. A 24-h urine test was collected seven days prior to surgery and at 6-month follow-up. The studied variables were urine volume, urinary pH, oxalate, calcium, citrate, and magnesium and calcium oxalate super saturation (CaOx SS). Results: patients were mainly women (81.2%), with mean age of 40.6 years. Mean pre- and postoperative BMI were 47.1 ± 8.3 Kg/m2 and 35.5 ± 6.1 Kg/m2, respectively (p<0.001). Urine volume was significantly lower at the postoperative evaluation in absolute values (2,242.50 ± 798.26 mL x 1,240.94 ± 352.39 mL, p<0.001) and adjusted to body weight (18.58 ± 6.92 mL/kg x 13.92 ± 4.65 mL/kg, p<0.001). CaOx SS increased significantly after SG (0.11 ± 0.10 x 0.24 ± 0.18, p<0.001). Moreover, uric acid levels were significantly lower at the postoperative evaluation (482.34 ± 195.80 mg x 434.75 ± 158.38 mg, p=0.027). Urinary pH, oxalate, calcium, citrate, and magnesium did not present significant variations between the pre- and postoperative periods. Conclusion: SG may lead to important alterations in the urinary profile. However, it occurs in a much milder way than that of RYGB.

RESUMO Introdução: avaliar as alterações bioquímicas urinárias relacionadas aos processos de litíase urinária após gastrectomia vertical (GV). Método: estudo prospectivo, com 32 indivíduos submetidos a GV, sem diagnóstico prévio de urolitíase. Foi coletada urina de 24 horas, sete dias antes da operação e no retorno de 6 meses. As variáveis estudadas foram volume de urina, pH urinário, oxalato, cálcio, citrato e super saturação de oxalato e cálcio (SS CaOx). Resultados: os pacientes foram em sua maioria mulheres (81,2%), com idade média de 40,6 anos. O IMC médio pré e pós-operatório foi 47,1 ± 8,3 Kg/m2 e 35,5 ± 6,1 Kg/m2, respectivamente (p<0,001). O volume de urina foi significativamente baixo na avaliação pós-operatória em valores absolutos (2.242,50 ± 798,26 mL versus 1.240,94 ± 352,39 mL, p<0,001) e ajustado ao peso corporal (18,58 ± 6,92 mL/kg versus 13,92 ± 4,65 mL/kg, p<0,001). A SS CaOx aumentou significativamente após a GV (0,11 ± 0,10 versus 0,24 ± 0,18, p<0,001). Além disso, os níveis de ácido úrico apresentaram-se significativamente baixos na avaliação pós-operatória (482,34 ± 195,80 mg versus 434,75 ± 158,38 mg, p=0,027). PH urinário, oxalato, cálcio, citrato e magnésio não apresentaram variações significativas entre os períodos pré e pós-operatório. Conclusão: a GV pode levar a alterações importantes no perfil urinário. Entretanto, essas ocorrem de forma muito mais leve que na derivação gástrica em Y de Roux.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Uric Acid/blood , Urine/chemistry , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Urolithiasis , Gastrectomy , Postoperative Period , Calcium Oxalate/blood , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Magnesium
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1216-1223, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888541


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the predictive value of pre-treatment serum uric acid (sUA) level for the prognosis of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients.@*METHODS@#The NDMM patients admitted to our center from January 2014 to December 2018 were analyzed retrospectively, and 94 patients among them who were initially treated with bortezomib-based chemotherapy for at least 4 cycles were included in this study. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data and follow-up information were collected, and the predictive value of sUA on the overall survival (OS) of NDMM was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve based on the patient's pre-treatment sUA level and the survival status at the end of follow-up, and the correlation of the sUA level with patient's clinical, laboratory characteristics and overall survival (OS) was further analyzed. The univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model were used to identify the potential factors affecting OS.@*RESULTS@#ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve for predicting OS in NDMM patients with sUA level was 0.702 (P<0.001), and the optimal cut-off value was 455.4 μmol/L. Compared to patients with low sUA (<455.4 μmol/L), patients with higher sUA (≥455.4 μmol/L) were more likely to have international staging system (ISS) stage III disease, beta2-microglobulin (β@*CONCLUSION@#Pre-treatment sUA level is a potential biomarker for the prognosis evaluation in NDMM patients, which deserves a further exploration and verification.

Bortezomib , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Uric Acid
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2073-2080, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887629


BACKGROUND@#Whether there is an association between serum uric acid (SUA) level and risk of mortality in the general population remains unclear. Based on the China National Survey of Chronic Kidney Disease linked to mortality data, a population-based cohort study was performed to investigate the association between SUA level and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and cancer mortality in China.@*METHODS@#The survival status of participants in the cross-sectional survey was identified from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2017. Only 33,268 individuals with complete SUA data among the 47,204 participants were included in the analysis. We determined the rates of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, and cancer mortality. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate the effect of the SUA level on mortality.@*RESULTS@#During a total of 297,538.4 person-years of follow-up, 1282 deaths occurred. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, the rate of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, and cancer mortality had a U-shaped association with SUA levels only in men, whereas no significant associations were detected in women. For all-cause mortality in men, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in the first, second, and fourth quartiles compared with the third quartile were 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.67), 1.17 (95% CI 0.92-1.47), and 1.55 (95% CI 1.24-1.93), respectively. For CVD mortality, the corresponding HRs were 1.47 (95% CI 1.00-2.18), 1.17 (95% CI 0.79-1.75), and 1.67 (95% CI 1.16-2.43), respectively. For the cancer mortality rate, only a marginally significant association was detected in the fourth quartile compared with the third quartile with an HR of 1.43 (95% CI 0.99-2.08).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The association between SUA and mortality differed by sex. We demonstrated a U-shaped association with SUA levels for all-cause and CVD mortalities among men in China.

Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Uric Acid
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942298


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the abnormal manifestations and clinical features of patients with gout according to the location of crystal deposits: in articulars or in tendons.@*METHODS@#A total of 105 patients with gout who were continuously treated in the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of Peking University People's Hospital from June 2019 to December 2019 were selected and their knees, ankles, toes and painful joints and tendons were examined by high-frequency ultrasound. Then we grouped them according to the presence or absence of sodium urate crystals and the location of the crystals, collected their clinical data, and analyzed the clinical characteristics.@*RESULTS@#Among the 105 patients, 25 patients had no crystal deposits in the joints or tendons (as the non-crystal group), 43 patients had intra-articular crystals (as the joint group), and 37 patients had intra-tendon crystals with or without intra-articular crystals (as the tendon group). Among them, the most involved part of sodium urate crystals deposited in the joints was the metatarsophalangeal joint (29 cases, 67.4%), followed by knee joints (10 cases, 23.2%), ankle joints (9 cases, 20.9%). The most involved part of sodium urate crystals deposited in the tendon was the quadriceps tendon (16 cases, 43.2%), followed by the Achilles tendon (13 cases, 35.1%), the patellar tendon (12 cases, 32.4%), and the three heads of brachii tendons (5 cases, 13.5%). The three groups were compared using multi-sample analysis of variance/multi-sample rank sum test. Age, age of first increase in uric acid (UA), serum glucose (Glu) level and C reactive protein (CRP) were all significantly different. After multiple comparisons, compared with the non-crystal group, age, the age of first increase in uric acid, and CRP were significantly higher in the tendon group. There was no significant difference between the non-crystal group and the joint group. There was no significant difference between the tendon group and the joint group.@*CONCLUSION@#In patients with gout, it is common for ultrasound to find crystals deposited in joints or tendons. The most commonly affected parts include the metatarsophalangeal joint, knee joint, ankle joint, quadriceps tendon, Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, and triceps tendon. There were significant differences among the three groups in age, age of first increase in uric acid, CRP and blood glucose, and the proportion of urinary calculi in patients with crystal deposits was significantly higher than those without crystal deposits.

Achilles Tendon , Gout , Humans , Knee Joint , Metatarsophalangeal Joint/diagnostic imaging , Uric Acid